• spectral
  • The auditory system balances its frequency and temporal resolution in a manner that is consistent with the perception of linguistic phonemes where the simultaneous recognition of both spectral and temporal shapes plays a crucial role in rapid identification of speech. (sfu.ca)
  • A class of contemporary methods of sound synthesis and signal processing known as time-frequency models that emerged over the last two decades has their basis at this quantum level such that changes in a signal's time domain result in spectral alterations and vice versa. (sfu.ca)
  • As the temporal shape of a sound becomes elongated, whether by a small percentage or a very large amount, one's attention shifts towards the spectral components of the sound, either discrete frequency components, harmonics or inharmonics, or resonant regions and broadband textures. (sfu.ca)
  • Spectral interpretation can be successfully assisted with developed theoretical methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Computer simulations can reveal the spectral signatures arising from solvent degrees of freedom and their change upon water reorganization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spectral music (or spectralism) is a compositional technique developed in the 1970s, using computer analysis of the quality of timbre in acoustic music or artificial timbres derived from synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Defined in technical language, spectral music is an acoustic musical practice where compositional decisions are often informed by sonographic representations and mathematical analysis of sound spectra, or by mathematically generated spectra. (wikipedia.org)
  • Formal concepts important in spectral music include process, though "significantly different from those of minimalist music" in that all musical parameters may be affected. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other decrements in auditory perception caused by sensorineural hearing loss, such as abnormal spectral and temporal processing, and which may negatively affect speech perception, are more difficult to compensate for using digital signal processing and in some cases may be exacerbated by the use of amplification. (wikipedia.org)
  • analogous
  • At this level, concepts of frequency and time are conjoined by a quantum relationship, with an uncertainty principle relating them that is precisely analogous to the more famous uncertainty principle of quantum physics. (sfu.ca)
  • Maxwell's theory showing that light and Hertzian electromagnetic waves were the same phenomenon at different wavelengths led "Maxwellian" scientist such as John Perry, Frederick Thomas Trouton and Alexander Trotter to assume they would be analogous to optical signaling and the Serbian American engineer Nikola Tesla to consider them relatively useless for communication since "light" could not transmit further than line of sight. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this formulation, computer-based sound analysis and representations of audio signals are treated as being analogous to a timbral representation of sound. (wikipedia.org)
  • high-frequency
  • Both idealized Dirac pulses, zero-order held steps and other output pulses, if unfiltered, would contain spurious high-frequency content when compared to the original signal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first label-free high-frequency impedance flow cytometer based on a patented microfluidic "lab-on-chip", Ampha Z30, was introduced by Amphasys (2012). (wikipedia.org)
  • Passive, low- (135 kHz) and high-frequency (13.56 MHz) tags usually have a coiled antenna that couples with the coiled antenna of the reader to form a magnetic field. (aimglobal.org)
  • waveform
  • So-called "Gabor grains" have the frequency of the waveform independent of the grain duration, whereas "wavelets" maintain an inverse relation between frequency and duration, and hence are useful in analysis and re-synthesis models. (sfu.ca)
  • Thus, the reconstruction filter smooths the waveform to remove image frequencies (copies) above the Nyquist limit. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ideal sinc waveform has an infinite response to a signal, in both the positive and negative time directions, which is impossible to perform in real time - as it would require infinite delay. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IMFs of ABP signal were categorized into five major intrinsic components, including the noise and irregular fluctuation (IMF1), beat-to-beat cardiac intervals (IMF2), characteristics of pressure waveform morphology (IMF3), base beat (IMF4), and respiratory related fluctuation (IMF5 and IMF6). (omicsonline.org)
  • narrowband
  • Similarly, in the frequency-domain approach, a narrowband pump pulse is applied and, after a certain waiting time, then a broadband pulse probes the system. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, narrowband FM (NFM) is used for two way radio systems such as Family Radio Service, in which the carrier is allowed to deviate only 2.5 kHz above and below the center frequency with speech signals of no more than 3.5 kHz bandwidth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore
  • Characterizing brain connectivity between neural signals is key to understanding brain function.In our method, fully data-driven MEMD, together with Hilbert transform, is first employed to provide time-frequency power spectra for neural data.Furthermore, a statistical randomization procedure is designed to cancel out the effect of the added noise. (nih.gov)
