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  • assessment
  • Using data already collected ("data mining") has the advantage of being able to quickly and inexpensively make an assessment with a large dataset that would otherwise require much more time-consuming and costly specific toxicity assays. (wikipedia.org)
  • These assays are valuable tools in various water assessment applications due to their high throughput capabilities, relatively low cost and ability to detect cumulative and mixture effects. (biotoxicity.com)
  • protein
  • Using the sensors and instrumentation, we are exploring new applications for optical biosensor technology including protein microarrays, biosensor/mass spectrometry systems, and microfluidics-based assays using nanoliter quantities of reagents. (nanohub.org)
  • Services include identification of a biological target (protein production and assay development) to clinical drug candidates (ADME/DMPK, toxicity and safety studies, and efficacy models) to proof of concept drug candidates (Phase I and II) and to the market. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • Genetic inactivation ("knockout") of SOD produces deleterious phenotypes in organisms ranging from bacteria to mice and have provided important clues as to the mechanisms of toxicity of superoxide in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • As a measure of toxicity, LD50 is somewhat unreliable and results may vary greatly between testing facilities due to factors such as the genetic characteristics of the sample population, animal species tested, environmental factors and mode of administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • In common with many other diterpenoid alkaloids, it is toxic to animals, although the acute toxicity varies with species. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxic
  • Even though Cl-PAHs aren't as toxic as TCDD, it has been determined using recombinant bacterial cells that the toxicities of exposure to Cl-PAHs based on AhR activity were approximately 30-50 times higher than that of dioxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • assess
  • We describe a novel approach to assess toxicity to the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans that relies on the ability of firefly luciferase to report on endogenous ATP. (naver.com)
  • Eclox ECL is a broadband enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL) assay that can be used to qualitatively assess a water sample to determine whether it has been contaminated. (wikipedia.org)
  • test
  • 1. Determination of the strength or biological activity of a substance, such as a drug, by comparing its effects with those of a standard preparation on a test organism. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The OECD earthworm toxicity test number 207 is widely used for terrestrial ecotoxicological test which is applied both in prospective and increasingly in retrospective ecotoxicological research. (hindawi.com)
  • Because of the difficulties in counting actual organisms in a dose, infective doses may be expressed in terms of biological assay, such as the number of LD50's to some test animal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eclox, which stands for Enhanced ChemiLuminescence and OXyradical test for water quality analysis, is a rapid toxicity technology that has been shown to correlate with other established toxicity tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • dose
  • For competition binding assays and functional antagonist assays IC50 is the most common summary measure of the dose-response curve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Graphpad Software EC50 definition definition of EC50 for quantal dose response curve Assay Operations for SAR Support Archived 2006-11-29 at the Wayback Machine. (wikipedia.org)
  • relation
  • It includes synthetic and computational aspects of the study of existing drugs and agents in development in relation to their bioactivities (biological activities and properties), i.e., understanding their structure-activity relationships (SAR). (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • NOAA originally calculated ERL/ERMs using existing toxicity data compiled from completed toxicity assays with varying endpoints, including effects on commonly tested organisms, particularly at sensitive life stages. (wikipedia.org)
  • methods
  • Studies are screened, and only those assays using standardized methods and resulting in significant effects are used for the determination of ERL/ERM guidelines. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • Early estimates of CCK-like activity in blood were based on biological assays such as pancreatic secretion or gallbladder contraction. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Toxicological studies have shown that some Cl-PAHs possess greater mutagenicity, aryl-hydorcarbon receptor activity, and dioxin-like toxicity than the corresponding parent PAHs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zebra fish larval locomotor activity assay of transgenic fish embryos and individual larvae placed in a 96-well plate, monitored in a box and continuously illuminated by infrared lights, illuminated by white lights showed major similarities between fish circadian system and mammalian sleep/wake regulator for example. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drug
