##### observational

- Dr. Ying is the Principal Investigator of two NIH grants, the Director of the Data Coordinating Center for two NIH-funded studies on retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), the co-investigator and senior biostatistician for several NIH-funded multi-center clinical trials or observational studies. (upenn.edu)
- Data from randomised controlled trials and observational studies indicate that insulin degludec has a hypoglycemia advantage versus insulin glargine 100 units/mL (glargine U100), the most widely prescribed basal insulin analogue in the UK. (springer.com)
- By comparison, real-world studies of participants in regular clinical practice tend to lack the rigour of randomised controlled trials, and the data may suffer from various selection biases due to being observational and open label. (springer.com)
- Objective Previous observational studies suggest that the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may increase the risk of hospitalisation for community-acquired pneumonia (HCAP). (bmj.com)
- Previous observational studies and their meta-analysis have found that proton pump inhibitors are associated with an increased risk of community-acquired pneumonia. (bmj.com)
- Thus, natural experiments are observational studies and are not controlled in the traditional sense of a randomized experiment. (wikipedia.org)
- Observational study - draws inferences about the possible effect of a treatment on subjects, where the assignment of subjects into a treated group versus a control group is outside the control of the investigator. (wikipedia.org)
- In contrast, an observational study does not involve experimental manipulation. (wikipedia.org)
- Two main statistical methods are used in data analysis: descriptive statistics, which summarize data from a sample using indexes such as the mean or standard deviation, and inferential statistics, which draw conclusions from data that are subject to random variation (e.g., observational errors, sampling variation). (wikipedia.org)

##### conclusions

- These publications include raw data from various studies, their statistical interpretation, and possible conclusions presented with necessary background material. (wikipedia.org)
- However, the potential presence of confounding and protopathic biases limits the conclusions that can be drawn from these studies. (bmj.com)
- Conclusions Our study does not support the proposition of a pharmacological effect of gastric acid suppressors on the risk of HCAP. (bmj.com)
- Epidemiologists rely on other scientific disciplines like biology to better understand disease processes, statistics to make efficient use of the data and draw appropriate conclusions, social sciences to better understand proximate and distal causes, and engineering for exposure assessment. (wikipedia.org)
- Commonly 5% of the provisional conclusions of significance testing are wrong Statisticians are not in complete agreement on ideal methods Statistical methods are based on assumptions which are seldom fully met Data gathering is usually limited by ethical, practical and financial constraints. (wikipedia.org)
- The poor state of public statistical literacy and the non-statistical nature of human intuition permits misleading without explicitly producing faulty conclusions. (wikipedia.org)
- The process includes experimental planning, conduct of the experiment, data analysis, drawing the logical conclusions and presentation/reporting. (wikipedia.org)
- Research on the validity of CBTIs tends to utilize three types of studies: external criterion studies (comparing the CBTI report to some external criterion measure of the construct, such as a self-report or behavioral measure), consumer satisfaction studies (asking clients whether the reports are accurate representations of themselves), and comparison with clinical conclusions (comparing CBTI reports to clinician interpretations). (wikipedia.org)
- Draw conclusions by comparing data with predictions. (wikipedia.org)

##### Statisticians

- When census data cannot be collected, statisticians collect data by developing specific experiment designs and survey samples. (wikipedia.org)
- Ideally, statisticians compile data about the entire population (an operation called census). (wikipedia.org)

##### epidemiological

- Longitudinal studies of the genetic structure, complexity, infection dynamics, and duration of naturally acquired Plasmodium falciparum infections are needed to facilitate a comprehensive understanding of malaria epidemiology in the complex Kenyan highland eco-epidemiological systems where malaria recently expanded, as well as the evaluation of control measures. (biomedcentral.com)
- Epidemiological studies have most often focused on the cumulative incidence of known diagnoses associated with PE, particularly metabolic diseases. (biomedcentral.com)
- As epidemiological data are scarce, we aimed to estimate the overall incidence rate of PE with its different aetiologies and to determine the age of onset of symptoms of the disease. (biomedcentral.com)

##### Epidemiology

- Epidemiology studies the patterns, causes and effects of health and disease conditions. (omicsonline.org)
- Epidemiology helped to develop methodology used in clinical research, public health studies and to a lesser extent basic research in the biological sciences. (omicsonline.org)
- Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution[disambiguation needed] and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations. (wikipedia.org)
- However, the term is widely used in studies of zoological populations (veterinary epidemiology), although the term "epizoology" is available, and it has also been applied to studies of plant populations (botanical or plant disease epidemiology). (wikipedia.org)
- The term "epidemiology" appears to have first been used to describe the study of epidemics in 1802 by the Spanish physician Villalba in Epidemiología Española. (wikipedia.org)
- In 2010, the Statistics in Epidemiology section of the American Statistical Association gave her their Nathan Mantel Lifetime Achievement Award. (wikipedia.org)
- He continued his studies at The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore, Maryland, where he received a PhD in epidemiology. (wikipedia.org)

##### dissemination

- Epidemiologists help with study design, data collection, statistical analysis of data, interpretation and dissemination. (omicsonline.org)