  • detection
  • It is a diagnostic analysis technology, which assists physicians in reducing detection errors. (yumpu.com)
  • Spectrum analyzers are widely adopted for manufacturing, designing and engaging in the field services and repairs electrical devices and are also used to determine performance, error detection and troubleshooting errors. (yumpu.com)
  • To obtain information about the intrinsic reaction kinetics, the development of operando spectroscopy requires operation as well as surface-sensitive detection of the catalytic process in the absence of mass transfer limitations. (rsc.org)
  • methods
  • However, several other established synthesis methods are now regarded as time-frequency models, for instance the VOSIM and FOF models, both originally designed for speech simulation. (sfu.ca)
  • In fact, all of the current methods for stretching sound are based on some form of windowing operation, usually with overlapping envelopes whose shape and frequency of repetition are controllable. (sfu.ca)
  • Systems, methods, apparatuses, and computer-program products for performing dynamic bandwidth switching between control signals and data signals of differing. (patents.com)
  • A generic term that usual refers to an RFID reader that can read tags operating at different frequencies or using different methods of communication between the tags and readers. (aimglobal.org)
  • Many methods, once developed, are kept purposely static so that data can be compared over long periods of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brain
  • Characterizing brain connectivity between neural signals is key to understanding brain function. (nih.gov)
  • One important application of EEG and MEG is source localization, i.e., the determination of locations of electrical activity in the brain from the EEG or MEG signals. (google.com)
  • Once the sound is able to reach the cochlea at normal or near-normal levels, the cochlea and auditory nerve are able to transmit signals to the brain normally. (wikipedia.org)
  • A brain-computer interface (BCI), sometimes called a neural-control interface (NCI), mind-machine interface (MMI), direct neural interface (DNI), or brain-machine interface (BMI), is a direct communication pathway between an enhanced or wired brain and an external device. (wikipedia.org)
  • The papers published after this research also mark the first appearance of the expression brain-computer interface in scientific literature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thanks to the remarkable cortical plasticity of the brain, signals from implanted prostheses can, after adaptation, be handled by the brain like natural sensor or effector channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • The history of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) starts with Hans Berger's discovery of the electrical activity of the human brain and the development of electroencephalography (EEG). (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1990 report was given on a bidirectional adaptive BCI controlling computer buzzer by an anticipatory brain potential, the Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • hence
  • The analogy to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle of quantum physics is not metaphorical but exact, because just as velocity is the rate of change of position (hence the accuracy of determination of one is linked to a lack of accuracy in the other), so frequency can be thought of as the rate of change of temporal phase. (sfu.ca)
  • Hence, we propose to add random noise onto the spectra, making coherence calculation feasible. (nih.gov)
  • As long as the machines were synchronized, the mix would sound more-or-less normal, but if the operator placed his finger on the flange of one of the players (hence "flanger"), that machine would slow down and its signal would fall out-of-phase with its partner, producing a phasing effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • diode
  • Unlike a laser, the color of light emitted from an LED is neither coherent nor monochromatic, but the spectrum is narrow with respect to human vision, and for most purposes the light from a simple diode element can be regarded as functionally monochromatic. (wikipedia.org)
  • The computer went into operation in May 1950 using a combination of vacuum tubes and solid-state diode logic. (wikipedia.org)
  • pulses
  • The time-domain approach consists of applying two pump pulses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The distance the SAR device travels over a target in the time taken for the radar pulses to return to the antenna creates the large synthetic antenna aperture (the size of the antenna). (wikipedia.org)
  • parameters
  • Moreover, it is the time domain parameters involved in each model that control the bandwidth of the result, usually intended to shape the formant regions of the simulated vowels. (sfu.ca)
  • Astrapi claims it is able to improve the trade-off between the four fundamental parameters in telecommunications: bandwidth, signal power, data throughput, and error rate. (eetimes.com)
  • The software is capable of adjusting parameters (e.g., voltage, compensation) for the sample being tested, and also assists in displaying initial sample information while acquiring sample data to ensure that parameters are set correctly. (wikipedia.org)
