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  • taxonomic
  • We evaluate the extent to which the phylogeny recovers current phylogenetic knowledge based on the recovery of "benchmark clades" from prior studies-unambiguously supported key clades and undisputed traditional taxonomic groups. (peerj.com)
  • The discovery of an undescribed species of synbranchiform eel, with populations in the Atlantic slope of Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Cuba, and northeastern South America, presented problems in its taxonomic assignment that required a review of the genera and higher groups within the order. (amnh.org)
  • Scallop (/ˈskɒləp, ˈskæləp/) is a common name that is primarily applied to any one of numerous species of saltwater clams or marine bivalve mollusks in the taxonomic family Pectinidae, the scallops. (wikipedia.org)
  • MtDNA
  • It has been asserted that recent mtDNA phylogenies support the plausibility of sympatric speciation, long considered a controversial mechanism of the origin of species. (pnas.org)
  • If such inferences are reliable, mtDNA phylogenies should be congruent with phylogenies based on other data. (pnas.org)
  • In previous work, a mtDNA phylogeny suggested that diversification of the Hawaiian cricket genus Laupala was initiated by single invasions into each of several Hawaiian islands, followed by multiple sympatric divergences within each island. (pnas.org)
  • The nDNA phylogeny corroborates the hypothesis of allopatric divergence and multiple invasions, and when compared with mtDNA patterns, suggests that interspecific hybridization is a persistent feature of the history of Laupala . (pnas.org)
  • The discrepancy between mtDNA and nDNA phylogenies reveals that speciation histories based on mtDNA alone can be extensively misleading. (pnas.org)
  • Recently, mtDNA genes have been found to vary considerably among closely related species, making phylogenetic estimates of recent species radiations possible. (pnas.org)
  • In contrast, phylogenetic relationships inferred from the mtDNA sequences of the three hypothesized species groups ( 3 ) contradict Otte's ( 2 ) hypothesized relationships. (pnas.org)
  • Instead, the mtDNA phylogeny suggests a single, older-to-younger biogeographical species radiation across the Hawaiian archipelago coincident with the chronological age of island formation ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, in many instances the mtDNA sequences suggest that sympatric species pairs representing Otte's different species groups frequently were each other's closest relatives ( 3 , 9 ), revealing patterns consistent with sympatric speciation. (pnas.org)
  • The patterns evident in the mtDNA phylogeny support a single-invasion model of speciation. (pnas.org)
  • hypothesis
  • Although further data are needed to solidify understanding of Methateria phylogeny, the new phylogenetic hypothesis provided here offers a well resolved and detailed tool for comparative analyses, covering the majority of the known species richness of the group. (peerj.com)
  • In contrast, a systematic hypothesis based on morphology argues that speciation in Laupala has occurred primarily in allopatry, with two independent species radiations diversifying across the archipelago. (pnas.org)
  • extant
  • Marsupials are an old lineage thought to have diverged from early therian mammals some 160 million years ago in the Jurassic, and have a remarkable evolutionary and biogeographical history, with extant species restricted to the Americas, mostly South America, and to Australasia. (peerj.com)
  • and then diversified with over 200 extant species in the region. (peerj.com)
  • Six extant flamingo species are recognized by most sources, and were formerly placed in one genus - Phoenicopterus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extant species range in size from the least grebe, at 120 grams (4.3 oz) and 23.5 cm (9.3 inches), to the great grebe, at 1.7 kg (3.8 lbs) and 71 cm (28 inches). (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • All previous treatments have referred Philippine populations to L. hasseltii, a species we restrict to Java and Bali, Indonesia. (amphibiatree.org)
  • For this study, nematodes belonging to the X. americanum species complex, including potentially mixed species populations, were collected from 12 geographically disparate locations across the U.S. from different crops and in varying association with nepoviruses. (oregonstate.edu)
  • cryptic species
  • The 37 morphologically cryptic species of Laupala are each single-island endemics restricted to the rainforested slopes of the high islands of the Hawaiian archipelago, often living in sympatric communities with one to three acoustically distinct congeners ( 2 , 3 , 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • genome
  • Here we present a method for generating accurate gene and species phylogenies from whole genome sequence that makes use of short character string matches not placed within explicit alignments. (semanticscholar.org)
  • taxa
  • It appears that the establishment of A. muscaria and A. pantherina from a common ancestral species might be a very recent event, or these might be lower taxa of same species. (springer.com)
  • ancestral species
  • and θ H C {\displaystyle \theta _{HC}} , θ H C G {\displaystyle \theta _{HCG}} and θ H C G O {\displaystyle \theta _{HCGO}} for the three ancestral species. (wikipedia.org)
  • subspecies
  • As for three subspecies of A. hemibapha and three varieties of A. vaginata , it is necessary to grade up their taxonomical ranks from subspecies/variety to species. (springer.com)
  • Owston's tit (Sittiparus owstoni), the Iriomote tit (Sittiparus olivaceus) and the chestnut-bellied tit (Sittiparus castaneoventris) were formerly considered as subspecies of the varied tit, but were promoted to species status following the publication of a phylogenetic study in 2014. (wikipedia.org)
