• dialysis
  • Nephrology (from Greek nephros "kidney", combined with the suffix -logy, "the study of") is a specialty of medicine and pediatrics that concerns itself with the kidneys: the study of normal kidney function and kidney problems, the preservation of kidney health, and the treatment of kidney problems, from diet and medication to renal replacement therapy (dialysis and kidney transplantation). (wikipedia.org)
  • Procedures a nephrologist may perform include native kidney and transplant kidney biopsy, dialysis access insertion (temporary vascular access lines, tunnelled vascular access lines, peritoneal dialysis access lines), fistula management (angiographic or surgical fistulogram and plasty), and bone biopsy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dialysis is necessary if the patient's kidneys are not able to function very well. (skinsheen.com)
  • The process of dialysis works in such a way that it would cleanse the blood of all the impurities that the kidneys could not remove from the bloodstream. (skinsheen.com)
  • Renal failure may require medication, dietary and lifestyle modification and dialysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • liver
  • Symptoms include liver and kidney failure and vasculitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rarely, bad breath can be due to an underlying medical condition such as liver failure or ketoacidosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin D3 (or cholecalciferol) is converted to 25-hydroxyvitamin D (or calcidiol) by the liver, from where it is transported via the circulation to the kidneys where it is converted into the active hormone, 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3. (wikipedia.org)
  • nephrologists
  • Nephrologists may provide care to people without kidney problems and may work in general/internal medicine, transplant medicine, immunosuppression management, intensive care medicine, clinical pharmacology, perioperative medicine, or pediatric nephrology. (wikipedia.org)
  • urine flow
  • Stones or metastases can theoretically appear anywhere along the urinary tract, but vary in frequency depending on anatomy Muscarinic antagonist such as Atropine and Scopolamine Analysis of urine flow may aid in establishing the type of micturition (urination) abnormality. (wikipedia.org)
  • removal of kidney stones
  • The kidney stone clinic offers seamless personalized care that includes prevention strategies, and medical management as well as prompt surgical removal of kidney stones by a highly experienced team of experts. (gwdocs.com)
  • Crooner Bing Crosby suffered from recurring kidney stones from 1951 onward, according to biographer George Carpozi, Jr.. Among his many medical maladies, in 1964 composer Cole Porter was hospitalized for the removal of kidney stones. (wikipedia.org)
  • crystals
  • The crystals and mucus stick together, forming clusters that gradually enlarge and harden into stones. (vcahospitals.com)
  • Oversaturation of urine with crystals is by the far the biggest factor in stone formation[clarification needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • This oversaturation can be caused by increased excretion of crystals by the kidneys, water reabsorption by the renal tubules resulting in concentration of the urine, and changes in urine pH that influence crystallization. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stones form around a nidus, which can consist of white blood cells, bacteria, and organic matrix mixed with crystals, or crystals alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crystals identified in a urinalysis may help identify the stones, but analysis of the stones is necessary for identification of the complete chemical composition. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulating electrolyte
  • The kidneys are responsible for removing wastes from the body, regulating electrolyte balance and blood pressure, and stimulating red blood cell production. (umm.edu)
  • diagnosis
  • Detailed questioning about occupations and hobbies is the key to including chronic cadmium poisoning in the differential diagnosis. (cdc.gov)
  • occur
  • These stones are extremely uncommon and usually occur as a result of a rare genetic disorder. (umm.edu)
  • In chronic pancreatitis weight loss, fatty stool, and diarrhea may occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammation
  • This form of nephropathy is "chronic analgesic nephritis," a chronic inflammatory change characterized by loss and atrophy of tubules and interstitial fibrosis and inflammation (BRS Pathology, 2nd edition). (wikipedia.org)
  • damage
  • Larger stones, stones that are causing damage to the kidneys, or stones that do not pass on their own, usually respond well to treatments such as ureteroscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL). (umm.edu)
  • Chronic urinary retention that is due to bladder blockage which can either be as a result of muscle damage or neurological damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Damage to the lungs and kidneys can be fatal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transplants
  • Transplants are another option that they can consider but it will only be an option if and when the inherent kidney has completely lost function. (skinsheen.com)
  • Patients who receive kidney transplants also receive immunosuppression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Considering lowering the dose of or discontinuing the use of immunosuppressive drugs in people who have received kidney transplants and continue to have persistent or progressive calciphylactic skin lesions can contribute to an acceptable treatment of calciphylaxis. (wikipedia.org)
  • infections
  • The rate of these stones may be declining in America, perhaps because of better control of urinary tract infections. (umm.edu)
  • Female dogs tend to get these types of bladder infections and stones much more frequently than males, probably because their shorter, wider urethra makes it easier for bacteria to pass up the urethra into the bladder. (vcahospitals.com)
  • Obstruction
  • Large stones may act almost like a valve or stopcock, causing an intermittent or partial obstruction at the neck of the bladder, the point where the bladder attaches to the urethra. (vcahospitals.com)
  • Small stones may flow with the urine into the narrow urethra, the tube that connects the bladder to outside the body, where they become lodged and cause an obstruction. (vcahospitals.com)
  • Small stones may flow with the urine into the urethra where they can become lodged and cause an obstruction. (vcahospitals.com)
  • Smaller stones may become lodged in the urethra, especially in male animals, causing urinary tract obstruction and the inability to urinate. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • Other actors and media figures who have suffered through a kidney stone include Tim Burton, Jamie Kennedy, Rob Schneider, Kiefer Sutherland. (wikipedia.org)