**observational**- Dr. Ying is the Principal Investigator of two NIH grants, the Director of the Data Coordinating Center for two NIH-funded studies on retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), the co-investigator and senior biostatistician for several NIH-funded multi-center clinical trials or observational studies. (upenn.edu)
- Data from randomised controlled trials and observational studies indicate that insulin degludec has a hypoglycemia advantage versus insulin glargine 100 units/mL (glargine U100), the most widely prescribed basal insulin analogue in the UK. (springer.com)
- By comparison, real-world studies of participants in regular clinical practice tend to lack the rigour of randomised controlled trials, and the data may suffer from various selection biases due to being observational and open label. (springer.com)
- Objective Previous observational studies suggest that the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may increase the risk of hospitalisation for community-acquired pneumonia (HCAP). (bmj.com)
- Previous observational studies and their meta-analysis have found that proton pump inhibitors are associated with an increased risk of community-acquired pneumonia. (bmj.com)
- Thus, natural experiments are observational studies and are not controlled in the traditional sense of a randomized experiment. (wikipedia.org)
- Observational study - draws inferences about the possible effect of a treatment on subjects, where the assignment of subjects into a treated group versus a control group is outside the control of the investigator. (wikipedia.org)
- In contrast, an observational study does not involve experimental manipulation. (wikipedia.org)
- Two main statistical methods are used in data analysis: descriptive statistics, which summarize data from a sample using indexes such as the mean or standard deviation, and inferential statistics, which draw conclusions from data that are subject to random variation (e.g., observational errors, sampling variation). (wikipedia.org)

**Epidemiology**- Epidemiology studies the patterns, causes and effects of health and disease conditions. (omicsonline.org)
- Epidemiology helped to develop methodology used in clinical research, public health studies and to a lesser extent basic research in the biological sciences. (omicsonline.org)
- Epidemiology is the study of health-events, health-characteristics or health-determinant patterns in a population. (metafilter.com)
- Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution[disambiguation needed] and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations. (wikipedia.org)
- However, the term is widely used in studies of zoological populations (veterinary epidemiology), although the term "epizoology" is available, and it has also been applied to studies of plant populations (botanical or plant disease epidemiology). (wikipedia.org)
- The term "epidemiology" appears to have first been used to describe the study of epidemics in 1802 by the Spanish physician Villalba in Epidemiología Española. (wikipedia.org)
- In 2010, the Statistics in Epidemiology section of the American Statistical Association gave her their Nathan Mantel Lifetime Achievement Award. (wikipedia.org)
- He continued his studies at The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore, Maryland, where he received a PhD in epidemiology. (wikipedia.org)

**Statisticians**- Commonly 5% of the provisional conclusions of significance testing are wrong Statisticians are not in complete agreement on ideal methods Statistical methods are based on assumptions which are seldom fully met Data gathering is usually limited by ethical, practical and financial constraints. (wikipedia.org)
- When census data cannot be collected, statisticians collect data by developing specific experiment designs and survey samples. (wikipedia.org)
- Ideally, statisticians compile data about the entire population (an operation called census). (wikipedia.org)

**conclusions**- These publications include raw data from various studies, their statistical interpretation, and possible conclusions presented with necessary background material. (wikipedia.org)
- However, the potential presence of confounding and protopathic biases limits the conclusions that can be drawn from these studies. (bmj.com)
- Conclusions Our study does not support the proposition of a pharmacological effect of gastric acid suppressors on the risk of HCAP. (bmj.com)
- Epidemiologists rely on a number of other scientific disciplines such as biology (to better understand disease processes), biostatistics (to make efficient use of the data and draw appropriate conclusions), and exposure assessment and social science disciplines (to better understand proximate and distal risk factors, and their measurement). (metafilter.com)
- Epidemiologists rely on other scientific disciplines like biology to better understand disease processes, statistics to make efficient use of the data and draw appropriate conclusions, social sciences to better understand proximate and distal causes, and engineering for exposure assessment. (wikipedia.org)
- The poor state of public statistical literacy and the non-statistical nature of human intuition permits misleading without explicitly producing faulty conclusions. (wikipedia.org)
- The process includes experimental planning, conduct of the experiment, data analysis, drawing the logical conclusions and presentation/reporting. (wikipedia.org)
- Research on the validity of CBTIs tends to utilize three types of studies: external criterion studies (comparing the CBTI report to some external criterion measure of the construct, such as a self-report or behavioral measure), consumer satisfaction studies (asking clients whether the reports are accurate representations of themselves), and comparison with clinical conclusions (comparing CBTI reports to clinician interpretations). (wikipedia.org)
- Draw conclusions by comparing data with predictions. (wikipedia.org)

