• hypoxia
  • High altitude cerebral edema (HACE) is a severe and sometimes fatal form of altitude sickness that results from capillary fluid leakage due to the effects of hypoxia on the mitochondria -rich endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytotoxic
  • In cytotoxic edema, the blood-brain barrier remains intact but a disruption in cellular metabolism impairs functioning of the sodium and potassium pump in the glial cell membrane, leading to cellular retention of sodium and water. (wikipedia.org)
  • cortical
  • In the present study we addressed the question of whether in brain areas contralateral to a photochemically induced cortical infarction alteration of excitability can be observed as an indication of the effects of diaschisis. (ahajournals.org)
  • 10 In contrast, the metabolic effects persisted for only 24 hours in a study that involved middle cerebral artery occlusion 11 and less than 5 days after photochemical cortical infarction. (ahajournals.org)
  • vascular
  • Cancerous glial cells ( glioma ) of the brain can increase secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which weakens the junctions of the blood-brain barrier . (wikipedia.org)
  • Extra-/intracellular ion-shifts, an excessive glutamate release, an early formation of brain edema and acute vascular and molecular changes have been characterized as such pathophysiological mechanisms ( Sehba and Bederson, 2006 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • metabolism
  • Altered metabolism may cause brain cells to retain water , and dilution of the blood plasma may cause excess water to move into brain cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These alterations may involve resting blood flow, brain metabolism, and spontaneous or evoked electrophysiological activity of the brain. (ahajournals.org)
  • 9 Likewise, cerebral metabolism was found to be decreased in the contralateral hemisphere of patients for several weeks. (ahajournals.org)
  • 12 In addition, a contralateral decrease of protein metabolism was found when investigated 72 hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion. (ahajournals.org)
  • The results of this study demonstrate for the first time a reduction of PDH activity following SAH, independent of supply of substrates and may be an independent factor contributing to a derangement of oxidative metabolism, failure of oxygen utilization, and secondary brain damage. (frontiersin.org)
  • causes
  • A further consequence of this process is neurogenic pulmonary edema where a process of increased pressure within the pulmonary circulation causes leaking of fluid from the pulmonary capillaries into the air spaces, the alveoli, of the lung. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanisms
  • The body has various mechanisms by which it keeps the ICP stable, with CSF pressures varying by about 1 mmHg in normal adults through shifts in production and absorption of CSF. (wikipedia.org)
  • injuries
  • Closed injuries typically occur when the head is struck, strikes an object, or is shaken violently, causing rapid brain acceleration and deceleration. (merckmanuals.com)
  • 6. Stat CT scan of the brain and secondary survey for concomitant injuries. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • Blast-related brain injuries can be provocatively described as "a silent epidemic of an invisible wound. (frontiersin.org)
  • oxygen
  • During an ischemic stroke , a lack of oxygen and glucose leads to a breakdown of the sodium-calcium pumps on brain cell membranes, which in turn results in a massive buildup of sodium and calcium intracellularly. (wikipedia.org)
  • The brain is relatively poorly supplied by oxygen as a result of mild hypoventilation during the sleeping hours, and also cerebral edema may worsen during the night due to the lying position. (wikipedia.org)
  • stroke
  • The stroke may affect pathways connecting to distant brain regions and therefore may also alter the function of remote parts of the cortex. (ahajournals.org)
  • Such hyperexcitability may contribute to increased activation of contralateral brain areas and to functional reorganization after stroke. (ahajournals.org)
  • tissue
  • The brain is a mass of soft, spongy, pinkish gray nerve tissue that weighs about 1.2 kg in a human being. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In addition to the above, if mass effect is present with resulting displacement of brain tissue, additional signs may include pupillary dilatation, abducens palsies, and the Cushing's triad. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a rule, patients with normal blood pressure retain normal alertness with ICP of 25-40 mmHg (unless tissue shifts at the same time). (wikipedia.org)
  • hours
  • 15 16 17 In agreement with this, Hossmann et al 18 found an increase of somatosensory evoked potential amplitudes in rat brain in the first 24 hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion. (ahajournals.org)
  • Generally, acute subdural hematomas are less than 72 hours old and are hyperdense compared with the brain on computed tomography scans. (medscape.com)
  • changes
  • Certain changes in morphology are associated with cerebral edema: the brain becomes soft and smooth and overfills the cranial vault , gyri (ridges) become flattened, sulci (grooves) become narrowed, and ventricular cavities become compressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluid
  • It is thought to result from direct transmission of pressure to cerebral capillaries with transudation of fluid from the capillaries into the extravascular compartment . (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • Initial treatment consists of ensuring a reliable airway and maintaining adequate ventilation, oxygenation, and blood pressure. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Cushing's triad involves an increased systolic blood pressure, a widened pulse pressure, bradycardia, and an abnormal respiratory pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exact role of high blood pressure is somewhat unclear, but since it does seem linked to the formation of aneurysms, it may be considered an indirect risk factor. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Medications such as labetalol may be required to lower the blood pressure until repair can occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • leads
  • Conclusions Our results suggest that a neocortical infarction leads to hyperexcitability not only in its direct vicinity but also in the contralateral hemisphere. (ahajournals.org)