##### intercepts

- Equal form, Equal Intercepts) a χ2 fit statistic is iteratively estimated from the minimization of the difference between the model implied mean and covariance matrices and the observed mean and covariance matrices. (wikipedia.org)

##### numerical data

- The environmental complexity factor is normally tackled through statistical analysis of the available numerical data (quantitative paleontology or paleostatistics), while the study of post-mortem processes is known as the field of taphonomy. (wikipedia.org)
- Some definitions are: Merriam-Webster dictionary defines statistics as "a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of masses of numerical data. (wikipedia.org)

##### cohort study

- We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)-a multicenter prospective cohort study of civil servants. (biomedcentral.com)

##### descriptive statistics

- The data acquired for quantitative marketing research can be analysed by almost any of the range of techniques of statistical analysis, which can be broadly divided into descriptive statistics and statistical inference. (wikipedia.org)

##### processes

- citation needed] Measurement processes that generate statistical data are also subject to error. (wikipedia.org)
- The Cancer Genome Atlas data collection Computational algorithms to extract drivers of cancer progression from existing datasets Statistical and mechanistic modeling of signaling networks Quantitative modeling of cancer evolutionary processes Mathematical modeling of cancer cell population growth Mathematical modeling of cellular responses to therapeutic intervention Mathematical modeling of cancer metabolism The practice of Cancer Systems Biology requires close physical integration between scientists with diverse backgrounds. (wikipedia.org)

##### populations

- These data demonstrate that despite the relatively recent spread of malaria to the highlands, parasite populations seem to have stabilized with no evidence of bottlenecks between seasons, while the ability of residents to clear or control infections indicates presence of effective anti-plasmodial immune mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
- Studies of the duration of plasmodial infections in natural populations are lacking in the East African highlands. (biomedcentral.com)

##### Epidemiologists

- Epidemiologists also study the interaction of diseases in a population, a condition known as a syndemic. (wikipedia.org)

##### prediction

- Dr. Ying's statistical methodologic research interest is the development of risk prediction models for eye diseases and statistical analysis for correlated data. (upenn.edu)
- Statistician Dr. Mike Tveite has pointed out the dangers of attempting to use an enumerative study for prediction. (wikipedia.org)
- Actuarial assessment programs are based on statistical or actuarial prediction (e.g., statistical analyses, linear regression equations and Bayesian rules), which is empirically based while automated assessment programs consist of a series of if-then statements derived by expert clinicians and informed by published research and clinical experience. (wikipedia.org)

##### fallacy

- When the statistical reason involved is false or misapplied, this constitutes a statistical fallacy. (wikipedia.org)
- All of the technical/mathematical problems of applied probability would fit in the single listed fallacy of statistical probability. (wikipedia.org)

##### methods

- Review methods Studies comparing the two procedures as the primary intervention for isolated left anterior descending artery stenosis were identified and the following extracted: study design, population characteristics, severity of coronary artery disease, cardiovascular risk factors, and outcomes of interest. (bmj.com)
- This rudimentary computerized interpretation is not far off from the methods used today. (wikipedia.org)
- Cancer systems biology encompasses concrete applications of systems biology approaches to cancer research, notably (a) the need for better methods to distill insights from large-scale networks, (b) the importance of integrating multiple data types in constructing more realistic models, (b) challenges in translating insights about tumorigenic mechanisms into therapeutic interventions, and (d) the role of the tumor microenvironment, at the physical, cellular, and molecular levels. (wikipedia.org)

##### probability

- A few of the fallacies are explicitly or potentially statistical including sampling, statistical nonsense, statistical probability, false extrapolation, false interpolation and insidious generalization. (wikipedia.org)

##### collection

- LL and RC contributed to data collection and drafting the manuscript. (bmj.com)
- It deals with all aspects of this, including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments. (wikipedia.org)
- Data collection. (wikipedia.org)
- The data collection steps, can in some instances be automated, but often require significant manpower to undertake. (wikipedia.org)
- Compared to any other method of obtaining data on population of large carnivores, 'Pugmark tracking' is quick,--- involving about 10 days of ground preparation, 6 days of rigorous data collection, and about two to four weeks to analyse the data. (wikipedia.org)
- Statistics is a mathematical body of science that pertains to the collection, analysis, interpretation or explanation, and presentation of data, or as a branch of mathematics. (wikipedia.org)

##### manuscript

- Dr. Ying collaborates with investigators for the study design, statistical analysis and data interpretation and manuscript writing for the multi-center clinical studies. (upenn.edu)
- Contributors CY contributed to the study design, statistical analysis, interpretation of the data and drafting of the manuscript. (bmj.com)
- NK contributed to the study design and revising the manuscript for intellectual content. (bmj.com)

##### measurement

- Measurement invariance or measurement equivalence is a statistical property of measurement that indicates that the same construct is being measured across some specified groups. (wikipedia.org)
- For example, measurement invariance can be used to study whether a given measure is interpreted in a conceptually similar manner by respondents representing different genders or cultural backgrounds. (wikipedia.org)
- Violations of measurement invariance may preclude meaningful interpretation of measurement data. (wikipedia.org)

