• peptides
  • This change in conformation then facilitates the destabilization and fusion of the viral envelope with the cellular membrane by allowing fusion loops (FLs) or hydrophobic fusion peptides (FPs) on the viral envelope to interact with the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigen-presenting cells may bind HIV peptides in different ways within grooves on the HLA class I molecules. (ormedmedical.us)
  • Pools of overlapping peptides from antigenic proteins for T-cell stimulation, T-cell expansion in T-cell assays such as ELISPOT, ICS or Flow Cytometry, e.g. for immune monitoring. (jpt.com)
  • Peptide Pools can also be used to standardize T-cell assays, as synthetic pooled peptides are much more robust and reliable for T-cell stimulation (e.g. in ELISPOT, ICS, cytotoxity or proliferation assays) than proteins or lysates. (jpt.com)
  • antigen
  • There are currently various different tests for HIV infections such as HIV antibody test, P24 antigen test, Polymerase chain reaction test (PCR), Fourth generation test and Home test. (omicsonline.org)
  • HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, alpha chain F is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-F gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is a group of cell surface proteins that in humans is also called the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to map the specific transcriptional profile invoked by an HIV-1/V3 epitope in uninfected T cells during antigen presentation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In immune cells, antigen receptors, cytokine receptors and costimulatory and accessory receptors stimulate tyrosine kinase activity and hence all have the potential to initiate PI3K signalling. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are subunit vaccines, consisting of specific protein antigens (such as tetanus or diphtheria toxoid) or recombinant protein components (such as the hepatitis B surface antigen). (wikipedia.org)
  • Structural
  • Viral membrane fusion proteins have been grouped into four different classes, and each class is identified by characteristic structural conformations: Class I: Post-fusion conformation has a distinct central coiled-coil structure composed of signature trimer of α-helical hairpins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Class III: Structural conformation is a combination of features from Class I and Class II viral membrane fusion proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • antiviral
  • Even though there is no particular treatment or therapy for HIV, very effective treatment called antiviral therapy, combination therapy, or HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) can retain the virus under control and permit someone with HIV to have an active, health life. (omicsonline.org)
  • Our study identifies for the first time a new cellular complex, HDAC6/A3G, involved in the autophagic degradation of Vif, and suggests that HDAC6 represents a new antiviral factor capable of controlling HIV-1 infectiveness by counteracting Vif and its functions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Irvin, "Purification and Partial Characterization of the Antiviral Protein from Phytolacca americana Which Inhibits Eukaryotic Protein Synthesis," Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 169: 522-528, 1975. (patentgenius.com)
  • Purification and Propeties of a Second Antiviral Protein from Phytolacca americana which inactivates Eukaryotic Ribosomes," Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 200(2): 418-425, 1980. (patentgenius.com)
  • Purification and partial characterization of another form of the antiviral protein from the seeds of Phytolacca americana L. (pokeweed)," Biochem. (patentgenius.com)
  • Virions
  • Finally, in cells producing virions, we observed a clear-cut correlation between the ability of HDAC6 to degrade Vif and to restore A3G expression, suggesting that HDAC6 controls the amount of Vif incorporated into nascent virions and the ability of HIV-1 particles of being infectious. (biomedcentral.com)
  • epitopes
  • These data could be invaluable to determine the underlying mechanism by which HIV-1 epitopes interfere with uninfected CD4+ T-cell function causing hyper proliferation and AICD. (biomedcentral.com)
  • infection
  • Blood test is the only way to find HIV infection. (omicsonline.org)
  • We can reduce the HIV infection by using a condom during sex and reducing the number of partners. (omicsonline.org)
  • This vaccine has the potential to save the lives of people by preventing HIV infection. (omicsonline.org)
  • The HIV genetic subtypes, such as B subtype, BF recombinants and F subtype are most responsible for HIV infection . (omicsonline.org)
  • In the present study, we demonstrated that opsonization of primary HIV-1 with human complement enhances infection of immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (iDC) and transmission in trans of HIV to autologous CD4 + T lymphocytes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Infection of iDC by opsonized primary R5- and X4-tropic HIV was increased 3- to 5-fold as compared with infection by the corresponding unopsonized HIV. (jimmunol.org)