**drafting of the manuscript**- Contributors CY contributed to the study design, statistical analysis, interpretation of the data and drafting of the manuscript. (bmj.com)

**epidemiological**- Epidemiological studies have most often focused on the cumulative incidence of known diagnoses associated with PE, particularly metabolic diseases. (biomedcentral.com)
- As epidemiological data are scarce, we aimed to estimate the overall incidence rate of PE with its different aetiologies and to determine the age of onset of symptoms of the disease. (biomedcentral.com)

**Epidemiologists**- Epidemiologists help with study design, data collection, statistical analysis of data, interpretation and dissemination. (omicsonline.org)
- Epidemiologists are involved in the design of studies, collection and statistical analysis of data, and interpretation and dissemination of results (including peer review and occasional systematic review). (metafilter.com)
- Epidemiologists also study the interaction of diseases in a population, a condition known as a syndemic. (wikipedia.org)

**intercepts**- Equal form, Equal Intercepts) a χ2 fit statistic is iteratively estimated from the minimization of the difference between the model implied mean and covariance matrices and the observed mean and covariance matrices. (wikipedia.org)

**manuscript**- Dr. Ying collaborates with investigators for the study design, statistical analysis and data interpretation and manuscript writing for the multi-center clinical studies. (upenn.edu)
- LL and RC contributed to data collection and drafting the manuscript. (bmj.com)
- NK contributed to the study design and revising the manuscript for intellectual content. (bmj.com)

**descriptive statistics**- The data acquired for quantitative marketing research can be analysed by almost any of the range of techniques of statistical analysis, which can be broadly divided into descriptive statistics and statistical inference. (wikipedia.org)

**collection**- It deals with all aspects of this, including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments. (wikipedia.org)
- Data collection. (wikipedia.org)
- The data collection steps, can in some instances be automated, but often require significant manpower to undertake. (wikipedia.org)
- Compared to any other method of obtaining data on population of large carnivores, 'Pugmark tracking' is quick,--- involving about 10 days of ground preparation, 6 days of rigorous data collection, and about two to four weeks to analyse the data. (wikipedia.org)
- Some definitions are: Merriam-Webster dictionary defines statistics as "a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of masses of numerical data. (wikipedia.org)
- Statistics is a mathematical body of science that pertains to the collection, analysis, interpretation or explanation, and presentation of data, or as a branch of mathematics. (wikipedia.org)
- The Cancer Genome Atlas data collection Computational algorithms to extract drivers of cancer progression from existing datasets Statistical and mechanistic modeling of signaling networks Quantitative modeling of cancer evolutionary processes Mathematical modeling of cancer cell population growth Mathematical modeling of cellular responses to therapeutic intervention Mathematical modeling of cancer metabolism The practice of Cancer Systems Biology requires close physical integration between scientists with diverse backgrounds. (wikipedia.org)

**numerical**- Mathematical modeling of fracture healing in mice: comparison between experimental data and numerical simulation results. (naver.com)
- The environmental complexity factor is normally tackled through statistical analysis of the available numerical data (quantitative paleontology or paleostatistics), while the study of post-mortem processes is known as the field of taphonomy. (wikipedia.org)

**prediction**- Dr. Ying's statistical methodologic research interest is the development of risk prediction models for eye diseases and statistical analysis for correlated data. (upenn.edu)
- Statistician Dr. Mike Tveite has pointed out the dangers of attempting to use an enumerative study for prediction. (wikipedia.org)
- Actuarial assessment programs are based on statistical or actuarial prediction (e.g., statistical analyses, linear regression equations and Bayesian rules), which is empirically based while automated assessment programs consist of a series of if-then statements derived by expert clinicians and informed by published research and clinical experience. (wikipedia.org)

**analyses**- The empirically based programs, or actuarial assessment programs, use statistical analyses to interpret the data, while the clinically based programs, or automated assessment programs, rely on information from expert clinicians and research. (wikipedia.org)
- High-throughput technologies enable comprehensive genomic analyses of mutations, rearrangements, copy number variations, and methylation at the cellular and tissue levels, as well as robust analysis of RNA and microRNA expression data, protein levels and metabolite levels. (wikipedia.org)