##### significance

- The clinical significance of remifentanil-induced swallowing difficulties is to be studied further. (diva-portal.org)
- Test the results for statistical significance. (wikipedia.org)
- As long as the models under comparison are nested, the difference between the χ2 values and their respective degrees of freedom of any two CFA models of varying levels of invariance follows a χ2 distribution (diff χ2) and as such, can be inspected for significance as an indication of whether increasingly restrictive models produce appreciable changes in model-data fit. (wikipedia.org)
- While literal interpretations of such myths may appear to indicate extraordinarily long lifespans, many scholars believe such figures may be the result of incorrect translation of numbering systems through various languages coupled by the cultural and or symbolic significance of certain numbers. (wikipedia.org)

##### hypothesis

- Possible outcomes: Conclusive: The hypothesis is falsified by the data. (wikipedia.org)
- Data are consistent with the hypothesis. (wikipedia.org)
- Inconclusive: Data are not relevant to the hypothesis, or data and predictions are incommensurate. (wikipedia.org)
- According to it, scientific inquiry proceeds by formulating a hypothesis in a form that could conceivably be falsified by a test on observable data. (wikipedia.org)
- A hypothesis is proposed for the statistical relationship between the two data sets, and this is compared as an alternative to an idealized null hypothesis of no relationship between two data sets. (wikipedia.org)
- Rejecting or disproving the null hypothesis is done using statistical tests that quantify the sense in which the null can be proven false, given the data that are used in the test. (wikipedia.org)

##### experiment

- The interpretation of results of a test or experiment is something else. (wikipedia.org)
- Natural experiment - empirical study in which the experimental conditions (i.e., which units receive which treatment) are determined by nature or by other factors out of the control of the experimenters and yet the treatment assignment process is arguably exogenous. (wikipedia.org)

##### 1980s

- Existing knowledge on the etiologies of childhood pneumonia is largely based on studies conducted in the 1980s and 1990s. (wikipedia.org)

##### involves the study

- It involves the study of fossil organisms and their associated remains (such as shells, teeth, pollen, and seeds), which can help in the interpretation of their life cycle, living interactions, natural environment, communities, and manner of death and burial. (wikipedia.org)
- nature') is a natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through spacetime, along with related concepts such as energy and force. (wikipedia.org)

##### factors

- The objective of this study was to investigate the contemporary incidence of gout, examine potential risk factors, and evaluate specific gout treatment patterns in the general population. (biomedcentral.com)
- We evaluated potential risk factors for incident gout in a nested case-control study with 50,000 controls frequency-matched by age, sex and calendar time. (biomedcentral.com)
- The aims of this study were to estimate the contemporary incidence of gout in a UK primary care setting, to quantify the magnitude of associations with potential risk factors, including relevant medical conditions and drug exposures, and to describe recent treatment trends in incident gout patients. (biomedcentral.com)
- The branches of science (also referred to as "sciences", "scientific fields", or "scientific disciplines") are commonly divided into three major groups: Natural sciences: the study of natural phenomena (including cosmological, geological, chemical, and biological factors of the universe) Formal sciences: the study of mathematics and logic, which use an a priori, as opposed to factual, methodology. (wikipedia.org)

##### uncertainty

- Use of data requires knowledge about the different sources of uncertainty. (wikipedia.org)
- Gather and analyze data from experiments or observations, including indicators of uncertainty. (wikipedia.org)
- There is too much uncertainty in the data to draw any conclusion. (wikipedia.org)
- While many scientific investigations make use of data, statistics is concerned with the use of data in the context of uncertainty and decision making in the face of uncertainty. (wikipedia.org)

##### practice

- However, for evaluations to be truly representative, the data upon which they are based need to be as reflective of clinical practice as much as possible. (springer.com)
- Practice level data covering all the clinicians in the 68 practices were analysed. (bmj.com)
- Interventions Intervention practices followed the Stemming the Tide of Antibiotic Resistance (STAR) educational programme, which included a practice based seminar reflecting on the practices' own dispensing and resistance data, online educational elements, and practising consulting skills in routine care. (bmj.com)
- In applying statistics to a problem, it is common practice to start with a population or process to be studied. (wikipedia.org)

##### diseases

- To date, exome sequencing verges on being the standard approach in studies of monogenic disorders, with increasing interest in studies of more complex diseases as well. (biomedcentral.com)

##### Patterns

- By studying patterns of evolution and extinction in the context of environmental change, evolutionary paleoecologists are able to examine concepts of vulnerability and resilience in species and environments. (wikipedia.org)

##### interpret

- Computer-based test interpretation (CBTI) programs are technological tools that have been commonly used to interpret data in psychological assessments since the 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
- The empirically based programs, or actuarial assessment programs, use statistical analyses to interpret the data, while the clinically based programs, or automated assessment programs, rely on information from expert clinicians and research. (wikipedia.org)
- The first program able to interpret computerized assessment data was developed in 1962 at the Mayo Clinic. (wikipedia.org)

##### Graduate Studies

- He then pursued graduate studies at UCSD from 1989 to 1994. (wikipedia.org)

##### Stanford University

- She works as a professor of health research and policy and of biomedical data science at Stanford University, and has served as president of the International Biometric Society. (wikipedia.org)

##### design

- Results 12 studies (1952 patients) reporting results from eight groups were included: one was a retrospective design, one prospective non-randomised, and six prospective randomised. (bmj.com)
- Design Nested case-control study. (bmj.com)
- The design step may involve a pilot study in order to discover any hidden issues. (wikipedia.org)

