• 1994
  • One of the most successful examples of therapeutic intervention based on this strategy is the use of benzodiazepines to enhance the response of GABA A receptors and augment inhibitory activity in the central nervous system ( Macdonald and Olsen, 1994 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • molecules
  • These studies have shown that a twist-like motion caused by ACh binding is likely responsible for pore opening, and that one or two molecules of α-bungarotoxin (or other long-chain α-neurotoxin) suffice to halt this motion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presynaptic terminals have active zones that contain vesicles, also called quanta, full of acetylcholine molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons
  • In both vertebrates and invertebrates, olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) respond to several odors. (biologists.org)
  • For example in vertebrates, presynaptic Ca 2+ stores relying on either the ryanodine receptor (RyR) or the inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate receptor (InsP 3 R) have been reported to participate in synaptic transmission, in hippocampal pyramidal neurons, and in basket cell-Purkinje cell synapses. (biologists.org)
  • In Drosophila , olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), with their cell bodies and dendrites located in the antennae, detect odors and transmit olfactory information to the antennal lobes. (biologists.org)
  • Further, recent work has implicated this receptor as being important for generation of adult mammal neurons in the retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • agonists
  • By altering the response of a receptor to endogenous agonists, the modulator can change the level of signaling without necessarily changing the temporal or spatial pattern of the signaling. (aspetjournals.org)
  • When ACh or other agonists bind to the receptors it stabilizes the open state of the ion channel allowing influx of cations such as potassium, calcium and sodium ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • NMDA
  • NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activation requires concurrent membrane depolarization, and glutamatergic synapses lacking AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are often considered "silent" in the absence of another source of membrane depolarization. (jneurosci.org)
  • During the second postnatal week, NMDA currents can be enhanced in rat auditory cortex through activation of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR). (jneurosci.org)
  • Using specific antagonists, it was possible to track a series of cellular events following application of 1 nM AChE-peptide: NMDA receptor activation, opening of the L-type voltage gated calcium channel, activation of calcium/calmodulin kinase II, generation of reactive oxygen species and caspase activation. (springer.com)
  • synapses
  • The number of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) is the major determinant of synaptic strength at glutamatergic synapses, but little is known about the absolute number and density of AMPARs in individual synapses. (jneurosci.org)
  • mAChRs
  • In contrast, the mAChRs are not ion channels, but belong instead to the superfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors that activate other ionic channels via a second messenger cascade. (wikipedia.org)
  • endogenous
  • The results raise the possibility that endogenous compounds use the site to modulate receptor function in vivo, and suggest that the receptors may represent useful targets for therapeutic intervention in cases where they have been implicated in neuropathologies such as Alzheimer's disease. (aspetjournals.org)