• genes
  • In fact, studies in mammalian cells have shown that it has a strong influence on genes related to body weight and metabolism. (healthcanal.com)
  • During the past two decades, several assays in budding yeast that use different principles were developed to measure CIN on a semiquantitative level, enabling fruitful studies of genes and mechanisms that confer accurate chromosome segregation in this model organism. (g3journal.org)
  • Artificial gene synthesis, sometimes known as DNA printing is a method in synthetic biology that is used to create artificial genes in the laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Draft genomes typically incorporate considerable sequence data that are not assigned to chromosomes, and predicted genes without quality confidence measures. (springer.com)
  • mammalian
  • I-SceI) to cut chromosomes for genetic engineering of mammalian cells, where nonhomologous recombination is more frequent than in yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the next decade, experiments in Drosophila, budding yeast and mammalian cells led to the emergence of other models of homologous recombination, called SDSA pathways, which do not always rely on Holliday junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies of the cellular pathogenesis mechanisms of pathogenic yeasts such as Candida albicans , Histoplasma capsulatum , and Cryptococcus neoformans commonly employ infection of mammalian hosts or host cells ( i.e. macrophages) followed by yeast quantification using colony forming unit analysis or flow cytometry. (jove.com)
  • mitosis
  • Errors in mitosis are a primary cause of chromosome instability (CIN), generating aneuploid progeny cells. (g3journal.org)
  • Within the same year as McClintock's discovery, Curt Stern showed that crossing over-later called "recombination"-could also occur in somatic cells like white blood cells and skin cells that divide through mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • APC isolated from cells arrested in G1, or in late mitosis due to the cdc14-1 mutation, is more responsive to Hct1 than APC isolated from other stages. (sdbonline.org)
  • viability
  • Importantly, since YACs are not essential for the viability of a yeast cell, they are useful for the analysis of chromosome segregation as their loss and/or rearrangement can be monitored without detrimental effects to the cell. (genetics.org)
  • Flow cytometry can provide rapid quantitative information regarding yeast viability, however, adoption of flow cytometric detection for pathogenic yeasts has been limited for a number of practical reasons including its high cost and biosafety considerations. (jove.com)
  • embryonic stem
  • Capecchi and Smithies independently discovered applications to mouse embryonic stem cells, however the highly conserved mechanisms underlying the DSB repair model, including uniform homologous integration of transformed DNA (gene therapy), were first shown in plasmid experiments by Orr-Weaver, Szostack and Rothstein. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • Understanding the mechanisms that maintain genome stability in normal cells or cause elevated CIN in cancer necessitates the development of reliable and highly quantitative methods for measuring CIN. (g3journal.org)
  • Unfortunately, such treatments are non-selective to cancer cells and produce similar toxicity in normal cells. (jove.com)
  • We have reported selective induction of apoptosis in cancer cells by the natural compound pancratistatin (PST). (jove.com)
  • In this study, the efficacy of JCTH-4 alone and in combination with TAM to induce cell death in human breast cancer (MCF7) and neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells was evaluated. (jove.com)
  • We have demonstrated these compounds to induce apoptosis/autophagy by mitochondrial targeting in these cancer cells. (jove.com)
  • Thus, these results indicate that JCTH-4 in combination with TAM could be used as a safe and very potent anti-cancer therapy against breast cancer and neuroblastoma cells. (jove.com)
  • cancer cells have also been reported to senesce. (jove.com)
  • Chemotherapeutical drugs have been shown to induce senescence in cancer cells. (jove.com)
  • DNA damaging agents can promote aging, disease and cancer and they are ubiquitous in the environment and produced within human cells as normal cellular metabolites. (jove.com)
  • Cancer cells invariably have extra and missing chromosomes. (yeastgenome.org)
  • fetus
  • Thus, defects in placental development have important consequences for the fetus and mother, and are a major cause of embryonic lethality. (jove.com)