##### experimental

- An experimental study involves taking measurements of the system under study, manipulating the system, and then taking additional measurements using the same procedure to determine if the manipulation has modified the values of the measurements. (wikipedia.org)

##### empirical

- Natural science is a branch of science that seeks to elucidate the rules that govern the natural world by applying an empirical and scientific method to the study of the universe. (wikipedia.org)

##### scientific

- His concepts are still considered in current scientific research in relation to Traditional Chinese Medicine studies (see: http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/en/d/Js6170e/4.html). (wikipedia.org)
- Analytic and enumerative statistical studies are two types of scientific studies: In any statistical study the ultimate aim is to provide a rational basis for action. (wikipedia.org)
- λογία, "study of") is the scientific study of the relationships that living organisms have with each other and with their abiotic environment. (wikipedia.org)
- In applying statistics to, e.g., a scientific, industrial, or social problem, it is conventional to begin with a statistical population or a statistical model process to be studied. (wikipedia.org)

##### clinical trials

- Data from randomised clinical trials are limited because the participants enrolled are not typically reflective of those who will eventually be prescribed the medications in routine clinical care. (springer.com)

##### examine

- Evolutionary paleoecology uses data from fossils and other evidence to examine how organisms and their environments change throughout time. (wikipedia.org)
- Community paleoecology uses statistical analysis to examine the composition and distribution of groups of plants or animals. (wikipedia.org)

##### objective

- Some object to the substitution of statistical correctness for moral leadership (for example) as an objective. (wikipedia.org)
- CBTI programs are very efficient in that they save time, reduce human error, are cost effective, and are objective/reliable, yet limited in that they are not always used by adequately trained evaluators or are not integrated with multiple sources of data. (wikipedia.org)

##### however

- however, recent data since the new millennium are lacking so far. (biomedcentral.com)
- All the studies on this topic to date, however, have taken place in secondary care centres. (bmj.com)
- However, the term "physical" creates an unintended, somewhat arbitrary distinction, since many branches of physical science also study biological phenomena. (wikipedia.org)

##### genetics

- Irving Isadore Gottesman (December 29, 1930 - June 29, 2016) was an American professor of psychology who devoted most of his career to the study of the genetics of schizophrenia. (wikipedia.org)
- Alice Segers Whittemore is an American epidemiologist and biostatistician who studies the effects of genetics and lifestyle on cancer, after an earlier career as a pure mathematician studying group theory. (wikipedia.org)

##### Methodology

- As technology continues to transform our modern society, computer-based interpretation programs have the possibility to expand their software and even alleviate some of the current concerns with the programs' methodology. (wikipedia.org)

##### population

- This specific patient population was studied to minimise bias due to unmeasured confounders. (bmj.com)
- Like any study technique, Pugmark tracking also calls for sincerity for true reflection of structure and spatial distribution of the population of large carnivores. (wikipedia.org)

##### results

- In other words, an enumerative study is a statistical study in which the focus is on judgment of results, and an analytic study is one in which the focus is on improvement of the process or system which created the results being evaluated and which will continue creating results in the future. (wikipedia.org)
- It results in data which shows which forest beat possess how many, of what sex/age and which type of large carnivore. (wikipedia.org)
- Such mismatch between clinical results and the massive amounts of data acquired by omics technology highlights the existence of basic gaps in our knowledge of cancer fundamentals. (wikipedia.org)

##### occurs

- That is, a misuse of statistics occurs when a statistical argument asserts a falsehood. (wikipedia.org)

##### societies

- Social sciences: the study of human behavior and societies. (wikipedia.org)

##### Health Improvement Network

- A nested case-control study was conducted within an assembled cohort in the Health Improvement Network (THIN) database. (biomedcentral.com)

##### possibility

- Many of the fallacies could be coupled to a statistical analysis, allowing the possibility of a false conclusion flowing from a blameless statistical analysis. (wikipedia.org)

##### process

- Analytic study: A statistical study in which action will be taken on the process or cause-system that produced the frame being studied. (wikipedia.org)
- Often much of this information is lost or distorted by the fossilization process or diagenesis of the enclosing sediments, making interpretation difficult. (wikipedia.org)

##### drawn

- A standard statistical procedure involves the test of the relationship between two statistical data sets, or a data set and synthetic data drawn from idealized model. (wikipedia.org)

##### Adult

- A randomized, double-blind, exploratory, placebo-controlled study was conducted in overweight and obese adult women ( n = 44) who ingested synthetic vitamin E (all-rac-α-tocopherol), natural source vitamin E (RRR-rac-α-tocopherol) or placebo capsules and were followed up for a period of 8 weeks. (biomedcentral.com)

##### distinction

- Deming summarized the distinction between enumerative and analytic studies as follows: Enumerative study: A statistical study in which action will be taken on the material in the frame being studied. (wikipedia.org)
- This distinction between enumerative and analytic studies is the theory behind the Fourteen Points for Management. (wikipedia.org)
- Use of data requires also understanding of the distinction between enumerative studies and analytic problems. (wikipedia.org)

