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  • pectoral
  • The first sign is trismus, or lockjaw, and the facial spasms called risus sardonicus, followed by stiffness of the neck, difficulty in swallowing, and rigidity of pectoral and calf muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • myofibrils
  • Myofibrils are cylindrical organelles, found within muscle cells, which are bundles of actomyosin filaments that run from one end of the cell to the other, attached to the cell surface membrane at each end. (wikipremed.com)
  • This drug is known to have toxic effects on myofibrils, resulting in muscle pain and tenderness. (wikipedia.org)
  • filaments
  • Structure of skeletal muscle at progressively higher magnification, from whole muscle to contractile proteins (A-D, F). E represents the 'sliding filaments' diagrammatically. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Actin is the monomeric subunit of microfilaments, one of the three major components of the cytoskeleton, and of thin filaments which are part of the contractile apparatus in muscle cells. (wikipremed.com)
  • atrophy
  • Collective knowledge gained from these mission has aided in the evolution of exercise hardware and protocols in attempts to refine the approach to prevention of spaceflight-induced muscle atrophy and the concomitant deficits in skeletal muscle function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Corticosteroids have not only been found to cause some degree of muscle atrophy, but also a local or diffuse cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • urine
  • Damage to the kidneys may give rise to decreased or absent urine production, usually 12 to 24 hours after the initial muscle damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • anus
  • It may provide a small measure of help, since the pubococcygeus muscle also loops around the anus as well as the urethra and may elevate the levator anus muscles. (healthtap.com)
  • muscular
  • Studies have demonstrated that ataluren treatment increases expression of full-length dystrophin protein in human and mouse primary muscle cells containing the premature stop codon mutation for Duchenne muscular dystrophy and rescues striated muscle function. (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • This is similar to the lymphatic drainage of the abdominal structures that arise from the foregut, which all drain into the celiac nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar structures were found in pig muscle in 1865 but these remained unnamed until 1899 when the name Sarcocystis meischeriana was proposed to identify them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Swelling of damaged muscle occasionally leads to compartment syndrome-compression of surrounding tissues, such as nerves and blood vessels, in the same fascial compartment-leading to the loss of blood supply and damage or loss of function in the part(s) of the body supplied by these structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans
  • Humans in the microgravity environment of space, within our current space vehicles, are exposed to various mission-specific periods of skeletal muscle unloading (unweighting). (wikipedia.org)
  • movement
  • Muscles enable the body to perform different types of movement. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These pressures are visually fed back to the patient via a monitor who can regain the normal coordinated movement of the muscles after a few sessions. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the swelling is very rapid, as may happen after someone is released from under a collapsed building, the movement of fluid from the bloodstream into damaged muscle may cause low blood pressure and shock. (wikipedia.org)
  • In insects with direct flight, the wing muscles directly attached to the wing base, so that a small downward movement of the wing base lifts the wing itself upward. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • In outline gametogony and sporogony occur in the intestine of the definitive host while both schizogony which occurs in various tissues and the formation of sarcocysts (containing bradyzoites and metrocytes) occurs principally in the muscles of the intermediate host. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • It usually has some underlying physical cause such as disease, strain, or injury to the muscle or nearby tissues, impairment of circulation, or a disturbance of body chemistry. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • protein
  • Some of the muscle breakdown products, such as the protein myoglobin, are harmful to the kidneys and may lead to kidney failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Statins induce myopathy by inhibiting protein synthesis within the muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • Milder forms may not cause any muscle symptoms, and the diagnosis is based on abnormal blood tests in the context of other problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms tend to worsen with muscle exercise, and often continue after a patient is removed from statin therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • abnormal
  • Chemical imbalances brought on by abnormal diets may either affect the muscle directly or induce abnormal functionality in upstream pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • upper
  • Position The upper esophagus lies at the back of the mediastinum behind the trachea, adjoining along the tracheoesophageal stripe, and in front of the erector spinae muscles and the vertebral column. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Partially transformed epidermal cells mediate muscle insertions on the cuticle. (ucsd.edu)
