• peptides
  • This change in conformation then facilitates the destabilization and fusion of the viral envelope with the cellular membrane by allowing fusion loops (FLs) or hydrophobic fusion peptides (FPs) on the viral envelope to interact with the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigen-presenting cells may bind HIV peptides in different ways within grooves on the HLA class I molecules. (ormedmedical.us)
  • Pools of overlapping peptides from antigenic proteins for T-cell stimulation, T-cell expansion in T-cell assays such as ELISPOT, ICS or Flow Cytometry, e.g. for immune monitoring. (jpt.com)
  • Peptide Pools can also be used to standardize T-cell assays, as synthetic pooled peptides are much more robust and reliable for T-cell stimulation (e.g. in ELISPOT, ICS, cytotoxity or proliferation assays) than proteins or lysates. (jpt.com)
  • Structural
  • Viral membrane fusion proteins have been grouped into four different classes, and each class is identified by characteristic structural conformations: Class I: Post-fusion conformation has a distinct central coiled-coil structure composed of signature trimer of α-helical hairpins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Class III: Structural conformation is a combination of features from Class I and Class II viral membrane fusion proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • The density is high as the glycans shield the underlying viral protein from neutralisation by antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The unusual processing and high density means that almost all broadly neutralising antibodies that have so far been identified (from a subset of patients that have been infected for many months to years) bind to or, are adapted to cope with, these envelope glycans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anti-HIV vaccines have required generating neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and effective T-cell responses. (omicsonline.org)
  • A panel of 10 microbicide candidates [T20, CADA, lectines HHA & GNA, PVAS, human lactoferrin, and monoclonal antibodies IgG1B12, 12G5, 2G12 and 2F were investigated using cell-free unopsonized or opsonized HIV-1 by complements. (biomedcentral.com)
  • B cells produce soluble proteins known as antibodies, which can. (ormedmedical.us)
  • Immunocytochemistry is a special case of histochemistry that uses selective antibodies against a variety of chemical epitopes of the nervous system to selectively stain particular cell types, axonal fascicles, neuropiles, glial processes or blood vessels, or specific intracytoplasmic or intranuclear proteins and other immunogenetic molecules, e.g., neurotransmitters. (neurobiology.ml)
  • antigen
  • There are currently various different tests for HIV infections such as HIV antibody test, P24 antigen test, Polymerase chain reaction test (PCR), Fourth generation test and Home test. (omicsonline.org)
  • HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, alpha chain F is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-F gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is a group of cell surface proteins that in humans is also called the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • In immune cells, antigen receptors, cytokine receptors and costimulatory and accessory receptors stimulate tyrosine kinase activity and hence all have the potential to initiate PI3K signalling. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are subunit vaccines, consisting of specific protein antigens (such as tetanus or diphtheria toxoid) or recombinant protein components (such as the hepatitis B surface antigen). (wikipedia.org)
  • genomes
  • Alternatively, the integrated viral DNA may be transcribed, producing new RNA genomes and viral proteins, using host cell resources, that are packaged and released from the cell as new virus particles that will begin the replication cycle anew. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a well known fact that no two HIV genomes are the same, not even from the same person, causing some to speculate that HIV is a " quasispecies " of a virus . (wikidoc.org)
  • infection
  • The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Without treatment, average survival time after infection with HIV is estimated to be 9 to 11 years, depending on the HIV subtype. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most cases, HIV is a sexually transmitted infection and occurs by contact with or transfer of blood, pre-ejaculate, semen, and vaginal fluids. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV infection leads to low levels of CD4+ T cells through a number of mechanisms, including pyroptosis of abortively infected T cells, apoptosis of uninfected bystander cells, direct viral killing of infected cells, and killing of infected CD4+ T cells by CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes that recognize infected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood test is the only way to find HIV infection. (omicsonline.org)
  • We can reduce the HIV infection by using a condom during sex and reducing the number of partners. (omicsonline.org)
  • This vaccine has the potential to save the lives of people by preventing HIV infection. (omicsonline.org)
  • The HIV genetic subtypes, such as B subtype, BF recombinants and F subtype are most responsible for HIV infection . (omicsonline.org)
  • Infection of iDC by opsonized primary R5- and X4-tropic HIV was increased 3- to 5-fold as compared with infection by the corresponding unopsonized HIV. (jimmunol.org)
  • Indeed, stromal-derived factor-1 was more efficient in inhibiting infection of iDC with opsonized R5-tropic HIV-1 BaL (45%) than with heat-inactivated complement opsonized virus and similarly RANTES inhibited more efficiently infection of iDC with opsonized X4-tropic HIV-1 NDK (42%) than with heat-inactivated complement opsonized virus. (jimmunol.org)
