• Tendons
  • In the United States and most industrialized nations, disorders of muscles, tendons, fascia, bones, joints and their ligaments are the most frequent cause of pain, disability, limitation of activity and impairment. (davidscottlynn.com)
  • motor neurons
  • The sensory input from the quadriceps also activates local interneuron that releases the inhibitory neurotransmitter glycine onto motor neurons, blocking the innervations of the antagonistic (hamstring) muscle. (blogspot.com)
  • pectoral
  • The first sign is trismus, or lockjaw, and the facial spasms called risus sardonicus, followed by stiffness of the neck, difficulty in swallowing, and rigidity of pectoral and calf muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • bundles
  • Myofibrils are cylindrical organelles, found within muscle cells, which are bundles of actomyosin filaments that run from one end of the cell to the other, attached to the cell surface membrane at each end. (wikipremed.com)
  • blood vessels
  • striated (or striped, voluntary or skeletal), which makes up most of the meat of a carcass, and smooth (unstriated), which includes all the involuntary muscle of the viscera, heart and blood vessels. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Swelling of damaged muscle occasionally leads to compartment syndrome-compression of surrounding tissues, such as nerves and blood vessels, in the same fascial compartment-leading to the loss of blood supply and damage or loss of function in the part(s) of the body supplied by these structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • proximal
  • The origin of a muscle on a limb is usually proximal to its insertion. (slideshare.net)
  • Symptoms are usually weakness of the proximal muscles, neck flexor, and in extreme cases, respiratory muscle weakness can also occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients who start taking colchicine, and who have compromised renal function, develop a myopathy that shows symptoms in proximal muscle weakness, distal sensory loss and areflexia. (wikipedia.org)
  • These symptoms are commonly found in the proximal muscles of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • quadriceps
  • The tap initiates an action potential in a specialized structure known as a muscle spindle located within the quadriceps. (blogspot.com)
  • filaments
  • Structure of skeletal muscle at progressively higher magnification, from whole muscle to contractile proteins (A-D, F). E represents the 'sliding filaments' diagrammatically. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Actin is the monomeric subunit of microfilaments, one of the three major components of the cytoskeleton, and of thin filaments which are part of the contractile apparatus in muscle cells. (wikipremed.com)
  • atrophy
  • Collective knowledge gained from these mission has aided in the evolution of exercise hardware and protocols in attempts to refine the approach to prevention of spaceflight-induced muscle atrophy and the concomitant deficits in skeletal muscle function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Corticosteroids have not only been found to cause some degree of muscle atrophy, but also a local or diffuse cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • The life cycle remained unknown until 1970 when bradyzoites from sarcocysts in bird muscles were inoculated into cultured mammalian cells and underwent development into sexual stages and oocysts. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • Onuf's nucleus is the origin of innervation for the striated muscles of the rectum and urethral sphincter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Onufrowicz also proposed that Onuf's nucleus controlled the ischiocavernosus and bulbocavernosus muscles which function in penile erection and ejaculation in males. (wikipedia.org)
  • movement
  • These pressures are visually fed back to the patient via a monitor who can regain the normal coordinated movement of the muscles after a few sessions. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the swelling is very rapid, as may happen after someone is released from under a collapsed building, the movement of fluid from the bloodstream into damaged muscle may cause low blood pressure and shock. (wikipedia.org)
  • In insects with direct flight, the wing muscles directly attached to the wing base, so that a small downward movement of the wing base lifts the wing itself upward. (wikipedia.org)
  • muscular
  • Studies have demonstrated that ataluren treatment increases expression of full-length dystrophin protein in human and mouse primary muscle cells containing the premature stop codon mutation for Duchenne muscular dystrophy and rescues striated muscle function. (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • This is similar to the lymphatic drainage of the abdominal structures that arise from the foregut, which all drain into the celiac nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar structures were found in pig muscle in 1865 but these remained unnamed until 1899 when the name Sarcocystis meischeriana was proposed to identify them. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Humans in the microgravity environment of space, within our current space vehicles, are exposed to various mission-specific periods of skeletal muscle unloading (unweighting). (wikipedia.org)
  • Acquired non-inflammatory myopathy (ANIM) is a neurological disorder primarily affecting skeletal muscle, most commonly in the limbs of humans, resulting in a weakness or dysfunction in the muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • In outline gametogony and sporogony occur in the intestine of the definitive host while both schizogony which occurs in various tissues and the formation of sarcocysts (containing bradyzoites and metrocytes) occurs principally in the muscles of the intermediate host. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • Many structural muscle diseases feature episodes of rhabdomyolysis that are triggered by exercise, general anesthesia or any of the other causes of rhabdomyolysis listed above. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The striated muscles of Derocheilocaris typica consist of mononucleated cells, each containing one filament bundle. (ucsd.edu)
  • Large muscles consist of two or more cells adjacent to each other. (ucsd.edu)
  • Partially transformed epidermal cells mediate muscle insertions on the cuticle. (ucsd.edu)
  • Muscle cells are specialized to use chemical energy to produce mechanical force. (wikipremed.com)
  • Merozoites entering muscle cells round up to form metrocytes and initiate sarcocyst formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • It usually has some underlying physical cause such as disease, strain, or injury to the muscle or nearby tissues, impairment of circulation, or a disturbance of body chemistry. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • protein
  • Some of the muscle breakdown products, such as the protein myoglobin, are harmful to the kidneys and may lead to kidney failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Statins induce myopathy by inhibiting protein synthesis within the muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • Milder forms may not cause any muscle symptoms, and the diagnosis is based on abnormal blood tests in the context of other problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms tend to worsen with muscle exercise, and often continue after a patient is removed from statin therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • abnormal
  • Chemical imbalances brought on by abnormal diets may either affect the muscle directly or induce abnormal functionality in upstream pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • upper
  • Position The upper esophagus lies at the back of the mediastinum behind the trachea, adjoining along the tracheoesophageal stripe, and in front of the erector spinae muscles and the vertebral column. (wikipedia.org)
  • urine
  • Damage to the kidneys may give rise to decreased or absent urine production, usually 12 to 24 hours after the initial muscle damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • thorax
  • Those insects with indirect flight have muscles that attach to and deform the thorax, causing the wings to move as well. (wikipedia.org)