  • High definition spectrograms are used in the development of RF and microwave systems Spectrograms are now used to display scattering parameters measured with vector network analyzers The US Geological Survey now provides real-time spectrogram displays from seismic stations From the formula above, it appears that a spectrogram contains no information about the exact, or even approximate, phase of the signal that it represents. (wikipedia.org)
  • neural
  • In our method, fully data-driven MEMD, together with Hilbert transform, is first employed to provide time-frequency power spectra for neural data. (nih.gov)
  • Local field potentials collected from visual cortex of macaque monkey while performing a generalized flash suppression task are then used to demonstrate the usefulness of our NAIC method to provide highresolution time-frequency coherence measure for connectivity analysis of neural data. (nih.gov)
  • A problem in localizing sources is that a unique relationship may not exist between the recorded EEG or MEG signals and the neural source(s). (google.com)
  • data
  • Medical image computing (MIC) is an interdisciplinary field at the intersection of computer science, data science, electrical engineering, physics, mathematics and medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • bandwidth
  • Wideband FM is used for FM broadcasting, in which music and speech are transmitted with up to 75 kHz deviation from the center frequency and carry audio with up to a 20 kHz bandwidth and subcarriers up to 92 kHz. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the sidebands are on both sides of the carrier, their count is doubled, and then multiplied by the modulating frequency to find the bandwidth. (wikipedia.org)
  • method
  • Though some literatures examined that EMD helps for physiological signal analysis study, the method applied for ABP signal still needs further investigation. (omicsonline.org)
  • A method of performing a Radio Resource Control, RRC, connection establishment in accordance with a cell selection process, wherein a first timer is used to. (patents.com)
  • inverse
  • SAR can also be implemented as inverse SAR by observing a moving target over a substantial time with a stationary antenna. (wikipedia.org)
  • detector
  • A flow cytometer has five main components: a flow cell, a measuring system, a detector, an amplification system, and a computer for analysis of the signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • He developed this carbon-based detector further and eventually could detect signals over a few hundred yards. (wikipedia.org)
  • coherence
  • In his work, a fused formant based sound can disintegrate into a rhythmic pattern or granular texture, and then revert to the original sound, even maintaining phase coherence in the process. (sfu.ca)
  • To examine the effect of noise on coherence estimation, we systematically varied the noise by changing its variance relative to the signal and estimated the coherence between channel X and Z in the above simulation. (nih.gov)
  • After a determined waiting time, ranging from a zero to a few hundred picoseconds, an interaction with a third pulse again creates a coherence, which, due to an oscillating dipole, radiates an infrared signal. (wikipedia.org)
  • peak
  • The anharmonicity of a vibration can be read from the spectra as the distance between the diagonal peak and the overtone peak. (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis
  • Conversely, to narrow the uncertainty in frequency, a longer "window" of time is required, both in analysis and synthesis. (sfu.ca)
  • We repeated the same analysis procedure for 50 times to obtain error bars at each noise level. (nih.gov)
  • The FAST radiotelescope in China also joined forces in October 2016 with the Breakthrough Initiatives to launch a coordinated search, including the rapid sharing of promising new signals for additional observation and analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • radio
  • In 1886-88 Heinrich Rudolf Hertz conducted a series of experiments that proved the existence of Maxwell's electromagnetic waves, using a frequency in what would later be called the radio spectrum. (wikipedia.org)
  • The project aims to discover signs of extraterrestrial civilizations by searching stars and galaxies for radio signals and laser transmissions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The search for radio signals is carried out on the Green Bank Telescope in the Northern Hemisphere and the Parkes Telescope in the Southern Hemisphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together, the radio telescopes will cover ten times more sky than previous searches and scan the entire 1-to-10 GHz range, the so-called "quiet zone" in the spectrum where radio waves are unobscured by cosmic sources or Earth's atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared to previous programs, the radio surveys cover 10 times more of the sky, at least 5 times more of the radio spectrum, and work 100 times faster. (wikipedia.org)
  • Audio processing was necessary for early radio broadcasting, as there were many problems with studio to transmitter links. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • Spectrograms are useful in assisting in overcoming speech defects and in speech training for the portion of the population that is profoundly deaf The studies of phonetics and speech synthesis are often facilitated through the use of spectrograms. (wikipedia.org)
  • contrast