**fallacy**- When the statistical reason involved is false or misapplied, this constitutes a statistical fallacy. (wikipedia.org)
- All of the technical/mathematical problems of applied probability would fit in the single listed fallacy of statistical probability. (wikipedia.org)

**probability**- A few of the fallacies are explicitly or potentially statistical including sampling, statistical nonsense, statistical probability, false extrapolation, false interpolation and insidious generalization. (wikipedia.org)

**methods**- Review methods Studies comparing the two procedures as the primary intervention for isolated left anterior descending artery stenosis were identified and the following extracted: study design, population characteristics, severity of coronary artery disease, cardiovascular risk factors, and outcomes of interest. (bmj.com)
- This rudimentary computerized interpretation is not far off from the methods used today. (wikipedia.org)
- Cancer systems biology encompasses concrete applications of systems biology approaches to cancer research, notably (a) the need for better methods to distill insights from large-scale networks, (b) the importance of integrating multiple data types in constructing more realistic models, (b) challenges in translating insights about tumorigenic mechanisms into therapeutic interventions, and (d) the role of the tumor microenvironment, at the physical, cellular, and molecular levels. (wikipedia.org)

**processes**- citation needed] Measurement processes that generate statistical data are also subject to error. (wikipedia.org)

**experimental**- Natural experiment - empirical study in which the experimental conditions (i.e., which units receive which treatment) are determined by nature or by other factors out of the control of the experimenters and yet the treatment assignment process is arguably exogenous. (wikipedia.org)
- An experimental study involves taking measurements of the system under study, manipulating the system, and then taking additional measurements using the same procedure to determine if the manipulation has modified the values of the measurements. (wikipedia.org)

**measurement**- Measurement invariance or measurement equivalence is a statistical property of measurement that indicates that the same construct is being measured across some specified groups. (wikipedia.org)
- For example, measurement invariance can be used to study whether a given measure is interpreted in a conceptually similar manner by respondents representing different genders or cultural backgrounds. (wikipedia.org)
- Violations of measurement invariance may preclude meaningful interpretation of measurement data. (wikipedia.org)

**significance**- The clinical significance of remifentanil-induced swallowing difficulties is to be studied further. (diva-portal.org)
- Test the results for statistical significance. (wikipedia.org)
- As long as the models under comparison are nested, the difference between the χ2 values and their respective degrees of freedom of any two CFA models of varying levels of invariance follows a χ2 distribution (diff χ2) and as such, can be inspected for significance as an indication of whether increasingly restrictive models produce appreciable changes in model-data fit. (wikipedia.org)
- While literal interpretations of such myths may appear to indicate extraordinarily long lifespans, many scholars believe such figures may be the result of incorrect translation of numbering systems through various languages coupled by the cultural and or symbolic significance of certain numbers. (wikipedia.org)

**hypothesis**- Possible outcomes: Conclusive: The hypothesis is falsified by the data. (wikipedia.org)
- Data are consistent with the hypothesis. (wikipedia.org)
- Inconclusive: Data are not relevant to the hypothesis, or data and predictions are incommensurate. (wikipedia.org)
- According to it, scientific inquiry proceeds by formulating a hypothesis in a form that could conceivably be falsified by a test on observable data. (wikipedia.org)
- A hypothesis is proposed for the statistical relationship between the two data sets, and this is compared as an alternative to an idealized null hypothesis of no relationship between two data sets. (wikipedia.org)
- Rejecting or disproving the null hypothesis is done using statistical tests that quantify the sense in which the null can be proven false, given the data that are used in the test. (wikipedia.org)

**Patterns**- By studying patterns of evolution and extinction in the context of environmental change, evolutionary paleoecologists are able to examine concepts of vulnerability and resilience in species and environments. (wikipedia.org)

**cohort**- 7 Another study of a cohort of patients with acute coronary syndromes found that acute coronary syndrome events occurred on average 10 days after discontinuation of low dose aspirin. (bmj.com)
- A prospective cohort study was carried out with our acute care surgical service at a tertiary care teaching hospital from January 2 to March 31 2012. (biomedcentral.com)

**design**- Results 12 studies (1952 patients) reporting results from eight groups were included: one was a retrospective design, one prospective non-randomised, and six prospective randomised. (bmj.com)
- Design Nested case-control study. (bmj.com)
- The design step may involve a pilot study in order to discover any hidden issues. (wikipedia.org)