##### hydrosphere

- The formal discipline of Earth sciences may include the study of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, oceans and biosphere, as well as the solid earth. (wikipedia.org)

##### contrast

- Physical science is an encompassing term for the branches of natural science and science that study non-living systems, in contrast to the life sciences. (wikipedia.org)

##### biological

- Cancer systems biology encompasses the application of systems biology approaches to cancer research, in order to study the disease as a complex adaptive system with emerging properties at multiple biological scales. (wikipedia.org)

##### various

- Lastly, Gottesman was a professor in the psychology department at the University of Minnesota, where he received his Ph.D. A native of Ohio, Gottesman studied psychology for his undergraduate and graduate degrees, became a faculty member at various universities, and spent most of his career at the University of Virginia and the University of Minnesota. (wikipedia.org)
- In any instance, an appropriate type of statistical analysis should take account of the various types of error that may arise, as outlined below. (wikipedia.org)

##### assess

- Data from two double-blinded, randomised, two-period crossover trials in type 1 (SWITCH 1) and type 2 (SWITCH 2) diabetes mellitus were used to assess the cost-effectiveness of degludec vs. glargine U100 with an economic model. (springer.com)
- Further, CBTI research has been criticized for failure to assess inter-rater (comparing the interpretation of one protocol by two different programs) and internal consistency reliability (comparing the reliability of different sections of the same interpretation). (wikipedia.org)

##### Statistics

- Statistics are supposed to make something easier to understand but when used in a misleading fashion can trick the casual observer into believing something other than what the data shows. (wikipedia.org)
- The definition of the misuse of statistics is weak on the required completeness of statistical reporting. (wikipedia.org)

##### mathematics

- Whittemore originally studied pure mathematics. (wikipedia.org)

##### tests

- Indeed, some seek to develop statistical tests to determine the presence of these properties in their data. (wikipedia.org)

##### possible

- The program was used to evaluate MMPI data from hospital patients and generated a list of 110 possible descriptive statements which corresponded to particular scale elevations. (wikipedia.org)

##### patients

- Data on about 3,000,000 patients are systematically recorded and sent anonymously to THIN. (biomedcentral.com)
- 7 Another study of a cohort of patients with acute coronary syndromes found that acute coronary syndrome events occurred on average 10 days after discontinuation of low dose aspirin. (bmj.com)

##### types

- For the purposes of this article, both types will be referred to as computer-based test interpretations (CBTIs). (wikipedia.org)

##### populations

- In this study, we applied the supertype classification to the HLA-A and HLA-B data of 55 worldwide populations in order to investigate the effect of natural selection on supertype rather than allelic variation at these loci. (springer.com)
- Grade Models and Methods for Data Analysis with Applications for the Analysis of Data Populations. (wikipedia.org)

##### Quantitative Study

- The quantitative study of armed conflict has developed enormously over the last decade, in very many ways. (uio.no)
- The Quantitative Study of Civil War - an overview. (uio.no)
- The Quantitative Study of Trance Personalities. (wikipedia.org)

##### hypothesis

- Further supporting this hypothesis, several studies have demonstrated a positive correlation between the diversity level of some HLA genes and the richness of environmental pathogens (Prugnolle et al. (springer.com)
- In addition, the concept of power is used to make comparisons between different statistical testing procedures: for example, between a parametric test and a nonparametric test of the same hypothesis. (wikipedia.org)
- For example, to test the null hypothesis that the mean scores of men and women on a test do not differ, samples of men and women are drawn, the test is administered to them, and the mean score of one group is compared to that of the other group using a statistical test such as the two-sample z-test. (wikipedia.org)
- If the criterion is 0.05, the probability of the data implying an effect at least as large as the observed effect when the null hypothesis is true must be less than 0.05, for the null hypothesis of no effect to be rejected. (wikipedia.org)

##### numerical

- Math classes may be refocused toward practical applications, such as numerical analytics of big data online or statistical interpretation of scientific research results. (bishopscollege.com)
- Criticism of Carington's tests on mediums came from C. D. Broad and R. H. Thouless who wrote he had made statistical errors and misinterpreted numerical data. (wikipedia.org)

##### Parametric

- Parametric statistical tests are derived from distribution assumptions. (wikipedia.org)
- For the reasons mentioned above, Elżbieta Pleszczyńska is a strong advocate of explorative data analysis and non-parametric statistics, like Spearman's rho, Kendall's tau, or grade data analysis. (wikipedia.org)

##### spatial

- A `spreadsheet' type display of the non-spatial data and the ability to create new variables from exisiting ones using mathematical operators. (agocg.ac.uk)
- The provision of specialist tools for exploring spatial properties of the data, in addition to the linking of a map with graphical views. (agocg.ac.uk)
- Work on visualization tools for area-based spatial data has taken place within the framework of existing statistical and cartographic software, independently of ViSC software such as Iris or AVS (Earnshaw and Wiseman 1992).This may be in part due to the way in which visualization of this type of spatial data has grown out of initial concerns with the lack of spatial analysis facilities in GIS systems. (agocg.ac.uk)
- We would stress again that the intention of this case study is to present a review of what is the current state of the art in the visualization of area-based spatial data across the range of available software packages, rather than making detailed comparisons between them. (agocg.ac.uk)
- Because its operation is a simple Moving Average (MA), the KZ filter performs well in a missing data environment, especially in multidimensional time series where missing data problem arises from spatial sparseness. (wikipedia.org)
- A few software packages for time series, longitudinal and spatial data have been developed in the popular statistical software R, which facilitate the use of the KZ filter and its extensions in different areas. (wikipedia.org)
- The same idea can be easily extended to spatial data analysis. (wikipedia.org)
- Because its operation is a simple moving average, the KZ filter performs well in a missing data environment, especially in multidimensional time and space where missing data can cause problems arising from spatial sparseness. (wikipedia.org)

