• genome
  • Our results are the first to characterize two paralogous and functional CRPs in a single bacterial genome. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Gene truncation or gene pseudogenization also plays an important role in shaping bacterial genome content. (genetics.org)
  • The estimates also suggest that many truncated genes are in the process of being eliminated from the genome. (genetics.org)
  • Analysis using the new model not only provides more accurate estimates on gene gains/losses (or insertions/deletions), but also reduces any concern of a systematic bias from applying simplified models to bacterial genome evolution. (genetics.org)
  • In free-living bacteria, pseudogenes can make up to 8% of the annotated genes in the genome ( L erat and O chman 2004 ). (genetics.org)
  • This will not only yield more accurate estimates of the rates of gene insertions/deletions, but also provide a quantitative view of the effect of truncated genes on rate estimation, which has been understudied in bacterial genome evolution. (genetics.org)
  • The review provides a brief discussion of some of the principle and technical challenges that the technology faced in the past, the solutions that have been offered to address them, and the future of the technology in the light of new developments in the field of gene manipulation and genome engineering. (frontiersin.org)
  • HU-type proteins have been found in a variety of eubacteria, cyanobacteria and archaebacteria, and are also encoded in the chloroplast genome of some algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The complexity of the eukaryotic genome necessitates a great variety and complexity of gene expression control. (wikipedia.org)
  • The regulation of this gene is more complex than most other genes in the E. coli genome, as FIS is an important protein which regulates expression of other genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a hypothetical example, the factors A and B might regulate a distinct set of genes from the combination of factors A and C. This combinatorial nature extends to complexes of far more than two proteins, and allows a very small subset (less than 10%) of the genome to control the transcriptional program of the entire cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its complete genome sequence was published in 1995 (size 0.58 Mbp, with 475 genes). (wikipedia.org)
  • It was regarded as a cellular unit with the smallest genome size (in Mbp) until 2003 when a new species of Archaea, namely Nanoarchaeum equitans, was sequenced (0.49 Mbp, with 540 genes). (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome of M. genitalium consists of 525 genes in one circular DNA of 580,070 base pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • They performed an initial study of the genome using random sequencing in 1993, by which they found 100,993 nucleotides and 390 protein-coding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was the second complete bacterial genome ever sequenced, after Haemophilus influenzae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome of the virus includes typical NCLDV core genes and genes apparently obtained from eukaryotic hosts and their parasites or symbionts, both bacterial and viral, through probably horizontal gene transfer mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • homologous
  • Gene Targeting Using Homologous Recombination in Embryonic Stem Cells: The Future for Behavior Genetics? (frontiersin.org)
  • Gene targeting with homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells created a revolution in the analysis of the function of genes in behavioral brain research. (frontiersin.org)
  • It will also compare and contrast methods that may represent novel alternatives to the homologous recombination based gene targeting approach, including the TALEN and the CRISPR/Cas9 systems. (frontiersin.org)
  • Undoubtedly, gene targeting with homologous recombination in ES cells has revolutionarized the analysis of gene function, and it had a major impact in biology that was recognized by awarding the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to the inventors who laid the foundation of the method, Mario R. Capecchi, Sir Martin J. Evans, and Oliver Smithies in 2007. (frontiersin.org)
  • It is homologous to archaeal transcription factor B and to eukaryotic TFIIB. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins homologous to σ54/RpoN are functional sigma factors, but they have significantly different primary amino acid sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • The additional subunits found in Pol I and Pol III relative to Pol II, are homologous to Pol II transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the filamentous particles of rudiviruses and lipothrixviruses are built from structurally similar, homologous major capsid proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogens
  • Pathogens have evolved arsenals of suppressive molecules in order to counteract MAMP-induced defences, such as type III secreted protein effectors, toxins acting as hormone mimics and extracellular polysaccharides (EPS). (bath.ac.uk)
  • Other than protection from UV, desiccation and antimicrobials, we revealed that chelation of calcium ions by EPS of diverse bacterial pathogens, prevents calcium influx in plants to the cytosol from the apoplast. (bath.ac.uk)
  • kinase
  • EnvZ is a histidine kinase which also possesses a cytoplasmic osmosensory domain, and OmpR is its corresponding response regulator protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Genetic-physical mapping of a photosynthetic gene cluster from R. capsulata. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Organized into 105 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the discovery of the double helix and the search for the genetic code and the three-dimensional structure of protein. (elsevier.com)
  • The integration host factor (IHF), a dimer of closely related chains which is suggested to function in genetic recombination as well as in translational and transcriptional control is found in Enterobacteria and viral proteins including the African swine fever virus protein A104R (or LMW5-AR). (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription is the process of copying genetic information stored in a DNA strand into a transportable complementary strand of RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2012, Prof. Ehud Shapiro and Dr. Tom Ran have succeeded in creating a genetic device that operates independently in bacterial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • The viral DNA was found to be entirely in the A-form, which suggests a common mechanism with bacterial spores for protecting DNA in the most adverse environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • endogenous
  • Additional comprehensive analyses of targeted Trp metabolites (including endogenous and bacterial metabolites) are essential for experimental preciseness, as the influence of the gut microbiota cannot be neglected, and may explain contradictory results in the literature. (frontiersin.org)
