• genes
  • Reporter genes are used in some cloning vectors to facilitate the screening of successful clones by using features of these genes that allow successful clone to be easily identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • The helper plasmid contains the vir genes that originated from the Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pGREEN plasmid, which was developed in 2000, is a newer version of the binary vector that allows for a choice of promoters, selectable markers and reporter genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has two antibiotic resistance genes, as selectable markers, and a number of convenient unique restriction sites that made it suitable as a cloning vector. (wikipedia.org)
  • In nature, plasmids often carry genes that may benefit the survival of the organism, for example antibiotic resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the chromosomes are big and contain all the essential genetic information for living under normal conditions, plasmids usually are very small and contain only additional genes that may be useful to the organism under certain situations or particular conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike viruses (which encase their genetic material in a protective protein coat called a capsid), plasmids are "naked" DNA and do not encode genes necessary to encase the genetic material for transfer to a new host. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmids may carry genes that provide resistance to naturally occurring antibiotics in a competitive environmental niche, or the proteins produced may act as toxins under similar circumstances, or allow the organism to utilize particular organic compounds that would be advantageous when nutrients are scarce. (wikipedia.org)
  • Smaller plasmids make use of the host replicative enzymes to make copies of themselves, while larger plasmids may carry genes specific for the replication of those plasmids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of the genes carried by a plasmid are beneficial for the host cells, for example: enabling the host cell to survive in an environment that would otherwise be lethal or restrictive for growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some expression vectors may have elements for transformation or the insertion of DNA into the host chromosome, for example the vir genes for plant transformation, and integrase sites for chromosomal insertion. (wikipedia.org)
  • host organism
  • The relationship between microbes and plasmid DNA is neither parasitic nor mutualistic, because each implies the presence of an independent species living in a detrimental or commensal state with the host organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such vectors have bacterial or viral elements which may be transferred to the non-bacterial host organism, however other vectors termed intragenic vectors have also been developed to avoid the transfer of any genetic material from an alien species. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently. (wikipedia.org)
  • In molecular cloning, a vector is a DNA molecule used as a vehicle to artificially carry foreign genetic material into another cell, where it can be replicated and/or expressed (e.g.- plasmid, cosmid, Lambda phages). (wikipedia.org)
  • A cloning vector is a DNA molecule that carries foreign DNA into a host cell, where it replicates, producing many copies of itself along with the foreign DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • circular
  • The "pJAZZ" linear vectors are shown to provide unprecedented ability to maintain regions of up to 30 kb that are unclonable in circular plasmids. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this TOPO cloning method a linearized vector is activated by attaching topoisomerase I to its ends, and this "TOPO-activated" vector may then accept a PCR product by ligating both the 5' ends of the PCR product, releasing the topoisomerase and forming a circular vector in the process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmids are small, closed-circular DNA molecules that exist from the chromosomes of their host. (wikipedia.org)
  • ColE1
  • Early cloning experiments may be conducted using natural plasmids such the ColE1 and pSC101. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the ColE1 plasmid and its derivatives have the advantage of higher copy number and allow for chloramphenicol amplification of plasmid to produce a high yield of plasmid, however screening for immunity to colicin E1 is not technically simple. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another plasmid, RSF 2124, which is a derivative of ColE1, confers ampicillin resistance but is larger. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • The BglII-HindIII fragment (nt 1392 of trpE to the end of the trpD sequence present in pKRS101) was replaced with a BamHI-EcoRI fragment and an EcoRI-HindIII fragment, both from the MCS of M13mp12 to make plasmid pATH1 (see GenBank M32985). (stanford.edu)
  • Deposited by: Walter Messer Vector containing the attP sequence for integrating DNA into the lambda attachment site attB. (stanford.edu)
  • The target DNA sequence can be inserted into the vector in a specific direction if so desired. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vector itself is generally a DNA sequence that consists of an insert (transgene) and a larger sequence that serves as the "backbone" of the vector. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vectors designed specifically for the expression of the transgene in the target cell are called expression vectors, and generally have a promoter sequence that drives expression of the transgene. (wikipedia.org)
  • double-stranded
  • After the single-stranded DNA molecules are converted into double-stranded DNA molecules by DNA polymerase, they are inserted into vectors and cloned. (wikipedia.org)
  • SmaI
  • The SmaI-SmaI fragment from the MCS of pATH1 was deleted and the remaining plasmid religated to make plasmid pATH2 (see GenBank M33624). (stanford.edu)
  • An interim vector was constructed by inserting an EcoRI linker at the remaining SmaI site of pATH2. (stanford.edu)
  • ClaI
  • The order of the major features in this plasmid is: NotI - ampR - ClaI/MCS/EcoRI - attP - NotI - pMB1 ori - tetR. (stanford.edu)
  • personal communication) The order of the major features in this plasmid is:EcoRI - BglII - EcoRI - ClaI - HindIII - BamHI - rpsL - ori - bla. (stanford.edu)
  • promoter
  • A larger number of mRNAs would express a greater amount of protein, and how many copies of mRNA are generated depends on the promoter used in the vector. (wikipedia.org)
  • ditags
  • The linkers on the outside of the ditags are cleaved with the enzyme that provided their binding and these sticky end ditags are concatenated randomly and placed into a cloning vector. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under intramolecular (dilute) conditions, vectors are re-circularized and ligated, leaving only the ditags in the vector. (wikipedia.org)
  • EcoRI
  • The EcoRI-HindIII fragment of MCS in this interim vector was replaced with the EcoRI-HindIII fragment containing the MCS of M13mp12. (stanford.edu)
  • fragment
  • A cloning vector is a small piece of DNA, taken from a virus, a plasmid, or the cell of a higher organism, that can be stably maintained in an organism, and into which a foreign DNA fragment can be inserted for cloning purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • After a DNA fragment has been cloned into a cloning vector, it may be further subcloned into another vector designed for more specific use. (wikipedia.org)
  • transformation
  • Another distinguishing feature of the pGREEN plasmid is its large reduction in size (from about 11,7kbp to 4,6kbp) from pBIN19, therefore increasing its transformation efficiency Along with higher transformation efficiency, pGREEN has been engineered to ensure transformation integrity. (wikipedia.org)
  • colonies
  • Assembled by F. Pfeiffer, MPI Biochemie, Martinsried E.coli transformed with this plasmid produce larger colonies when an insert is present in the polylinker than when there is no insert. (stanford.edu)
  • molecular
  • DNA fragments thus generated contain either blunt ends or overhangs known as sticky ends, and vector DNA and foreign DNA with compatible ends can then be joined together by molecular ligation. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistance
  • The plasmid pSC101, a natural plasmid from Salmonella panama, confers tetracycline resistance which allows for simpler screening process with antibiotic selection, but it is a low copy number plasmid which does not give a high yield of plasmid. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic material
  • The term's early usage included any bacterial genetic material that exists extrachromosomally for at least part of its replication cycle, but because that description includes bacterial viruses, the notion of plasmid was refined over time to comprise genetic elements that reproduce autonomously. (wikipedia.org)
  • insertion
  • For example, retroviruses leave a characteristic retroviral integration pattern after insertion that is detectable and indicates that the viral vector has incorporated into the host genome. (wikipedia.org)