  • Indeed, stromal-derived factor-1 was more efficient in inhibiting infection of iDC with opsonized R5-tropic HIV-1 BaL (45%) than with heat-inactivated complement opsonized virus and similarly RANTES inhibited more efficiently infection of iDC with opsonized X4-tropic HIV-1 NDK (42%) than with heat-inactivated complement opsonized virus. (jimmunol.org)
  • Thus, the virus uses complement to its advantage to facilitate early steps leading to infection following mucosal transmission of HIV. (jimmunol.org)
  • Opsonization of HIV-1 with complement results in enhancement of viral infection of T and B cell lines ( 6 , 7 ), primary PBMC ( 8 ), and primary monocytes/macrophages ( 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Recently, others have reported a crucial role of CR3 in the productive infection of dendritic cells (DC) 3 by C3-opsonized HIV ( 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The asymptomatic phase of HIV-1 infection is characterized by a progressive depletion of uninfected peripheral effector/memory CD4+ T cells that subsequently leads to immune dysfunction and AIDS symptoms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Identification of these unique proteins may serve as an indication of altered viral states in response to infection as well as a natural phenotypic variability in response to HIV-1 infection in a given population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • vaccine
  • According to the Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) hypothesis, in 1960, HIV was introduced into human populations by the use of polio vaccine which was produced from African green monkeys. (omicsonline.org)
  • cellular
  • The fusion of the viral envelope with the cellular membrane requires high energy to occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Env is primarily responsible for binding the cellular receptor and for effecting the fusion process, with these functions mediated by protein domains localized to the exterior of the virus. (mdpi.com)
  • Env is the receptor binding protein, facilitating the early steps in the virus-cell interaction and additionally drives the fusion process between the viral and cellular membranes. (mdpi.com)
  • The comparison of normal versus disease states can identify an overexpression or a suppression of critical proteins where illness has directly altered a patient's cellular homeostasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • hypothesis
  • It is generally accepted that most of the significant changes in the serum will be found in these low abundant non-classical proteins, due to the hypothesis that the presence of these proteins should reflect changes in the diseased tissue. (biomedcentral.com)
  • retroviruses
  • Of the virally encoded proteins common to all retroviruses, the envelope (Env) displays perhaps the most diverse functionality. (mdpi.com)
  • The proteins common to all retroviruses (Gag, Pol, Pro and Env) have the same function regardless of the specific virus. (mdpi.com)
  • HIV is different in structure from other retroviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gag gene provides the basic physical infrastructure of the virus, and pol provides the basic mechanism by which retroviruses reproduce, while the others help HIV to enter the host cell and enhance its reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • altered protein expression
  • In particular, the analysis of HIV-1 infected serum is an attractive medium with which to identify altered protein expression due to the ease and non-invasive methods of collecting samples as well as the corresponding insight into the in vivo interaction of the virus with infected cells/tissue. (biomedcentral.com)
  • humans
  • Based on the cross-species transmission researchers have believed that HIV-1 jumped to humans from African green monkeys. (omicsonline.org)
  • According to the phylogenetic evidence, numerous cross-species transmission events occurred between chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes troglodytes ) SIV (SIVcpz) and sooty mangabey SIV (SIV sm) with humans to produce the HIV-1 and HIV-2 strains. (omicsonline.org)
  • Most experts believe that HIV probably transferred to humans as a result of direct contact with primates, for instance during hunting or butchery. (wikidoc.org)
  • enzymes
  • Codes for viral enzymes , the most important of which are reverse transcriptase , integrase , and protease which cleaves the proteins derived from gag and pol into functional proteins. (wikidoc.org)
  • immunodeficiency
  • AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (wikidoc.org)
  • APOBEC3G (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme-catalytic, polypeptide-like 3G or A3G) is a member of the APOBEC superfamily of cytidine deaminases [ 1 ], which are thought to restrict human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • particles
  • Semen, cervicovaginal secretions, and breast milk contain complement proteins that may allow viral particles to be opsonized ( 3 , 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • We have demonstrated that HIV particles activate complement in semen resulting in an ability to infect human CD4-negative epithelial cells in a complement-dependent fashion via CD11b/CD18 (CR3) ( 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Inhibitor
