• Pentose Phospha
  • Indeed, the reactions that constitute glycolysis and its parallel pathway, the pentose phosphate pathway , occur metal-catalyzed under the oxygen-free conditions of the Archean oceans, also in the absence of enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) acts in the strengthening of collagen structure, the principle protein of connective tissues (skin, cartilage, bone, etc. (wordpress.com)
  • lactic acid
  • Thus, during the stress of intense exercise, lactic acid appears in the blood , while glycogen, the form in which carbohydrate is stored in muscle, disappears. (britannica.com)
  • rather, they show only that compounds capable of yielding lactic acid are likely to be normal intermediates. (britannica.com)
  • Indeed, in the example, lactic acid is formed in response to abnormal circumstances and is not directly formed in the pathways of carbohydrate catabolism. (britannica.com)
  • Most cells will then carry out further reactions to 'repay' the used NAD + and produce a final product of ethanol or lactic acid . (wikipedia.org)
  • pyridine
  • The overall reaction is exothermic (−12.0 kcal/mol), the second step being rate-limiting, with 12.6 kcal/mol for the activation energy Specificity is conferred by the fact that, of the four bonds of the alpha-carbon of the amino acid aldimine state, the bond perpendicular to the pyridine ring will be broken (Dunathan Stereoelectronic Hypothesis). (wikipedia.org)
  • PLP is retained in the active site not only thanks to the lysine, but also thanks to the interaction of the phosphate group and a phosphate binding pocket and to a lesser extent thanks to base stacking of the pyridine ring with an overhanging aromatic residue, generally tyrosine (which may also partake in the acid-base catalysis). (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acid
  • The α-amino group of the amino acid substrate displaces the ε-amino group of the active-site lysine residue in a process known as transaldimination. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting external aldimine can lose a proton, carbon dioxide, or an amino acid sidechain to become a quinoid intermediate, which in turn can act as a nucleophile in several reaction pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • Atom balance is maintained by the two phosphate (Pi) groups: Each exists in the form of a hydrogen phosphate anion (HPO42−), dissociating to contribute 2 H+ overall Each liberates an oxygen atom when it binds to an ADP (adenosine diphosphate) molecule, contributing 2 O overall Charges are balanced by the difference between ADP and ATP. (wikipedia.org)