**involves the study**- nature') is a natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through spacetime, along with related concepts such as energy and force. (wikipedia.org)
- It involves the study of fossil organisms and their associated remains (such as shells, teeth, pollen, and seeds), which can help in the interpretation of their life cycle, living interactions, natural environment, communities, and manner of death and burial. (wikipedia.org)

**uncertainty**- Use of data requires knowledge about the different sources of uncertainty. (wikipedia.org)
- Gather and analyze data from experiments or observations, including indicators of uncertainty. (wikipedia.org)
- There is too much uncertainty in the data to draw any conclusion. (wikipedia.org)
- While many scientific investigations make use of data, statistics is concerned with the use of data in the context of uncertainty and decision making in the face of uncertainty. (wikipedia.org)

**practice**- However, for evaluations to be truly representative, the data upon which they are based need to be as reflective of clinical practice as much as possible. (springer.com)
- Practice level data covering all the clinicians in the 68 practices were analysed. (bmj.com)
- Interventions Intervention practices followed the Stemming the Tide of Antibiotic Resistance (STAR) educational programme, which included a practice based seminar reflecting on the practices' own dispensing and resistance data, online educational elements, and practising consulting skills in routine care. (bmj.com)
- In applying statistics to a problem, it is common practice to start with a population or process to be studied. (wikipedia.org)

**interpret**- Computer-based test interpretation (CBTI) programs are technological tools that have been commonly used to interpret data in psychological assessments since the 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
- The first program able to interpret computerized assessment data was developed in 1962 at the Mayo Clinic. (wikipedia.org)

**Graduate Studies**- He then pursued graduate studies at UCSD from 1989 to 1994. (wikipedia.org)

**Stanford University**- She works as a professor of health research and policy and of biomedical data science at Stanford University, and has served as president of the International Biometric Society. (wikipedia.org)

**empirical**- Natural science is a branch of science that seeks to elucidate the rules that govern the natural world by applying an empirical and scientific method to the study of the universe. (wikipedia.org)

**biological**- Geometric measures (volume, area and length) of biological particles are of fundamental interest for biological studies. (naver.com)
- The branches of science (also referred to as "sciences", "scientific fields", or "scientific disciplines") are commonly divided into three major groups: Natural sciences: the study of natural phenomena (including cosmological, geological, chemical, and biological factors of the universe) Formal sciences: the study of mathematics and logic, which use an a priori, as opposed to factual, methodology. (wikipedia.org)
- However, the term "physical" creates an unintended, somewhat arbitrary distinction, since many branches of physical science also study biological phenomena. (wikipedia.org)
- Cancer systems biology encompasses the application of systems biology approaches to cancer research, in order to study the disease as a complex adaptive system with emerging properties at multiple biological scales. (wikipedia.org)

**scientific**- His concepts are still considered in current scientific research in relation to Traditional Chinese Medicine studies (see: http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/en/d/Js6170e/4.html). (wikipedia.org)
- Analytic and enumerative statistical studies are two types of scientific studies: In any statistical study the ultimate aim is to provide a rational basis for action. (wikipedia.org)
- λογία, "study of") is the scientific study of the relationships that living organisms have with each other and with their abiotic environment. (wikipedia.org)
- In applying statistics to, e.g., a scientific, industrial, or social problem, it is conventional to begin with a statistical population or a statistical model process to be studied. (wikipedia.org)

**1960s**- Ingo Haar who is currently on the faculty of the University of Vienna said on 14 November 2006 in Deutschlandfunk that about 500,000 to 600,000 victims are realistic, based on a German governmental studies initiated in the 1960s. (wikipedia.org)

**population**- This specific patient population was studied to minimise bias due to unmeasured confounders. (bmj.com)
- Like any study technique, Pugmark tracking also calls for sincerity for true reflection of structure and spatial distribution of the population of large carnivores. (wikipedia.org)
- Demographic estimates of the flight and expulsion of Germans have been derived by either the compilation of registered dead and missing persons or by a comparison of pre-war and post-war population data. (wikipedia.org)
- post war census data in Central and Eastern Europe did not breakout the ethnic German population and during the Cold War there was a lack of cooperation between West Germany and communist bloc countries in the effort to locate persons reported missing. (wikipedia.org)

**genetics**- Irving Isadore Gottesman (December 29, 1930 - June 29, 2016) was an American professor of psychology who devoted most of his career to the study of the genetics of schizophrenia. (wikipedia.org)
- Alice Segers Whittemore is an American epidemiologist and biostatistician who studies the effects of genetics and lifestyle on cancer, after an earlier career as a pure mathematician studying group theory. (wikipedia.org)