##### estimation

- Two lectures will be held in computer labs, with a hands-on approach to issues of data, data structures, estimation techniques, and interpretation of results. (uio.no)
- Trend estimation is a statistical technique to aid interpretation of data. (wikipedia.org)
- When a series of measurements of a process are treated as a time series, trend estimation can be used to make and justify statements about tendencies in the data, by relating the measurements to the times at which they occurred. (wikipedia.org)
- Linear trend estimation expresses data as a linear function of time. (wikipedia.org)

##### Probabilities

- To wax just a bit philosophical, I notice that the conclusion regarding C12/C13 ratios is based on statistical analysis and probabilities. (realclimate.org)

##### Comparative

- Comparative research, which civil war studies are a part of, is based on the basic principle of comparing something with something else. (uio.no)
- Larger clinical trials are warranted based on the promising results of this pilot study to allow comparative effectiveness studies of this stress imaging system vs. other stress imaging modalities. (biomedcentral.com)

##### analysis

- The study of this interaction has been dominated by the analysis of artifacts such as carnelian beads and marine shell, along with limited textual evidence. (blogspot.com)
- 13. M. Afzali, H. Soltanian-Zadeh , "Comparison of Hierarchical and Sequential Clustering Methods for Analysis of DTI Data of TLE," Presented at and Published in the Proceedings of the 6th Iranian Conference on Machine Vision and Image Processing (MVIP'2010), Isfahan, Iran, Oct. 27-28, 2010. (henryford.com)
- Also, it's not made clear why an analysis of atmospheric 14C readings yields 13C data. (realclimate.org)
- MS conducted the data analysis. (bmj.com)
- In the 1990s she started (together with her team) so called grade data analysis, a science of applying copula and rank methods to problems of correspondence and cluster analysis together with outlier detection. (wikipedia.org)
- In the Institute of Computer Science PAS, she had been leader of the Statistical Data Analysis division for many years. (wikipedia.org)
- Power analysis can also be used to calculate the minimum effect size that is likely to be detected in a study using a given sample size. (wikipedia.org)
- The Skeptical Environmentalist: Measuring the Real State of the World (Danish: Verdens sande tilstand, literal translation: The True State of the World) is a book by Danish environmentalist author Bjørn Lomborg, controversial for its claims that overpopulation, declining energy resources, deforestation, species loss, water shortages, certain aspects of global warming, and an assortment of other global environmental issues are unsupported by statistical analysis of the relevant data. (wikipedia.org)
- Much of Lomborg's examination of his Litany is based on statistical data analysis, therefore his work may be considered a work of that nature. (wikipedia.org)

##### results

- The aims of this study are to describe the results of gastrectomy and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy in patients treated in a single institution, and to identify prognostic factors that could determine which individuals would benefit from this treatment. (springer.com)
- Altered DNA methylation at various CpG sites was associated with exposure to mercury, lead or BPA, providing candidates to be investigated using a larger study sample, as the results may reflect an independently associated predictor (e.g. socioeconomic status, diet, genetic variants, altered blood cell composition). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Results Over the study period, the prevalence of adolescent ever use and binge drinking increased from 11% to 25% and from 4% to 13%, respectively. (bmj.com)
- In the present study, we describe a quantitative Beutler test modified by separating the enzyme extraction and reaction, and quantifying and recording the results by a fluorescent microplate reader and personal computer. (aaccjnls.org)
- Classic methods fail if the input data contain strong outliers, and interpretation of their results should be different for different distribution types. (wikipedia.org)
- The margin of error is a statistic expressing the amount of random sampling error in a survey's results. (wikipedia.org)
- He used statistical and computational "election forensics" to detect fraud in comparing 366 Iranian district results with those in the 2005 election and concluded that "substantial core" local results were in line with basic statistical trends. (wikipedia.org)
- These 100,000 series can then be analysed individually to calculate estimated trends in each series, and these results establish a distribution of estimated trends that are to be expected from such random data - see diagram. (wikipedia.org)

##### describe

- This model can then be used to describe the behaviour of the observed data, without explaining it. (wikipedia.org)

##### independently

- The GPS does not require the user to transmit any data, and it operates independently of any telephonic or internet reception, though these technologies can enhance the usefulness of the GPS positioning information. (wikipedia.org)

##### variants

- It was stated that both teeth came from two men on the basis of the gene of amelogenin variants study. (blogspot.com)

##### Methods

- Grade exploratory methods applied to some medical data sets. (wikipedia.org)

