• Neck
  • Neck muscle. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Additionally, a thick, circular muscle marks the neck region and a putative anal sphincter is the posteriormost myoanatomical feature. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Based on the currently available knowledge, the myoanatomical bodyplan of adult loriciferans includes: (i) 8 mouth cone retractors, (ii) a pharynx bulb composed of transversal fibers arranged radially, (iii) circular muscles of the head and neck, (iv) internal muscles of the spinoscalids, (v) longitudinal muscles spanning all body regions, and (vi) transverse (circular) muscles in the abdomen. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The first sign is trismus, or lockjaw, and the facial spasms called risus sardonicus, followed by stiffness of the neck, difficulty in swallowing, and rigidity of pectoral and calf muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms are usually weakness of the proximal muscles, neck flexor, and in extreme cases, respiratory muscle weakness can also occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • musculature
  • The somatic musculature of both adult and larval stages is very complex and includes several muscles arranged in three orientations: circular, transverse and longitudinal. (beds.ac.uk)
  • spasms
  • Subject to spasms are the smooth muscles of the vascular wall (for instance, during angina pectoris), the bronchi, the esophagus (cardiospasm), and the intestine. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Skeletal-muscle spasms make movement difficult, and smooth-muscle spasms disrupt various functions of organs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Spasms of different muscle groups are designated by specific terms, for example, trismus (spasm of the masticatory muscles) and blepharospasm (spasm of the ring muscle of the eye). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is an infection characterized by muscle spasms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Muscle relaxants may be used to control spasms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tetanus often begins with mild spasms in the jaw muscles-also known as lockjaw or trismus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spasms can also affect the facial muscles resulting in an appearance called risus sardonicus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Back muscle spasms often cause arching, called opisthotonos. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sometimes the spasms affect muscles that help with breathing, which can lead to breathing problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most commonly reported symptoms are: Muscle fatigue Pain Muscle spasms and cramps Tingling Numbness Tetany Loss of coordination and balance Lack of fine and gross motor control Muscular wasting and atrophy Acquired noninflammatory myopathy can be caused by a variety of factors including metabolic abnormalities, drugs, nutritional deficiency, trauma, and upstream abnormalities resulting in decreased function. (wikipedia.org)
  • muscular
  • Studies have demonstrated that ataluren treatment increases expression of full-length dystrophin protein in human and mouse primary muscle cells containing the premature stop codon mutation for Duchenne muscular dystrophy and rescues striated muscle function. (wikipedia.org)
  • upper limbs
  • Chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine prescriptions can cause a development of a progressively slow muscle weakness that begins in the low extremities, and moves to the upper limbs. (wikipedia.org)
  • pelvic floor
  • Anismus (or dyssynergic defecation) refers to the failure of the normal relaxation of pelvic floor muscles during attempted defecation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can also be treated with a type of biofeedback therapy, during which a sensor probe is inserted into the person's anal canal in order to record the pressures exerted by the pelvic floor muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a common disease in women caused by pelvic floor muscle weakness. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Muscles contract and relax by using ATP , this is produced when oxygen is transported to muscles by hemoglobin for respiration to occur. (brainmass.com)
  • In outline gametogony and sporogony occur in the intestine of the definitive host while both schizogony which occurs in various tissues and the formation of sarcocysts (containing bradyzoites and metrocytes) occurs principally in the muscles of the intermediate host. (wikipedia.org)
  • weakness
  • More severe rhabdomyolysis is characterized by muscle pain, tenderness, weakness and swelling of the affected muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acquired non-inflammatory myopathy (ANIM) is a neurological disorder primarily affecting skeletal muscle, most commonly in the limbs of humans, resulting in a weakness or dysfunction in the muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with acquired non-inflammatory myopathy typically experience weakness, cramping, stiffness, and tetany, most commonly in skeletal muscle surrounding the limbs and upper shoulder girdle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Corticosteroids often cause muscle weakness to some degree in patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients who start taking colchicine, and who have compromised renal function, develop a myopathy that shows symptoms in proximal muscle weakness, distal sensory loss and areflexia. (wikipedia.org)