  • Besides the explosive nature of the ZIKV outbreaks that have caused millions of infections in new geographic ranges ( 2 , 3 ), recent interest has been sparked by the mounting body of evidence linking ZIKV infection in pregnant women with severe defects in fetus development, abortions, and stillbirths ( 4 - 6 ). (asm.org)
  • vivo
  • Translational fusions between fluorescent reporter proteins and components of the DNA replication and repair machinery have been used to determine the cues that target DNA repair proteins to their cognate lesions in vivo and to understand how these proteins are organized within bacterial cells. (jove.com)
  • In this work, we find in vivo indications that cells lacking the nucleoid-associated protein H-NS have a lower degree of DNA condensation than wild-type cells. (asm.org)
  • This report describes protocols to monitor autophagy-cytoskeleton interactions caused by S. flexneri in vitro using tissue culture cells and in vivo using zebrafish larvae. (jove.com)
  • predict
  • Models of CRISPR-mediated gene drive will need to incorporate dominant maternal effects in order to accurately predict the efficiency and dynamics of gene drive in a population. (g3journal.org)
  • Moreover, these results indicate that caution should be exercised when interpreting the results of reverse-genetics experiments in attempts to accurately predict the biology of natural viruses. (asm.org)
  • As a practical demonstration of YeastMine, we will also showcase a research scenario in which yeast-human homology data is used to predict potential chemotherapy targets for human cancers. (yeastgenome.org)
  • organisms
  • To increase the levels of gRNAs and Cas9 protein expressed in a target cell, which could also increase targeting efficiencies, Cas9- and gRNA-expressing cells lines and organisms have been generated. (g3journal.org)
  • mutant
  • These results also highlight a mode of artificial inheritance in which maternal contributions of DNA editing components lead to transmissible mutant defects even in animals whose genomes lack the editing components. (g3journal.org)
  • In H-NS mutant cells, foci of SeqA, replisomes, and origins were irregularly positioned in the cell. (asm.org)
  • H-NS mutant cells were found to be incapable of adopting the distinct and condensed nucleoid structures characteristic of E. coli cells growing rapidly in rich medium. (asm.org)
  • It appears as if H-NS mutant cells adopt a "slow-growth" type of chromosome organization under nutrient-rich conditions, which leads to a decreased cellular DNA content. (asm.org)
  • zebrafish
  • Taken together, the advantages of this vertebrate model make zebrafish highly amenable to modeling the developmental defects in pediatric disease, and in some cases, adult-onset disorders. (jove.com)
  • lineage
  • But this raises another question, since Rap1's evolutionary lineage extends back to budding yeast. (healthcanal.com)
  • 1998. The ability of TS cells to preserve the trophoblast specific property and their expression of stage- and cell type-specific markers after proper stimulation provides a valuable model system to investigate trophoblast lineage development whereby recapitulating early placentation events. (jove.com)
  • cell
  • In considering what might account for the discrepancy between the current results and the previous studies, Kabir and de Lange think the techniques used may have produced results that were difficult to interpret for some studies, while others employed artificial systems that may not accurately represent the normal situation in a cell. (healthcanal.com)
  • Using three different types of cells, Kabir then compared gene expression profiles between cells with and without Rap1 in those cell lines. (healthcanal.com)
  • Two decades later, Barbara McClintock and Harriet Creighton demonstrated that chromosomal crossover occurs during meiosis, the process of cell division by which sperm and egg cells are made. (wikipedia.org)
  • We monitored time-dependent morphological changes in MCF7 cells undergoing TAM-induced autophagy, JCTH-4-induced apoptosis and autophagy, and accelerated cell death with combinatorial treatment using time-lapse microscopy. (jove.com)
  • Upon external and/or intrinsic cues, cells might die or enter a stable cell cycle arrest called senescence. (jove.com)
  • The improvement in cell survival and the increase in oxidatively induced DNA base lesions were reminiscent of previous results with alkyl adenine DNA glycosylase-deficient cells, suggesting that BPA may prevent initiation of repair of oxidized base lesions. (jove.com)