  • data
  • However, decisions based on incomplete data are remarkably robust across different levels of degrading quality concerning the description of new species and the availability of phylogenetic information. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Fifteen of the species were also analysed for the 5′ end of the large subunit (28S), which produced a phylogeny similar to that obtained for the ITS data set. (sun.ac.za)
  • Based on the ITS data set, all morphospecies were also shown to be phylogenetic species, although too few isolates were available to address questions relating to intraspecies variation. (sun.ac.za)
  • vector
  • Nematodes within the Xiphinema americanum species complex are economically important because they vector nepoviruses which cause considerable damage to a variety of agricultural crops. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Poecile
  • Other calls are used for signalling alarm-a well-known example being the "chic-a-dee-dee" of North American species in the genus Poecile, the call which gives them their local common name, the chickadee. (wikipedia.org)
  • divergence
  • Under this alternative, a single invasion by an exclusive common ancestor and in situ divergence leads to the coexistence of two sister species. (pnas.org)
  • Complete isolation after species divergence, with no migration, hybridization, or introgression is also assumed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The divergence times ( τ {\displaystyle \tau } 's) are measured by the expected number of mutations per site from the ancestral node in the species tree to the present time (Figure 1 of Rannala and Yang, 2003). (wikipedia.org)
  • biodiversity
  • In the face of unprecedented global biodiversity loss, conservation planning must balance between refining and deepening knowledge versus acting on current information to preserve species and communities. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • monophyletic
  • The Mycosphaerella species included in this analysis are all regarded as representatives of section Plaga, and appear to represent a monophyletic assemblage. (sun.ac.za)
  • Consequently
  • Most species of scallop rest on their right valve, and consequently this valve is often deeper and more rounded than the left (i.e., upper) valve which in many species is actually concave. (wikipedia.org)
  • consists
  • Its habitat consists of open mixed forests, in particular with the Japanese Castanopsis species Castanopsis cuspidata and Japanese larch, coniferous forests with Japanese yews, Cryptomeria (sugi), and pines as well as bamboo forests at mountain slopes and in river valleys. (wikipedia.org)
  • small
  • Are most species small? (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • A small minority of scallop species live cemented to rocky substrates as adults, while others attach themselves to stationary or rooted objects such as sea grass at some point in their lives by means of a filament they secrete called a byssal thread. (wikipedia.org)
  • differences
  • We investigate the role of body size in creating non-random differences in rates of cladogenesis using a set of 38 species-level phylogenies drawn from a range of animal groups. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Otte ( 2 , 8 ) suggested that each species group shares exclusive common ancestry on the basis of slight metric differences of the male genitalia. (pnas.org)
  • whereas
  • For example, the Platypus Ornithorhynchus anadinus is the sole species in the family Ornithorhynchidae, and one of only five species in the order Monotremata, whereas the Cactus Mouse Peromyscus eremicus is one of 56 species in its genus, one of 692 species in the family Cricetidae and one of 2280 species in the order Rodentia [ 13 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The more insectivorous species have finer bills, whereas those that consume more seeds have stouter bills. (wikipedia.org)
  • distances
  • Uncorrected p genetic distances within species averaged from 0.5% in G. gibbifer and G. brasili to 0.8 in G. lacustris and as much as 2.2 in G. maculatus . (brillonline.com)
  • They are one of very few groups of bivalves to be primarily "free-living", with many species capable of rapidly swimming short distances and even of migrating some distance across the ocean floor. (wikipedia.org)
  • family
  • There is very little variation in the internal arrangement of organs and systems within the scallop family, and what follows can be taken to apply to the anatomy of any given scallop species. (wikipedia.org)
  • groups
  • Otte ( 2 , 8 ) hypothesized that there are three species groups of Laupala (the kauai , pacifica , and cerasina groups) and that sympatric communities from Oahu, Maui, and Hawaii each have representatives from two of these groups ( pacifica and cerasina ). (pnas.org)
  • Analyses of superficial anatomy, skull, and vertebral column, but particularly of the detailed structure of the hyoid, gill arch, and branchial vascular systems indicated that some of the groups of synbranchiform species are paraphyletic and others polyphyletic, and that the Alabetidae, long associated with the swamp eels, should be excluded from the assemblage. (amnh.org)
  • contains
  • This dataset contains the digitized treatments in Plazi based on the original journal article Pillai, P. M., Unnikrishnan, V., Kumar, U. Suresh (2014): Description, DNA barcode and phylogeny of a new species, Macrobrachium abrahami (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) from Kerala, India. (gbif.org)
  • fungi
  • Are fungi important for breaking seed dormancy in desert species? (blogspot.com)
  • Several species are associated with lichens as well as other phototrophs and sometimes with ants in specific ant-fungi associations. (wikipedia.org)