  • In addition there was a so-called ring modulator, which mixed two input signals multiplicatively, in contrast to the additive mixing done with a mixing console. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Understanding molecular processes at solid-liquid interfaces is fundamental to many technological applications. (rsc.org)
  • A frequency correlation spectrum can offer structural information such as vibrational mode coupling, anharmonicities, along with chemical dynamics such as energy transfer rates and molecular dynamics with femtosecond time resolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • The true power of 2DIR spectroscopy is that it allows following dynamical processes such as chemical exchange, vibrational population transfer, and molecular reorientation on the sub-picosecond time scale. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stochastic super-resolution: The chemical complexity of many molecular light sources gives them a complex temporal behavior, which can be used to make several close-by fluorophores emit light at separate times and thereby become resolvable in time. (wikipedia.org)
  • compositional
  • After the inventory he made in this book of electronic musical instruments developed up to that point in time, Meyer-Eppler experimentally developed in his Bonn Institute one of the basic processes of electronic music, namely the compositional creation of music directly on magnetic tape. (wikipedia.org)
  • real time
  • Modern flow cytometers are able to analyze many thousand particles per second, in "real time," and, if configured as cell sorters, can actively separate and isolate particles at similar rates having specified optical properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • ratio
  • Are there CXE lines due to N, Ne and Fe present in the emission spectrum, and what is the observed comet-to-comet O^+6/O^+7 line ratio variability due to? (harvard.edu)
  • systems
  • EMD helps for analyzing the underlying mechanisms of control processes, including cardiorespiratory coupling and interactions among organ systems at multiple time scales. (omicsonline.org)
  • The design of the spectroscopy reactor cell has to ensure proper external heat and mass transport, particularly at the probed catalyst sample, 18 to allow for an evaluation of reaction kinetics and adsorption processes pertinent to catalytic heterogeneous reaction systems. (rsc.org)
  • A-Z Computer liquidation helps organizations manage used IT systems, servers, routers, switches through the end of life cycle process. (spintradeexchange.com)
  • excess
  • For this reason, oversampling may be used to ensure that frequencies of interest are accurately reproduced without excess energy being emitted out of band. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sell Your Excess Equipment: A-Z Computer Liquidators want your excess used Cisco routers, used Cisco switches, used Cisco modules and other used network hardware. (spintradeexchange.com)
  • A-Z San Leandro, California liquidators offer fair market value quotes for surplus new and used computers and network excess hardware. (spintradeexchange.com)
  • Audio
  • Banglaore, India) is a fabless semiconductor company providing IC products in IoT Radios, Timing and Audio markets. (eetimes.com)
  • This signal was fed into an audio amplifier and played back by a loudspeaker. (wikipedia.org)
  • Traditionally the most important audio processing (in audio broadcasting) takes place just before the transmitter. (wikipedia.org)
  • sound
  • In my own work, the granular concept has informed most of my processing of sampled sound, the most striking application being to stretch the sound in time without necessarily changing its pitch. (sfu.ca)
  • When large numbers of delayed signals are mixed over several seconds, the resulting sound has the effect of being presented in a large room, and it is more commonly called reverberation or reverb for short. (wikipedia.org)
  • flanger - to create an unusual sound, a delayed signal is added to the original signal with a continuously variable delay (usually smaller than 10 ms). This effect is now done electronically using DSP, but originally the effect was created by playing the same recording on two synchronized tape players, and then mixing the signals together. (wikipedia.org)
  • phase
  • Ideally, both filters should be brickwall filters, constant phase delay in the pass-band with constant flat frequency response, and zero response from the Nyquist frequency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Practical filters have non-flat frequency or phase response in the pass band and incomplete suppression of the signal elsewhere. (wikipedia.org)
  • For this reason, it is not possible to reverse the process and generate a copy of the original signal from a spectrogram, though in situations where the exact initial phase is unimportant it may be possible to generate a useful approximation of the original signal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the operator took his finger off, the player would speed up until its tachometer was back in phase with the master, and as this happened, the phasing effect would appear to slide up the frequency spectrum. (wikipedia.org)
  • the signal is split, a portion is filtered with an all-pass filter to produce a phase-shift, and then the unfiltered and filtered signals are mixed. (wikipedia.org)
  • absence
  • Startle potentiation is calculated as the increase in startle response magnitude during presentation of sets of visual threat cues that signal delivery of mild electric shock relative to sets of matched cues that signal the absence of shock (no-threat cues). (jove.com)