  • The life cycle remained unknown until 1970 when bradyzoites from sarcocysts in bird muscles were inoculated into cultured mammalian cells and underwent development into sexual stages and oocysts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Merozoites entering muscle cells round up to form metrocytes and initiate sarcocyst formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • Onufrowicz also proposed that Onuf's nucleus controlled the ischiocavernosus and bulbocavernosus muscles which function in penile erection and ejaculation in males. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, there are cardiopulmonary and vascular changes, including a significant decrease in red blood cell mass, that affect skeletal muscle function. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • Many structural muscle diseases feature episodes of rhabdomyolysis that are triggered by exercise, general anesthesia or any of the other causes of rhabdomyolysis listed above. (wikipedia.org)
  • thorax
  • Those insects with indirect flight have muscles that attach to and deform the thorax, causing the wings to move as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • biceps
  • Skeletal muscles are attached (with some exceptions, such as the muscles of the tongue and pharynx) to the skeleton by means of tendons, usually in pairs that pull in opposite directions, e.g., the biceps biceps , any muscle having two heads, or fixed ends of attachment, notably the biceps brachii at the front of the upper arm and the biceps femoris in the thigh. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To slightly turn the tibia outward is called lateral (external) rotation, and the muscle that is solely responsible for this is the biceps femoris. (studymode.com)
  • esophagus
  • Position The upper esophagus lies at the back of the mediastinum behind the trachea, adjoining along the tracheoesophageal stripe, and in front of the erector spinae muscles and the vertebral column. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Humans in the microgravity environment of space, within our current space vehicles, are exposed to various mission-specific periods of skeletal muscle unloading (unweighting). (wikipedia.org)
  • The neurons of Onuf's nucleus are responsible for controlling external sphincter muscles of the anus and urethra in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • organs
  • Smooth muscle, which lines most of the hollow organs of the body, is not under voluntary control, but is regulated by the autonomic nervous system. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Blood
  • Subsequent generations of merozoites develop downstream in the direction of blood flow to arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins throughout the body subsequently developing into the final asexual generation in muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the swelling is very rapid, as may happen after someone is released from under a collapsed building, the movement of fluid from the bloodstream into damaged muscle may cause low blood pressure and shock. (wikipedia.org)
  • usually
  • Some have an underlying muscle condition, usually hereditary in nature, that makes them more prone to rhabdomyolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recurrent rhabdomyolysis may result from intrinsic muscle enzyme deficiencies, which are usually inherited and often appear during childhood. (wikipedia.org)
  • body
  • Knee Anatomy «» Start The knee joint is the largest joint in the body, consisting of 4 bones and an extensive network of ligaments and muscles. (studymode.com)
  • Figure competitions appeal most to women who want to compete in a body competition, but wish to avoid fitness shows' additional athletic and creative demands (the routine round), or bodybuilding's demands for heavy muscle mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • although
  • The means by which all types of muscles contract is thought to be generally the same, although muscles are classified as phasic, or fast twitch, and tonic, or slow twitch, to differentiate between the various lengths of time a muscle may require to move in response to stimulation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • directly
  • Physically, some insects move their flight muscles directly, others indirectly. (wikipedia.org)
  • In insects with direct flight, the wing muscles directly attached to the wing base, so that a small downward movement of the wing base lifts the wing itself upward. (wikipedia.org)
  • cause
  • Inherited muscle disorders and infections together cause the majority of rhabdomyolysis in children. (wikipedia.org)
  • move
  • Those insects with indirect flight have muscles that attach to and deform the thorax, causing the wings to move as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • The muscle damage is most often the result of a crush injury, strenuous exercise, medications, or drug abuse. (wikipedia.org)
  • exercise
  • However, the relationships between in-flight exercise, muscle changes and performance are not well understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the U.S. human space program, the only in-flight countermeasure to skeletal muscle functional deficits that has been utilized thus far is physical exercise. (wikipedia.org)
  • control
  • It is called striated because it appears striped, in alternating bands of light and dark, when viewed under a microscope, and animals have conscious control over most of their striate muscles. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • upon
  • While some of the following muscles act upon more than one joint, the only actions that will be listed are those pertaining to the knee. (studymode.com)
  • particular
  • While none of these ground-based analogs provides a perfect simulation of human microgravity exposure during spaceflight, each is useful for study of particular aspects of muscle unloading as well as for investigation of sensorimotor alterations. (wikipedia.org)