**Methodology**- As technology continues to transform our modern society, computer-based interpretation programs have the possibility to expand their software and even alleviate some of the current concerns with the programs' methodology. (wikipedia.org)

**results**- In other words, an enumerative study is a statistical study in which the focus is on judgment of results, and an analytic study is one in which the focus is on improvement of the process or system which created the results being evaluated and which will continue creating results in the future. (wikipedia.org)
- The interpretation of results of a test or experiment is something else. (wikipedia.org)
- It results in data which shows which forest beat possess how many, of what sex/age and which type of large carnivore. (wikipedia.org)
- Such mismatch between clinical results and the massive amounts of data acquired by omics technology highlights the existence of basic gaps in our knowledge of cancer fundamentals. (wikipedia.org)

**census**- Field data for each pugmark are collected in specially devised census forms. (wikipedia.org)

**societies**- Social sciences: the study of human behavior and societies. (wikipedia.org)

**however**- All the studies on this topic to date, however, have taken place in secondary care centres. (bmj.com)

**possibility**- Many of the fallacies could be coupled to a statistical analysis, allowing the possibility of a false conclusion flowing from a blameless statistical analysis. (wikipedia.org)

**process**- Analytic study: A statistical study in which action will be taken on the process or cause-system that produced the frame being studied. (wikipedia.org)
- Often much of this information is lost or distorted by the fossilization process or diagenesis of the enclosing sediments, making interpretation difficult. (wikipedia.org)

**drawn**- A standard statistical procedure involves the test of the relationship between two statistical data sets, or a data set and synthetic data drawn from idealized model. (wikipedia.org)

**examine**- Evolutionary paleoecology uses data from fossils and other evidence to examine how organisms and their environments change throughout time. (wikipedia.org)
- Community paleoecology uses statistical analysis to examine the composition and distribution of groups of plants or animals. (wikipedia.org)

**distinction**- Deming summarized the distinction between enumerative and analytic studies as follows: Enumerative study: A statistical study in which action will be taken on the material in the frame being studied. (wikipedia.org)
- This distinction between enumerative and analytic studies is the theory behind the Fourteen Points for Management. (wikipedia.org)
- Use of data requires also understanding of the distinction between enumerative studies and analytic problems. (wikipedia.org)

**hydrosphere**- The formal discipline of Earth sciences may include the study of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, oceans and biosphere, as well as the solid earth. (wikipedia.org)

**clinical care**- Data from randomised clinical trials are limited because the participants enrolled are not typically reflective of those who will eventually be prescribed the medications in routine clinical care. (springer.com)
- Sign up for Insight Alerts highlighting editor-chosen studies with the greatest impact on clinical care. (aappublications.org)

**contrast**- Physical science is an encompassing term for the branches of natural science and science that study non-living systems, in contrast to the life sciences. (wikipedia.org)

**various**- Lastly, Gottesman was a professor in the psychology department at the University of Minnesota, where he received his Ph.D. A native of Ohio, Gottesman studied psychology for his undergraduate and graduate degrees, became a faculty member at various universities, and spent most of his career at the University of Virginia and the University of Minnesota. (wikipedia.org)
- In any instance, an appropriate type of statistical analysis should take account of the various types of error that may arise, as outlined below. (wikipedia.org)

**estimates**- From the technical article: '[The researchers used] estimates of how much each risk factor increases the risk of death from each disease from published studies. (metafilter.com)
- The presence of missing data or censoring may result in biased estimates and specific techniques have been developed to address these problems. (wikipedia.org)

**mathematics**- Whittemore originally studied pure mathematics. (wikipedia.org)

**Research**- Further, CBTI research has been criticized for failure to assess inter-rater (comparing the interpretation of one protocol by two different programs) and internal consistency reliability (comparing the reliability of different sections of the same interpretation). (wikipedia.org)

**Statistics**- Statistics are supposed to make something easier to understand but when used in a misleading fashion can trick the casual observer into believing something other than what the data shows. (wikipedia.org)
- That is, a misuse of statistics occurs when a statistical argument asserts a falsehood. (wikipedia.org)
- The definition of the misuse of statistics is weak on the required completeness of statistical reporting. (wikipedia.org)

**tests**- Indeed, some seek to develop statistical tests to determine the presence of these properties in their data. (wikipedia.org)