  • Thus, the virus uses complement to its advantage to facilitate early steps leading to infection following mucosal transmission of HIV. (jimmunol.org)
  • Opsonization of HIV-1 with complement results in enhancement of viral infection of T and B cell lines ( 6 , 7 ), primary PBMC ( 8 ), and primary monocytes/macrophages ( 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Infection with HIV occurs by the transfer of blood , semen , vaginal fluid , pre-ejaculate , or breast milk . (shoutwiki.com)
  • These observations demonstrate that HIV-1 opsonization by complements may modulate in vitro the efficiency of candidate microbicides to inhibit HIV-1 infection of mucosal target cells, as well as its crossing through mucosa. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of the present proof-of-concept study was to evaluate whether complement opsonization may affect the in vitro activity of a panel of microbicide molecule candidates acting against early steps of HIV-1 infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Identification of these unique proteins may serve as an indication of altered viral states in response to infection as well as a natural phenotypic variability in response to HIV-1 infection in a given population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • AIDS is the advanced form of infection with HIV virus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • As of early 2009, no vaccine was available to prevent HIV infection. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, in early 2009, the CDC issued a statement that they now thought that earlier the HIV-positive estimates were too low, as many more people than were originally estimated are living with unreported or undiagnosed HIV infection. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • People at greatest risk are those who do not practice safer sex by always using a condom, those who have multiple sexual partners, those who participate in anal intercourse, and those who have sex with a partner who has HIV infection and/or other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the United States and Europe, most cases of sexually transmitted HIV infection result from homosexual contact, whereas in Africa, the disease is spread primarily through sexual intercourse among heterosexuals. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • High-risk mothers include women sexually active with bisexual men, intravenous drug users, and women living in neighborhoods with a high rate of HIV infection among heterosexuals. (thefreedictionary.com)

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  • subtypes
  • Researchers have categorized the HIV-1 virus into groups, subtypes and sub-subtypes that classification is based on the genetic variation and phylogenetic analysis . (omicsonline.org)
  • M group of HIV-1 is further divided into subtypes as A-D, F-H, J and K subtype. (omicsonline.org)
  • In Argentina most people have infected with CRF12_BF recombinant forms HIV subtypes. (omicsonline.org)
  • 10. The expression cassette of claim 9, wherein the HIV Env polypeptide and the HIV protein are from two different HIV subtypes. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • retrovirus
  • HIV is a retrovirus classified into the family of Retroviridae and the sub family orthoretroviridae . (wikidoc.org)
  • The human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus ) that causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive. (shoutwiki.com)
  • breast milk
  • Transmission of HIV-1 occurs following the passage of virus through mucosal epithelial cells, i.e., cervicovaginal cells upon sexual transmission ( 1 ) or intestinal cells upon postnatal transmission by breast milk ( 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Semen, cervicovaginal secretions, and breast milk contain complement proteins that may allow viral particles to be opsonized ( 3 , 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • particles
  • Within these bodily fluids, HIV is present as both free virus particles and virus within infected immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have demonstrated that HIV particles activate complement in semen resulting in an ability to infect human CD4-negative epithelial cells in a complement-dependent fashion via CD11b/CD18 (CR3) ( 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • antiviral
  • Even though there is no particular treatment or therapy for HIV, very effective treatment called antiviral therapy, combination therapy, or HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) can retain the virus under control and permit someone with HIV to have an active, health life. (omicsonline.org)
  • Irvin, "Purification and Partial Characterization of the Antiviral Protein from Phytolacca americana Which Inhibits Eukaryotic Protein Synthesis," Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 169: 522-528, 1975. (patentgenius.com)
  • Purification and Propeties of a Second Antiviral Protein from Phytolacca americana which inactivates Eukaryotic Ribosomes," Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 200(2): 418-425, 1980. (patentgenius.com)
  • Purification and partial characterization of another form of the antiviral protein from the seeds of Phytolacca americana L. (pokeweed)," Biochem. (patentgenius.com)
  • humans
  • Based on the cross-species transmission researchers have believed that HIV-1 jumped to humans from African green monkeys. (omicsonline.org)
  • According to the phylogenetic evidence, numerous cross-species transmission events occurred between chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes troglodytes ) SIV (SIVcpz) and sooty mangabey SIV (SIV sm) with humans to produce the HIV-1 and HIV-2 strains. (omicsonline.org)
  • Most experts believe that HIV probably transferred to humans as a result of direct contact with primates, for instance during hunting or butchery. (wikidoc.org)