  • Such engineered TAL effectors have been used to create artificial transcription factors that can be used to target and activate or repress endogenous genes in tomato, Arabidopsis thaliana, and human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • Plants have developed a defense mechanism against type III effectors that includes R (resistance) genes triggered by these effectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peptides
  • Check out links to articles that cite our custom service antibodies, peptides, and proteins in major peer-reviewed journals, organized by research category. (abgent.com)
  • upstream
  • The two proteins (MSMEG_0539 and MSMEG_6189) show differences in cAMP binding affinity, trypsin sensitivity, and binding to a CRP site that we have identified upstream of the msmeg_3781 gene. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The fis gene is cotranscribed with the upstream dusB gene encoding a tRNA-modifying enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • activator
  • AsrC (Antisense RNA of rseC) is a cis-encoded antisense RNA of rseC (an activator gene of sigma factor RpoE) described in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli
  • Sigma factors in E. coli: σ70(RpoD) - σA - the "housekeeping" sigma factor or also called as primary sigma factor, transcribes most genes in growing cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • fis is the E. coli gene encoding FIS protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasmic
  • It detects cytoplasmic copper stress and activates transcription in response to increasing copper concentrations. (uniprot.org)
  • The protein is composed of a short N-terminal tail in the periplasm, two transmembrane regions with an intervening periplasmic loop, and a cytoplasmic domain containing the autophosphorylated histidine residue, which is located in a dimeric four-helix bundle. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (uniprot.org)
  • 3. A method for synthesizing an RNA oligonucleotide inside a cell comprising introducing into a cell a single-stranded circular oligonucleotide template comprising at least one copy of a nucleotide sequence complementary to the sequence of the RNA oligonucleotide, such that the circular oligonucleotide is processed intracellularly to yield an RNA oligonucleotide multimer comprising multiple copies of the RNA oligonucleotide wherein the cell is a bacterial cell. (google.com)
  • Sigma factors act as mediators of sequence-specific transcription, such that a single sigma factor can be used for transcription of all housekeeping genes or a suite of genes the cell wishes to express in response to some external stimuli such as stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • AsrC is an 893 bp sequence that covers all of the rseC coding region in the reverse direction of transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • The device, composed of a DNA sequence inserted into a bacterium, performs a "roll call" of transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • factors
  • Classical studies have shown that ADs enhance transcription rates by directly stimulating the formation and/or function of the PIC, which is an assortment of over 40 distinct polypeptides often termed the general transcription factors TFIIA, -B, -D, -E, -F, -H, and RNA pol II ( 2 , 3 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The structures of yeast and human TFIID in isolation and in complex with DNA, a subset of general transcription factors, or with activators have been determined using electron microscopy (EM) methods ( 10 , - 17 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • combined A repressive effect of Fis and previously characterized negative regulatory factors could be responsible to keep the gene silenced most of the time. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is orchestrated by transcription factors and other proteins working in concert to finely tune the amount of RNA being produced through a variety of mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most importantly is the idea of combinatorial control, which is that any given gene is likely controlled by a specific combination of factors to control transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • It forms part of the Yersinia pestis virulence protein factors that also includes all Yop's, this used to stand for Yersinia outer protein, but the name has been kept out of convention. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cancer cells, for example, the transcription factors regulating cell growth and division do not function properly, leading to increased cell division and the formation of a tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • repression
  • Under conditions of zinc deficiency, the protein undergoes a conformational change that prevents DNA binding, thereby lifting the repression and causing zinc uptake genes such as ZinT and the ZnuABC zinc transporter to be expressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding to this low affinity site results in repression of ompF gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • The ArsB protein is distinguished by its overall hydrophobic character, in keeping with its role as a membrane-associated channel. (wikipedia.org)
  • This membrane associated protein is predominantly expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • This increase was based on an enhanced membrane representation of TREK-1, suggesting a modulation of channel trafficking by Popdc proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • degradation
  • Pseudogenes could also result from the degradation of transferred genes and might even be acquired directly via lateral gene transfer. (genetics.org)
  • researchers
  • Also, the International Mouse Knockout Consortium (IKMC) ( http://www.knockoutmouse.org/ ) has amassed a large collection of conditional knockout alleles for mouse genes, allowing neuroscientists and other researchers to avoid having to go through the labor intensive process of generating null mutant mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • biological
  • p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge. (uniprot.org)
  • In 2006, the team at the J. Craig Venter Institute reported that only 382 genes are essential for biological functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • strand
  • The active cysteine residue of ArsC is located in the loop between the first beta-strand and the first helix, which is also conserved in the Spx protein and its homologues. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • depending on the protein level, can be toxic enough to reduce cell growth or even kill cells. (uniprot.org)
  • These studies have established that this process cannot be fully characterized by the mean protein production rate, 8 - 12 since cells exhibit fluctuations (i.e. noise) over time and diversity in numbers across populations, 13 which, among other things, generates phenotypic diversity. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 2 , 3 , 10 , 11 , 14 Other, more direct means consist of observing the distribution of intervals between RNA productions 2 , 4 , 5 and between protein bursts in individual cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We were the first to show bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN) is recognized by plant cells. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Gene transcription occurs in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)