##### particular

- The margin of error is usually defined as the "radius" (or half the width) of a confidence interval for a particular statistic from a survey. (wikipedia.org)
- While none of these ground-based analogs provides a perfect simulation of human microgravity exposure during spaceflight, each is useful for study of particular aspects of muscle unloading as well as for investigation of sensorimotor alterations. (wikipedia.org)
- A similar but somewhat different concept is statistical sensitivity, which measures how likely it is that a given test gives the correct result (e.g. the likelihood that a test to determine if a patient has a particular disease correctly recognizes the disease). (wikipedia.org)
- Due to the scope of the project, comprising the range of topics addressed, the diversity of data and sources employed, and the many types of conclusions and comments advanced, The Skeptical Environmentalist does not fit easily into a particular scientific discipline or methodology. (wikipedia.org)

##### example

- For example, linking a cartogram with a choropleth map of the same data greatly assists in the interpretation of the cartogram. (agocg.ac.uk)
- For example, if the true value is 50 percentage points, and the statistic has a confidence interval radius of 5 percentage points, then we say the margin of error is 5 percentage points. (wikipedia.org)
- As another example, if the true value is 50 people, and the statistic has a confidence interval radius of 5 people, then we might say the margin of error is 5 people. (wikipedia.org)
- For example, suppose the true value is 50 people, and the statistic has a confidence interval radius of 5 people. (wikipedia.org)
- For example, if experiment 1 has a statistical power of 0.7, and experiment 2 has a statistical power of 0.95, then there is a stronger probability that experiment 1 had a type 2 error than experiment 2, and experiment 2 is more reliable than experiment 1 due to the reduction in probability of a type 2 error. (wikipedia.org)

##### Social Sciences

- Additionally, the philosophies of biology, of psychology, and of the social sciences explore whether the scientific studies of human nature can achieve objectivity or are inevitably shaped by values and by social relations. (wikipedia.org)

##### design

- Design Cohort study. (bmj.com)
- Contributors All authors contributed to the conception and design of the study and were part of the development of the surveys deployed in the study. (bmj.com)
- By this collaboration and integration of minds, this will create synergism in design, conduct, interpretation and application of evidence in health disparities narrowing. (ahriresearch.org)
- Therefore, rather than using single approach and statistical software, AHRI employs combination software and several statistical and epidemiologic design strategies in arriving at the association between geography, place and disease. (ahriresearch.org)
- The GPS project was launched in the United States in 1973 to overcome the limitations of previous navigation systems, integrating ideas from several predecessors, including a number of classified engineering design studies from the 1960s. (wikipedia.org)

##### software

- Within the time available for this study it was not possible to make a very thorough evaluation of the graphical effectiveness of the software packages. (agocg.ac.uk)
- The Internet of things (IoT) is the network of physical devices, vehicles, home appliances and other items embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators, and network connectivity which enables these objects to connect and exchange data. (wikipedia.org)

##### investigate

- The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether natural sphingolipids with C18 fatty acid and yeast-derived sphingoid bases activate PPARs as PPAR agonists. (biomedcentral.com)

##### approach

- Prof. Pleszczyńska is known for her criticism of the classic statistical approach. (wikipedia.org)
- Another approach to thinking about science involves studying how knowledge is created from a sociological perspective, an approach represented by scholars like David Bloor and Barry Barnes. (wikipedia.org)
- clearly such a constructed series would be trend-free, so as with the approach of using simulated data these series can be used to generate borderline trend values V and −V. In the above discussion the distribution of trends was calculated by simulation, from a large number of trials. (wikipedia.org)

##### scientific

- The central questions of this study concern what qualifies as science, the reliability of scientific theories, and the ultimate purpose of science. (wikipedia.org)
- However, The Skeptical Environmentalist is methodologically eclectic and cross-disciplinary, combining interpretation of data with assessments of the media and human behavior, evaluations of scientific theories, and other approaches, to arrive at its various conclusions. (wikipedia.org)
- However Frank Finger gave the book a negative review in The Quarterly Review of Biology claiming Carington failed to present any scientific data that could be intelligently evaluated and concluded "it seems doubtful that this book will alter the scientific status of telepathic communication appreciably, and certainly it will cause no great upheaval in the field of biological science. (wikipedia.org)

##### tests

- Statistical tests use data from samples to assess, or make inferences about, a statistical population. (wikipedia.org)

##### science

- An area of study or speculation that masquerades as science in an attempt to claim a legitimacy that it would not otherwise be able to achieve is referred to as pseudoscience, fringe science, or junk science. (wikipedia.org)
- This interpretation of The Skeptical Environmentalist as a work of environmental science generated much of the controversy and debate that surrounded the book. (wikipedia.org)
- In establishing its arguments, The Skeptical Environmentalist examined a wide range of issues in the general area of environmental studies, including environmental economics and science, and came to an equally broad set of conclusions and recommendations. (wikipedia.org)
- Carington born in London was educated at the University of Cambridge where he studied science. (wikipedia.org)

##### disease

- The institute's focus is on geo-epidemiologic and racial/ethnic mapping of disease, disabilities, injuries and health-related events, and the utilization of valid and reliable data from such mappings for geographic and racial-specific intervention development and implementation. (ahriresearch.org)

