• sperm
  • The government's draft bill would allow surplus embryos to be used for medical research with the consent of the egg and sperm donors. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • Donors must meet certain criteria in order to be eligible for sperm, egg, or embryo donation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sperm, eggs and embryos received in the donation process are currently tested for many medical conditions, and also quarantined for six months to reduce the risk of complications to the mother and child. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sperm, eggs and embryos are stored in liquid nitrogen using cryopreservation (defined as the freezing of cells or whole tissues to sub-zero temperatures-the boiling point of liquid nitrogen). (wikipedia.org)
  • Italy has a 2004 law that forbids all sperm or egg donations and the freezing of embryos, but allows, in effect, using existing stem cell lines that have been imported. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2004, the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (Disclosure of Donor Information) Regulations 2004/1511, enabled donor-conceived children to access the identity of their sperm, egg or embryo donor upon reaching the age of 18. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Regulations were implemented on 1 April 2005 and any donor who donated sperm, eggs or embryos from that date onwards is, by law, identifiable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sex selection is allowed for medical reasons-for example to avoid a serious disease that affects only boys recognise same-sex couples as legal parents of children conceived through the use of donated sperm, eggs or embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001
  • On Thursday, August 9, 2001, U.S. President George W. Bush's decided to allow federal funding for limited stem-cell research, as provided by the White House. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • Right now, though, let me say this: I believe today -- as I believed and stated in 2001, prior to the establishment of current policy -- that the federal government should fund embryonic stem cell research. (blogspot.com)
  • In February 2001, George W. Bush requested a review of the NIH's guidelines, and after a policy discussion within his circle of supporters, implemented a policy in August of that year to limit the number of embryonic stem cell lines that could be used for research. (wikipedia.org)
  • frozen
  • The unneeded embryos are destroyed (or frozen if the woman believes she may want to become pregnant again). (theglobeandmail.com)
  • The new Spanish law allows existing frozen embryos - of which there are estimated to be tens of thousands in Spain - to be kept for patient's future use, donated for another infertile couple, or used in research. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2003, Spain's laws state that embryos left over from IVF and donated by the couple that created them can be used in research, including ES cell research, if they have been frozen for more than five years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists
  • How far should scientists be allowed to go in creating things that resemble primitive human brains, hearts, and even human embryos? (wkms.org)
  • Scientists are reporting the results of controversial experiments that they say are encouraging them to continue to try to develop embryos that are part-human and part-animal. (wkms.org)
  • The Obama administration has dropped a controversial proposal that would have required all federally funded scientists to get permission from patients before using their cells, blood, tissue or DNA for research. (wkms.org)
  • Federal funding of medical research on these existing stem cell lines will promote the sanctity of life " without undermining it " and will allow scientists to explore the potential of this research to benefit the lives of millions of people who suffer from life destroying diseases. (archives.gov)
  • Many scientists believe that embryonic stem cell research may eventually lead to therapies that could be used to treat diseases that afflict approximately 128 million Americans. (archives.gov)
  • Dr Wolinetz said that advances in stem cell and genome-editing technology have meant that scientists are increasingly interested in the potential of growing human organs for drug testing, disease modelling and - in the future - transplantation, by inserting stem cells into animal embryos. (bionews.org.uk)
  • It also recommends that, in countries which oppose embryonic stem cell research, scientists should be free to pursue their research elsewhere. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is a momentous day -- not only for science, but for the hopes of thousands of patients and their families who are relying on NIH-funded scientists to pursue life-saving discoveries and therapies that could come from stem cell research," NIH Director Francis Collins said in a statement. (reuters.com)
  • Scientists at Newcastle University have created part-human, part-animal hybrid embryos for the first time in the UK, the BBC can reveal. (blogspot.com)
  • Scientists want to extract stem cells, the body's master cells, from the embryos, in order to increase understanding of a whole range of diseases from diabetes to stroke and ultimately to produce treatments. (blogspot.com)
  • In the United States, scientists at the Harvard Stem Cell Institute, the University of California San Francisco, the Oregon Health & Science University, Stemagen (La Jolla, CA) and possibly Advanced Cell Technology are currently researching a technique to use somatic cell nuclear transfer to produce embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • donor
  • The donor can donate for research purposes or fertility treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pluripotent stem cells can also be derived from Somatic cell nuclear transfer which is a laboratory technique where a clone embryo is created from a donor nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells genetically matched the donor organism from which they came.This gives them the ability to create patient specific pluripotent cells, which could then be used in therapies or disease research. (wikipedia.org)
  • SCNT
  • It was created using SCNT - a nucleus was taken from a man's leg cell and inserted into a cow's egg from which the nucleus had been removed, and the hybrid cell was cultured, and developed into an embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • In January 2008, Dr. Andrew French and Samuel Wood of the biotechnology company Stemagen announced that they successfully created the first five mature human embryos using SCNT. (wikipedia.org)
