• physiology
  • A comprehensive overview of renal physiology and electrolyte disorders lays the groundwork for a clear presentation of the pathophysiological principles that underlie these disorders and a step-by-step presentation of the mechanisms behind the signs and symptoms of kidney failure. (powells.com)
  • oxygen
  • Electrolytes play an especially critical role in maintaining homeostasis, regulating myocardial and neurological function, balance of fluids within the cells, oxygen levels, pH balance, and many other biological functions. (drlam.com)
  • influences
  • Osmolarity influences the strength of the force that pulls (reabsorbs) water from the papillary duct into the medullary interstitium. (wikipedia.org)
  • homeostasis
  • Many poisons, medications and diseases affect the balance between the ICF and ECF, affecting individual cells and homeostasis as a whole. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • Since most of the sodium in the lumen has already been reabsorbed by the time the filtrate reaches the distal convoluted tubule, thiazide diuretics have limited effects on water balance and on electrolyte levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • If sodium levels become too low (hyponatremia) - either as a result of increased water take-up or reduced salt levels - a person may have seizures and, in extreme cases, may die. (wikipedia.org)
  • salt
  • It can be made using 6 level teaspoons (25.2 grams) of sugar and 0.5 teaspoon (2.9 grams) of salt in 1 litre of water. (wikipedia.org)
  • mosm
  • In the course of evolution, complex regulatory mechanisms developed to keep the osmolarity (≈280 mosm/L) and thus amount of water at desired level. (ahajournals.org)
  • cell
  • Metolazone and the other thiazide diuretics inhibit the function of the sodium-chloride symporter, preventing sodium and chloride, and therefore water too, from leaving the lumen to enter the tubule cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • consists
  • Conivaptan hydrochloride is an off-white or a pale yellow power with a solubility of 0.25 mg/mL in water at 23 °C. The injectable formulation consists of 20 mg conivaptan hydrochloride, 0.4 g ethanol, 1.2 g propylene glycol and water. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Zinc-air batteries have some properties of fuel cells as well as batteries: the zinc is the fuel, the reaction rate can be controlled by varying the air flow, and oxidized zinc/electrolyte paste can be replaced with fresh paste. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus
  • Thus the force driving the reabsorbtion of water from the collecting system is the greatest in the papillary duct. (wikipedia.org)