##### time

- Given a set of points in time t {\displaystyle t} , and data values y t {\displaystyle y_{t}} observed for those points in time, values of a {\displaystyle a} and b {\displaystyle b} are chosen so that ∑ t [ y t − ( a ^ t + b ^ ) ] 2 {\displaystyle \sum _{t}[y_{t}-({\hat {a}}t+{\hat {b}})]^{2}} is minimized. (wikipedia.org)
- To analyse a (time) series of data, we assume that it may be represented as trend plus noise: y t = a t + b + e t {\displaystyle y_{t}=at+b+e_{t}\,} where a {\displaystyle a} and b {\displaystyle b} are unknown constants and the e {\displaystyle e} 's are randomly distributed errors. (wikipedia.org)

##### confidence

- The margin of error has been described as an "absolute" quantity, equal to a confidence interval radius for the statistic. (wikipedia.org)

##### environmental

- The aim of this study is to estimate the influence of general environmental conditions on human organism at the final stage of the Neolithic period - in the Corded Ware culture. (blogspot.com)

##### different

- Another nice feature of the KZ filter is that the two parameters have clear interpretation so that it can be easily adopted by specialists in different areas. (wikipedia.org)

##### Further

- Further studies accommodating variations in these factors will be needed to confirm these associations and identify their underlying causes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)

##### pilot study

- In this pilot study, we identify candidate methylation changes associated with exposure to pollutants in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)

##### random

- Before considering trends in real data, it is useful to understand trends in random data. (wikipedia.org)
- If a series which is known to be random is analysed - fair dice falls, or computer-generated pseudo-random numbers - and a trend line is fitted through the data, the chances of an exactly zero estimated trend are negligible. (wikipedia.org)

##### useful

- These devices collect useful data with the help of various existing technologies and then autonomously flow the data between other devices. (wikipedia.org)

##### factors

- Statistical power may depend on a number of factors. (wikipedia.org)

##### made

- He was later offered a job on the Nickelodeon animated television series Rocko's Modern Life (1993-1996) after his success with short films The Green Beret and Wormholes (both 1992), which he made while studying animation. (wikipedia.org)

##### sets

- The ice core data also agree quite well with the tree ring data where these data sets overlap. (realclimate.org)

##### functions

- Marketing exploration will involve conducting study to aid marketing functions, plus the statistical interpretation of data into facts. (link4seo.com)
- Given a set of data and the desire to produce some kind of model of those data, there are a variety of functions that can be chosen for the fit. (wikipedia.org)

##### errors

- This method minimizes the sum of the squared errors in the data series y. (wikipedia.org)

##### critical

- This can either be as a critical replication study or an independent paper. (uio.no)
- All authors had a hand in the interpretation of the data, the critical revision of the manuscript and all approved of the final version. (bmj.com)

##### type

- The statistical power ranges from 0 to 1, and as statistical power increases, the probability of making a type 2 error decreases. (wikipedia.org)
- For a type 2 error probability of β, the corresponding statistical power is 1-β. (wikipedia.org)

##### human

- Access to human crewmembers during both short- and long-duration mission for the study of skeletal muscle adaptation to microgravity and the efficacy of countermeasures has been, and continues to be, limited. (wikipedia.org)

##### original

- A. N. Kolmogorov had the original idea for the KZ filter during a study of turbulence in the Pacific Ocean. (wikipedia.org)
- In its original interpretation,[when? (wikipedia.org)

##### reliable

- fossil fuel depletion), and then identifying one or more widely held fears and their source (e.g. our air is growing increasingly toxic, by X measure, according to Y). From there, Lomborg chooses data that he considers to be the most reliable and reasonable available. (wikipedia.org)

##### known

- The operations of the examination system were part of the imperial record keeping system, and the date of receiving the jinshi degree is often a key biographical datum: sometimes the date of achieving jinshi is the only firm date known for even some of the most historically prominent persons in Chinese history. (wikipedia.org)
- He held that mind and matter both consist of the same kind of components known as "cognita" or sense data. (wikipedia.org)

##### come

- The range (−V, V) can be employed in deciding whether a trend estimated from the actual data is unlikely to have come from a data series that truly has a zero trend. (wikipedia.org)

##### small

- do you think you're concerned about depending on a third-bash on the web support company to shop your small business data? (link4seo.com)

##### cases

- However, the statistical proxy which works in simple cases often fails in complex ones. (wikipedia.org)

##### points

- If an individual series of observations is generated from simulations that employ a given variance of noise that equals the observed variance of our data series of interest, and a given length (say, 100 points), a large number of such simulated series (say, 100,000 series) can be generated. (wikipedia.org)

##### questions

- These quantitative studies examine the age-old questions regarding the causes of war. (uio.no)

##### deal

- It is easy to compute and allows for a straightforward way to deal with missing data. (wikipedia.org)

##### area

- Whatever the reason, it would be extremely interesting to see whether ViSC products could in fact be used for the visualization of area-based data, since they are already available to the academic community and structures have been put in place to support them and this is also suggested as a topic for future research. (agocg.ac.uk)

##### views

- The provision of a wide range of cartographical and statistical views of data in linked windows. (agocg.ac.uk)
- The linking of multiple cartographic views of the same data. (agocg.ac.uk)

##### Various

- Various models for which sufficient data have been collected have been concisely reviewed. (wikipedia.org)