  • infections
  • Until such a vaccine is developed, all forms of HIV/AIDS therapy are focused on improving the quality and length of life for people who are infected by slowing or halting the replication of the virus and treating or preventing infections and cancers that often develop in people with AIDS. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • More than 70% of HIV infections are transmitted through sexual contact. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • virus
  • A viral protein is both a component and a product of a virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of class II viral fusion proteins include the dengue virus E protein, and the west nile virus E protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Env is primarily responsible for binding the cellular receptor and for effecting the fusion process, with these functions mediated by protein domains localized to the exterior of the virus. (mdpi.com)
  • Env is the receptor binding protein, facilitating the early steps in the virus-cell interaction and additionally drives the fusion process between the viral and cellular membranes. (mdpi.com)
  • HIV-1 is the virus that was initially discovered and termed both LAV (Lymphadenopathy Associated Virus) and HTLV-III (Human T cell Lymphotropic Virus III). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Envelope protein, encoded by the HIV env gene, allows the virus to attach to target cells and fuse the viral envelope with the target cell's membrane releasing the viral contents into the cell and initiating the infectious cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Emergency anti-HIV medication (PEP) may stop people becoming infected, but treatment must be started within three days of coming into contact with the virus. (omicsonline.org)
  • The HIV-1 is predominantly common virus in the worldwide than HIV-2. (omicsonline.org)
  • The majority of the people in America, Europe, Asia and Australia have infected with subtype B of M group HIV-1 virus. (omicsonline.org)
  • AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (wikidoc.org)
  • In particular, the analysis of HIV-1 infected serum is an attractive medium with which to identify altered protein expression due to the ease and non-invasive methods of collecting samples as well as the corresponding insight into the in vivo interaction of the virus with infected cells/tissue. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an infectious disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • There are two variants of the HIV virus, HIV-1 and HIV-2, both of which ultimately cause AIDS. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Overlapping peptide pools (peptide mixes of overlapping peptide scans from virus or tumor antigens such as CMV peptide pools, HPV peptide pools or HIV peptide pools) or mixed antigenic peptide pools (e.g. (jpt.com)
  • known
  • They do not form trimers of hairpins or hairpin structures themselves, and they are the smallest known viral fusion proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conversion of PtdIns(4,5)P2 to PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 triggers signal transduction cascades controlled by PKB (also known as Akt), Tec family kinases and other proteins that contain PH domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using large cohorts of HIV-1 infected patients, in whom the natural course of disease (fast versus slow progression) is known, HLA patterns were identified that were associated with a slow versus fast disease progression. (ormedmedical.us)
  • AIDS
  • We have analyzed and compared serum samples from HIV-1 infected subjects who are being treated using highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to those who are latently infected but have not progressed to AIDS despite the absence of treatment, i.e. long term non-progressors (LTNPs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • According to the August 2008 report issued by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), as of 2007, approximately 33 million people worldwide are HIV positive. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Inhibitor
  • Gelonin, a New Inhibitor of Protein Synthesis, Nontoxic to Intact Cells," Journal of Biological Chemistry 255(14): 6947-6953, 1980. (patentgenius.com)
  • We focused on the cdk4/6 cell cycle inhibitor p16 INK4A and found that the treatment of HIV-1 latently infected cell lines with p16 INK4A decreases viral production despite it not being expressed endogenously in these cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • human
  • The protein encoded from the gene HLA-F was originally isolated from the human lymphoblastoid cell line 721. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • It has been observed that all three non-classical HLA class I proteins are expressed in placental trophoblasts in contact with maternal immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA is injected into cells, whose "inner machinery" uses the DNA to synthesize the proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because these proteins are recognised as foreign, when they are processed by the host cells and displayed on their surface, the immune system is alerted, which then triggers immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • This is in turn surrounded by an envelope of host-cell origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, the DNA may be encapsulated in protein to facilitate cell entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • In comparison to HIV-1-infected patients with a rapid decline in CD4+ T-cell numbers, patients with a long-term non-progressive course of disease (LTNP long-term non-progressors) have high quantities of HIV-1-specific CTL precursors with a broad specificity towards various HIV-1 proteins. (ormedmedical.us)