  • elastic
  • The Manduca muscle can therefore be considered as different elastic materials during loading and unloading and is best described using the theory of pseudo-elasticity. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • A constitutive model is developed that describes the pseudo-elastic responses of a specific muscle and compares it with particle-reinforced natural rubber. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • protein
  • The best characterized of these molecules is the giant protein, I-connectin, found in the muscles of barnacles, beetles, flies (both larvae and adults) and crayfish, where it appears to determine passive elasticity. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Some of the muscle breakdown products, such as the protein myoglobin, are harmful to the kidneys and may lead to kidney failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Statins induce myopathy by inhibiting protein synthesis within the muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • filaments
  • Structure of skeletal muscle at progressively higher magnification, from whole muscle to contractile proteins (A-D, F). E represents the 'sliding filaments' diagrammatically. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Actin is the monomeric subunit of microfilaments, one of the three major components of the cytoskeleton, and of thin filaments which are part of the contractile apparatus in muscle cells. (wikipremed.com)
  • atrophy
  • Collective knowledge gained from these mission has aided in the evolution of exercise hardware and protocols in attempts to refine the approach to prevention of spaceflight-induced muscle atrophy and the concomitant deficits in skeletal muscle function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Corticosteroids have not only been found to cause some degree of muscle atrophy, but also a local or diffuse cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • somatic
  • There are two types of reflex arc - autonomic reflex arc (affecting inner organs) and somatic reflex arc (affecting muscles). (blogspot.com)
  • mammalian
  • The life cycle remained unknown until 1970 when bradyzoites from sarcocysts in bird muscles were inoculated into cultured mammalian cells and underwent development into sexual stages and oocysts. (wikipedia.org)
  • rigid
  • However, for animals that lack rigid skeletons (e.g. worms, caterpillars and molluscs), muscles are more directly coupled to overt movements and the material properties of soft tissues play a more central role in soft-bodied locomotion ( Trueman 1975 ). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • movement
  • These pressures are visually fed back to the patient via a monitor who can regain the normal coordinated movement of the muscles after a few sessions. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the swelling is very rapid, as may happen after someone is released from under a collapsed building, the movement of fluid from the bloodstream into damaged muscle may cause low blood pressure and shock. (wikipedia.org)
  • In insects with direct flight, the wing muscles directly attached to the wing base, so that a small downward movement of the wing base lifts the wing itself upward. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • The neurons of Onuf's nucleus are responsible for controlling external sphincter muscles of the anus and urethra in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Onufrowicz also proposed that Onuf's nucleus controlled the ischiocavernosus and bulbocavernosus muscles which function in penile erection and ejaculation in males. (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • This is similar to the lymphatic drainage of the abdominal structures that arise from the foregut, which all drain into the celiac nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar structures were found in pig muscle in 1865 but these remained unnamed until 1899 when the name Sarcocystis meischeriana was proposed to identify them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans
  • Humans in the microgravity environment of space, within our current space vehicles, are exposed to various mission-specific periods of skeletal muscle unloading (unweighting). (wikipedia.org)
  • thick
  • In contrast, caterpillar muscles show less organization with long sarcomeres, unevenly aligned and less distinct Z-bands, and 10-12 thin myofilaments surrounding each thick filament ( Rheuben & Kammer 1980 ). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • tissues
  • It usually has some underlying physical cause such as disease, strain, or injury to the muscle or nearby tissues, impairment of circulation, or a disturbance of body chemistry. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • sarcomere
  • However, it is unclear how such a ruler defines the characteristic sarcomere length of the different muscle types ( Gokhin and Fowler, 2013 ). (biologists.org)
  • The ruler hypothesis also does not seem to be applicable to insect muscle, as individual insect titin homologs are too short to span across half a sarcomere. (biologists.org)