Loading...
  • viral
  • Disruption of a single gene may also result from integration of genomic material from a DNA virus or retrovirus, and such an event may also result in the expression of viral oncogenes in the affected cell and its descendants. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the viral gene Src (as in "sarcoma") is not necessary for viral reproduction, but does affect virulence. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of the murine leukemia viruses, a species of viruses capable of causing cancer in murines (mice), the viral life cycle can also be responsible for oncogenesis through a Gag-v-Onc fusion protein called "Mo-MuLV(src)", which is a Gag-v-Src protein capable of inducing oncogenesis in living mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • An endogenous viral element (EVE) is a DNA sequence derived from a virus, and present within the germline of a non-viral organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Replication of such 'active' endogenous viruses can lead to the proliferation of viral insertions in the germline. (wikipedia.org)
  • MMTV
  • At the other end of the spectrum, MMTV (Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus has only 4 sites for oligosaccharide addition (two on gp52 and two on gp37). (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Gag genes are part of a general architecture for retroviruses, viruses that replicate through reverse transcription, where the gag region of the genome encodes proteins that constitute the matrix, capsid and nucleocapsid of the mature virus particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virus Genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Gag-derived proteins govern the entire assembly and release of the virus particles, with matrix proteins playing key roles in Gag stability, capsid assembly, transport and budding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although matrix proteins from different viruses appear to perform similar functions and can have similar structural folds, their primary sequences can be very different. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunity
  • Bats can have a prolonged exposure to a variety of pathogens without showing any warning signs, which leads to the debated belief that bats have to ability to develop immunity to viruses that may harm other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • At MIT, Huang, Baltimore, and graduate student Martha Stampfer discovered that VSV involved an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase within the virus particle, and used a novel replication strategy to replicate its RNA genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • endogenous
  • Endogenous retroviruses and other EVEs that occur as proviruses can potentially remain capable of producing infectious virus in their endogenous state. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • In seven separate experiments, nude (nu/nu) mice carrying established murine sarcoma virus (MSV) tumours were reconstituted with syngeneic (+/+) immune splenic T cells. (springer.com)
  • species
  • Identification of orthologous EVE insertions enables the calibration of long-term evolutionary timelines for viruses, based on the estimated time since divergence of the ortholog-containing host species groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • He continued his work on virus replication using poliovirus and pursued training in enzymology with Jerard Hurwitz at Albert Einstein College of Medicine in 1964/1965. (wikipedia.org)
  • genus
  • This approach has provided minimum ages ranging from 30-93 million years for the Parvoviridae, Filoviridae, Bornaviridae and Circoviridae families of viruses, and 12 million years for the Lentivirus genus of the Retroviridae family. (wikipedia.org)
  • oncogenic
  • These subsequent mutations are responsible for the oncogenic capabilities of the virus, as the normal (host) version of the Src gene, c-Src promotes survival, angiogenesis, proliferation and invasion pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • name
  • In doing so, he discovered a distinct class of viruses, later name retroviruses, that use an RNA template to catalyze the synthesis of DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • Most MCV viruses found in MCC tumors, however, have at least two mutations that render the virus nontransmissible: 1) The virus is integrated into the host genome in a monoclonal fashion and 2) The viral T antigen has truncation mutations that leave the T antigen unable to initiate DNA replication needed to propagate the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence that MCV is the cause for most MCC tumors comes from studies in which T antigen oncoproteins from the virus are inhibited. (wikipedia.org)
  • The large T antigen possesses a helicase motif needed for virus replication that is deleted in MCC tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • clonal
  • Further, clonal pattern of MCV insertions into MCC cell genomes indicates that the virus was present in the Merkel cell before it underwent cancerous transformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Herpes
  • A number of viruses including adenovirus, reovirus, measles, herpes simplex, Newcastle disease virus and vaccinia have now been clinically tested as oncolytic agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • The drug talimogene laherparepvec (OncoVex, T-VEC) was the first oncolytic herpes virus ( a modified herpes simplex virus), approved for use by the USFDA and by the EMA in the EU in 2015 for the treatment of advanced inoperable melanoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Herpes simplex virus (HSV) was one of the first viruses to be adapted to attack cancer cells selectively, because it was well understood, easy to manipulate and relatively harmless in its natural state (merely causing cold sores) so likely to pose fewer risks. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • Tumors have been successfully eradicated in murine models with adoptively transferred T cells but the translation into readily available clinical therapies has been more difficult. (oncolink.org)
  • Most current oncolytic viruses are engineered for tumour selectivity, although there are naturally occurring examples such as reovirus and the senecavirus, resulting in clinical trials. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1996, the first approval was given in Europe for a clinical trial using the oncolytic virus HSV1716. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zika
  • Utilizzando wildtype o linee di cellule staminali ingegnerizzati, i ricercatori possono utilizzare questa tecnica per scoprire i vari meccanismi o trattamenti che possono influenzare l'infezione iniziale del cervello e conseguente microcefalia in embrioni di Zika infettati da virus. (jove.com)
  • In 2016 a DNA vaccine for the Zika virus began testing at the National Institutes of Health. (wikipedia.org)
  • helper
  • After almost 15 years, he finally established a delicately engineered mouse system in which T cells including thymocytes could expressed MHC class II molecules mimicking human T cells and successfully demonstrated that the T-T interaction occurred in the engineered murine thymus, resulting in the generation of functional CD4+ helper T cells (Immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • infectious
  • It is known to occur at increased frequency in people with immunodeficiency, including transplant recipients and people with AIDS, and this association suggests the possibility that a virus or other infectious agent might be involved in causing the cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetically
  • The first oncolytic virus approved by a national regulatory agency is genetically not modified ECHO-7 strain enterovirus RIGVIR, approved in Latvia in 2004 for treatment of skin melanoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Baltimore
  • This is a taxonomic list of viruses according to the most recent (2014) taxonomy release by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), placed into the groups of the Baltimore classification system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though not used by the ICTV, Baltimore classification, which groups viruses together based on how they produce mRNA, is used in conjunction with the ICTV's work in modern virus classification. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • A connection between cancer regression and viruses has long been theorised, and case reports of regression noted in cervical cancer, Burkitt lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma, after immunisation or infection with an unrelated virus appeared at the beginning of the 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Efforts to treat cancer through immunisation or virotherapy (deliberate infection with a virus), began in the mid-20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • research
  • The potential of viruses as anti-cancer agents was first realised in the early twentieth century, although coordinated research efforts did not begin until the 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • In these tumors, the virus has integrated into the cancer cell genome and can no longer freely replicate. (wikipedia.org)
  • early
  • As the technology for creating a custom virus did not exist, all early efforts focused on finding natural oncolytic viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The field of virotherapy was nearly abandoned for a time, as the technology required to modify viruses didn't exist and chemotherapy and radiotherapy technology enjoyed early success. (wikipedia.org)