  • Gelonin, a New Inhibitor of Protein Synthesis, Nontoxic to Intact Cells," Journal of Biological Chemistry 255(14): 6947-6953, 1980. (patentgenius.com)
  • We focused on the cdk4/6 cell cycle inhibitor p16 INK4A and found that the treatment of HIV-1 latently infected cell lines with p16 INK4A decreases viral production despite it not being expressed endogenously in these cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • known
  • They do not form trimers of hairpins or hairpin structures themselves, and they are the smallest known viral fusion proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a well known fact that no two HIV genomes are the same, not even from the same person, causing some to speculate that HIV is a " quasispecies " of a virus . (wikidoc.org)
  • The conversion of PtdIns(4,5)P2 to PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 triggers signal transduction cascades controlled by PKB (also known as Akt), Tec family kinases and other proteins that contain PH domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using large cohorts of HIV-1 infected patients, in whom the natural course of disease (fast versus slow progression) is known, HLA patterns were identified that were associated with a slow versus fast disease progression. (ormedmedical.us)
  • interfere
  • The 22 highly abundant proteins contained within serum constitute approximately 99% of the total serum proteins, including albumin, IgG, transferrin, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, etc. and interfere with the identification of low abundance proteins in the ng/mL concentration range. (biomedcentral.com)
  • cells
  • Transmission of HIV-1 occurs following the passage of virus through mucosal epithelial cells, i.e., cervicovaginal cells upon sexual transmission ( 1 ) or intestinal cells upon postnatal transmission by breast milk ( 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • It has been observed that all three non-classical HLA class I proteins are expressed in placental trophoblasts in contact with maternal immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA is injected into cells, whose "inner machinery" uses the DNA to synthesize the proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because these proteins are recognised as foreign, when they are processed by the host cells and displayed on their surface, the immune system is alerted, which then triggers immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • One way of enhancing protein expression is by optimising the codon usage of pathogenic mRNAs for eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • virus
  • A viral protein is both a component and a product of a virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of these glycoproteins include: Hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, and M2 protein in the influenza virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of class II viral fusion proteins include the dengue virus E protein, and the west nile virus E protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Emergency anti-HIV medication (PEP) may stop people becoming infected, but treatment must be started within three days of coming into contact with the virus. (omicsonline.org)
  • The HIV-1 is predominantly common virus in the worldwide than HIV-2. (omicsonline.org)
  • The majority of the people in America, Europe, Asia and Australia have infected with subtype B of M group HIV-1 virus. (omicsonline.org)
  • Overlapping peptide pools (peptide mixes of overlapping peptide scans from virus or tumor antigens such as CMV peptide pools, HPV peptide pools or HIV peptide pools) or mixed antigenic peptide pools (e.g. (jpt.com)
  • cell
  • This is in turn surrounded by an envelope of host-cell origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded from the gene HLA-F was originally isolated from the human lymphoblastoid cell line 721. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, the DNA may be encapsulated in protein to facilitate cell entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • In comparison to HIV-1-infected patients with a rapid decline in CD4+ T-cell numbers, patients with a long-term non-progressive course of disease (LTNP long-term non-progressors) have high quantities of HIV-1-specific CTL precursors with a broad specificity towards various HIV-1 proteins. (ormedmedical.us)
  • found
  • The origin of HIV-1 is the Central Common Chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes troglodytes ) found in southern Cameroon. (wikidoc.org)
  • group
  • The HIV-1 is divided into three groups like M, N and O group. (omicsonline.org)
  • 7. The expression cassette of claim 6, wherein the second polypeptide is selected from the group consisting of viral proteins and cytokines. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 13. The expression cassette of claim 12, wherein the transcription promoter is selected from the group consisting of CMV, CMV+intron A, SV40, RSV, HIV-Ltr, MMLV-ltr, and metallothionein. (patentsencyclopedia.com)