  • Expression of firefly luciferase in hESC-derived NK cells allows a non-invasive approach to follow NK cell engraftment, distribution, and function. (jove.com)
  • Mimicking the influence of imatinib on BV-173 and LAMA-84 cells by ESPL1 silencing stimulated Separase proteolytic activity in both b3a2 and b2a2 cell lines. (jove.com)
  • Once that second gene is deleted, the yeast cell dies. (yeastgenome.org)
  • proteins
  • Many of the most interesting proteins sought by molecular biologists are normally regulated to be expressed in very low amounts in wild type cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • BRCA1 and BRCA2 are unrelated proteins, but both are normally expressed in the cells of breast and other tissue, where they help repair damaged DNA, or destroy cells if DNA cannot be repaired. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • Using Ruxolitinib and JAK2 as a drug target pair, here we describe in vitro screening methods that utilizes the mouse BAF3 cells expressing the random mutation library of JAK2 kinase. (jove.com)
  • whereas
  • In human cells, Rap1 appeared crucial, whereas mouse Rap1 seemed to only play a minor role. (healthcanal.com)
  • Further analysis showed that the average distance between the SeqA structures and the replisome was increased by ∼100 nm compared to that in wild-type cells, whereas the colocalization of SeqA-bound sister DNA behind replication forks was not affected. (asm.org)
  • experiments
  • In experiments with KBrO3, co-treatment with BPA partially reversed the KBrO3-induced cytotoxicity observed in these cells, and this was coincident with an increase in guanine base lesions in genomic DNA. (jove.com)
  • autophagy
  • Strikingly, host cells may prevent actin-based motility of S. flexneri by compartmentalizing bacteria inside 'septin cages' and targeting them to autophagy. (jove.com)
  • mice
  • Rap1 is one of six shelterin components in humans and mice, and one that evolution has maintained for a very long time, all the way back to yeast and single-celled parasites called trypanosomes. (healthcanal.com)
  • Meanwhile, studies in which Rap1 was inactivated in mice produced not only apparently normal cells but also apparently normal mice, so clearly erroneous DNA repair was not fusing chromosomes together. (healthcanal.com)
  • natural
  • We present a method for deriving natural killer (NK) cells from undifferentiated hESCs and iPSCs using a feeder-free approach. (jove.com)
  • The grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans plorans harbour supernumerary chromosomes in all natural populations hitherto analyzed from the Circum-Mediterranean region, with the single exception of the headwaters of the Iberian Segura River and several of its tributaries. (jove.com)
  • development
  • Through the integration of biological and engineering principles, this method potentiates robust and sensitive measurements of DNA damage in human cells and provides the necessary throughput for genotoxicity testing, drug development, epidemiological studies and clinical assays. (jove.com)
  • repair
  • It is most widely used by cells to accurately repair harmful breaks that occur on both strands of DNA, known as double-strand breaks (DSB). (wikipedia.org)
  • To determine the effect of BPA exposure on base excision repair of oxidatively induced DNA damage, cells compromised in double-strand break repair were treated with BPA alone or co-exposed with either potassium bromate (KBrO3) or laser irradiation as oxidative damaging agents. (jove.com)
  • recombination
  • Building on studies in fungi, in 1964 Robin Holliday proposed a model for recombination in meiosis which introduced key details of how the process can work, including the exchange of material between chromosomes through Holliday junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • This method gives rise to high levels of NK cells after 4 weeks culture and can undergo further 2-log expansion with artificial antigen presenting cells. (jove.com)
  • Parasitic supernumerary (B) chromosomes show high capability to spread across populations. (jove.com)
  • stress
  • In addition, transcriptional and translational fusions linked to DNA damage inducible promoters have revealed which cells within a population have activated genotoxic stress responses. (jove.com)
  • This gene encodes a subunit of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase , a key enzyme for making trehalose , a molecule that helps yeast deal with stress . (yeastgenome.org)
  • novel
  • Here, we describe a novel platform that exploits microfabrication techniques to pattern cells in a fixed microarray. (jove.com)