  • To the extent that a disease state can be mimicked by a toxin, the invention further provides an assay for drug discovery. (google.com)
  • India
  • The Society of Biological Chemists (India) awarded him the Professor M. Srinivasayya Award in 1984 and the Indian National Science Academy elected him as a fellow the same year. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies
  • In summary, the key links between the compiled studies are the testing of a specific analyte - toxicity assays used are for sediment, and a significant effect must be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both the ERL and ERM have proven to be useful guideline values for predicting toxicity during studies conducted by the USGS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Development
  • Published 15 January 2010, Science 327, 348 (2010) - DOI: 10.1126/science.1183090 "Validation of a larval zebrafish locomotor assay for assessing the seizureliability of early-stage development drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • variety
  • Compiled data sets include a variety of endpoints including mortality, reproduction, growth rate, and juvenile survival in sediment toxicity data sets for all organisms for which tests have been conducted. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • A number of aquatic toxicity tests have been established for South African use, which include fish and Daphnia lethality tests, microbiotests, and short-term chronic tests. (csir.co.za)
  • system
  • Reliability of the Eclox Enhanced Chemiluminescence Assay for Rapid Field Testing of Drinking Water, Thesis, Texas A&M University System Health Science Center Whitehead, T.P., Thorpe, G.H.G., Maxwell, S.R.J., 1992. (wikipedia.org)
  • make
  • The publicity given to scientific matters by our newspapers, by the radio and television, is so great that it is difficult to realize how hard our predecessors had to battle to make biological experiment acceptable. (animalresearch.info)
  • high
  • Cl-PAHs demonstrate a high enough toxicity to be a potential health risk to human populations that come into contact with them. (wikipedia.org)
  • ELISA
  • Absorbance detection has been available in microplate readers for more than 3 decades, and is used for assays such as ELISA assays, protein and nucleic acid quantification or enzyme activity assays (i.e. in the MTT assay for cell viability). (wikipedia.org)
  • Several sampling and analytical methods including thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), among others, have been used to test for aflatoxin B1 contamination in foods. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene expression
  • Given the necessary and present methodological diversity within QBM, the focus is on one fundamental and encompassing biological problem - the control of gene expression in all its aspects, and the interplay of the different control mechanisms in regulatory networks. (lmu.de)
  • vitro
  • Along with the debate on whether PIO causes bladder cancer in humans, animal and in vitro cell culture studies have suggested a biological effect of PIO on the induction or protection from bladder cancer [ 7 ]. (medsci.org)
  • products
  • While toxicity of its products, aflatoxins, are explored throughout this article, Aspergillus flavus itself also exerts pathogenic effects through aspergillosis, or infection with the mold. (wikipedia.org)
  • Skin Deep is a cosmetics safety database which pairs ingredients in over 79,000 products against 50 toxicity and regulatory databases. (wikipedia.org)
  • studies
  • Studies are screened, and only those assays using standardized methods and resulting in significant effects are used for the determination of ERL/ERM guidelines. (wikipedia.org)
  • In summary, the key links between the compiled studies are the testing of a specific analyte - toxicity assays used are for sediment, and a significant effect must be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical
  • Plate readers, also known as microplate readers or microplate photometers, are instruments which are used to detect biological, chemical or physical events of samples in microtiter plates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Volume
  • Higher density microplates (384- or 1536-well microplates) are typically used for screening applications, when throughput (number of samples per day processed) and assay cost per sample become critical parameters, with a typical assay volume between 5 and 50 µL per well. (wikipedia.org)
  • range
  • In environmental toxicology, effects range low (ERL) and effects range median (ERM) are measures of toxicity in marine sediment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even though it is an effective sedative, hypnotic, and anxiolytic, it shares virtually none of the abuse, dependence, addiction, and toxicity potential of other drugs used for the same range of therapeutic reasons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common
  • A common approach in modern biological research is to modify the DNA sequence (genotype) of an organism (or a single cell) and observe the impact of this change on the organism (phenotype). (wikipedia.org)