  • A collaborative effort coordinated by the Broad Institute is currently ongoing to sequence the genomes of several black fungi to shed light into their ecology, phylogeny and pathogenicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • fishes
  • The superorder Elopomorpha contains a variety of types of fishes that range from typical silvery-colored species, such as the tarpons and ladyfishes of the Elopiformes and the bonefishes of the Albuliformes, to the long and slender, smooth-bodied eels of the Anguilliformes. (wikipedia.org)
  • niche
  • Mammalian dentition is complex and variable, adapting to the dietary, environmental, and social demands of a species' niche. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Coexistence theory explains the stable coexistence of species as an interaction between two opposing forces: fitness differences between species, which should drive the best-adapted species to exclude others within a particular ecological niche, and stabilizing mechanisms, which maintains diversity via niche differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the tendency of a population to recover as it declines in density reflects reduced interspecific competition (between-species)relative to intraspecific competition (within-species), the signature of niche differentiation (see Lotka-Volterra competition). (wikipedia.org)
  • Two qualitatively different processes can help species to coexist: a reduction in average fitness between species or an increase in niche differentiation between species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Equalizing mechanisms reduce fitness differences between species, or relative competitive ability in the absence of niche differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the species with the lowest R* is the best competitor and excludes all other species in the absence of any niche differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Presence
  • Important differences between Proganochelys and modern turtles are the presence of the palatal teeth (lost in modern species), the inability to retract the head within the shell, and the lack of a trochlear pulley in the jaw closing anatomy. (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • A massive reprogramming of the transcriptome was observed in rwa2 as compared to the wild type, including a coordinated up-regulation of genes involved in responses to abiotic stress, particularly detoxification of reactive oxygen species and defense against microbial pathogens (e.g., lipid transfer proteins, peroxidases). (osti.gov)
  • Described by Jouve and colleagues in 2008, the type species is O. eoafricanus, with the specific name meaning "dawn African" in reference to its great age relative to other African crocodilians. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, if species are differently affected by environmental variation (e.g., soil type, rainfall timing, etc.), this can create a stabilizing mechanism (see the storage effect). (wikipedia.org)
  • Each species j captures resource type l at a species-specific rate, cjl. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • 3 of the species listed for Poland can no longer be found in the wild or is extinct completely. (wikipedia.org)
  • The grey-headed silverbill (Odontospiza caniceps), also known as pearl-headed mannikin, is a species of estrildid finch found in eastern Africa, Ethiopia, Kenya, South Sudan, and Tanzania. (wikipedia.org)
  • Name
  • This species got its common name, 'seersucker plant', because of its close resemblance to the puckering of seersucker fabric. (wikipedia.org)
  • The specific name marteli is in honour of author's "big-hearted friend and colleague" biologist Martin "Martl" Heß from Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, because the species has a large heart-bulb. (wikipedia.org)
  • As its name implies, it works by making similar species more equal in their competitive ability. (wikipedia.org)
  • evidence
  • We identified gaps in the current knowledge on vocalizations of the studied species, and emphasize the importance of empiric evidence of vocalization function in the New World jays. (brillonline.com)
  • example
  • The term "polyextremotolerance" has been introduced to describe this phenotype, a good example of which is the species Aureobasidium pullulans. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, species with faster generation times may respond more quickly to a change in resource density than longer lived species. (wikipedia.org)
  • an example species and an example image. (wikipedia.org)
  • least
  • We summarized 19 different functional types of vocal behaviour shared by at least two species, for review purposes. (brillonline.com)
  • Species assessed using this system have the following instead of near threatened and least concern categories: † species extinct in Poland and not reintroduced ♠ sporadic vagrant, no records of breeding in the Polish territory ♣ alien species, introduced in Europe from the other part of the world, or introduced in Poland from the other country Rodents make up the largest order of mammals, with over 40 percent of mammalian species. (wikipedia.org)
  • large
  • There are large number of named stabilizing mechanisms including classical hypotheses of species coexistence. (wikipedia.org)
  • marine
  • Pseudunela marteli is a minute species that lives in the spaces between sand grains in saltwater habitats, and it is thus considered to be a mesopsammic, marine interstitial animal that is part of the meiofauna of marine sands. (wikipedia.org)
  • relative
  • In 2003, Sabath and Jørn Hurum demonstrated that Tarbosaurus is a close relative of Alioramus, and not a species of Tyrannosaurus. (wikipedia.org)
  • plants
  • Except for four species of Aporosa, the flowers are unisexual, the plants being either monoecious or dioecious. (wikipedia.org)
  • source
  • But it has been suggested that the species also feed on insects which are more a source of moisture than dry seeds. (wikipedia.org)