  • In genetics and developmental biology, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a laboratory strategy for creating a viable embryo from a body cell and an egg cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another application of SCNT stem cell research is using the patient specific stem cell lines to generate tissues or even organs for transplant into the specific patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only a handful of the labs in the world are currently using SCNT techniques in human stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • prohibit
  • Guidelines produced in 2009 by the NIH currently prohibit the use of federal funds for research involving the insertion of human pluripotent stem cells into nonhuman primate blastocysts . (bionews.org.uk)
  • Whereas Germany, Austria, Italy, Finland, Ireland, Portugal and the Netherlands prohibit or severely restrict the use of embryonic stem cells, Greece, Sweden, Spain and the United Kingdom have created the legal basis to support this research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The U.S. law was "ambiguous" and "did not prohibit funding a research project in which an ESC (embryonic stem cell) will be used," the majority opinion said. (reuters.com)
  • In the 2-1 opinion of April 29, 2011, the appeals panel said that the Dickey-Wicker Amendment was "ambiguous" and that the National Institutes of Health had "reasonably concluded" that although federal funds could not be used to directly destroy an embryo, the amendment does not prohibit funding a research project using embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • experimentation
  • It is a system of acquiring knowledge based on empiricism, experimentation and methodological naturalism, as well as to the organized body of knowledge human beings have gained by such research. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1998
  • It was one of the main themes of the SRT Project study "Engineering Genesis",1 in which context it was mentioned briefly in SRT's 1998 Assembly report as well as in the 1997 National Mission report on Animal and Human Cloning.2 The recent genetic engineering of a monkey in the USA has now brought to the fore some important issues about the research on animals for human benefits. (srtp.org.uk)
  • In 1998, privately funded research led to the breakthrough discovery of human Embryonic stem cells (hESC). (wikipedia.org)
  • donors
  • Other than a screening for genetic disorders, donors are tested for HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. Embryos must be donated by a woman between the ages of 18-35 years old, who has also undergone a medical screening and given informed consent (which can be revoked at any point up until the embryo is used). (wikipedia.org)
  • blastocyst stage
  • The NIH extended the ban in 2015 , imposing a funding moratorium on such research involving pre-blastocyst stage embryos prior to gastrulation (when the three germ layers start to appear), and applying this restriction to all animal embryos. (bionews.org.uk)
  • The latest announcement by the NIH marks the start of a one-month consultation on its proposal to replace the moratorium with an internal steering committee, which would make funding decisions on research that involves inserting human stem cells into all vertebrate animal embryos up to the end of the gastrulation stage - except for primate embryos, which would only be considered after blastocyst stage. (bionews.org.uk)
  • The embryos were developed only to the blastocyst stage, at which point they were studied in processes that destroyed them. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatments
  • Prize committee member Juleen Zierath said Gurdon and Yamanaka's discoveries, which also earned them a Lasker award for basic research in 2009, could hold "immense potential," including in developing treatments for Parkinson's disease and in making cells that produce insulin. (heraldnet.com)
  • laboratory
  • Medical genetics encompasses many different areas, including clinical practice of physicians, genetic counselors, and nutritionists, clinical diagnostic laboratory activities, and research into the causes and inheritance of genetic disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • It's a laboratory process and these embryos would never be implanted into anyone. (blogspot.com)
  • regulations
  • Finally, on January 12, 2011, hearings were held in an appeal to the Court of Justice of the European Communities to debate the definition of "human embryo" and to determine whether a procedure for deriving nerve cells from embryonic stem cells can be patented under EU regulations. (catholiclane.com)
  • These developments prompted the federal government to create regulations barring the use of federal funds for research that experimented on human embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetuses
  • or (2) research in which a human embryo or embryos are destroyed, discarded, or knowingly subjected to risk of injury or death greater than that allowed for research on fetuses in utero under 45 CFR 46.208(a)(2) and Section 498(b) of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 289g(b)) (Title 42, Section 289g(b), United States Code). (wikipedia.org)
  • 1990
  • They are in charge of reviewing information about human embryos and subsequent development, provision of treatment services, and activities governed by the Act of 1990. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ethics
  • The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University. (georgetown.edu)
  • HFEA
  • This act established the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) to regulate treatment and research in the UK involving human embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • The HFEA grants licenses and research permission for up to three years, based on approval of five steps by the Research License Committee. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the UK, it is lawful to create admixed embryos (by inserting human genetic material into a denucleated animal egg ) under licence from the HFEA . (bionews.org.uk)
  • The HFEA has given approval for the creation of cytoplasmic hybrid embryos on three occasions, and the first human-animal hybrid embryo was created in 2008. (bionews.org.uk)
  • The HFEA is the independent regulator for IVF treatment and human embryo research and came into effect on 1 August 1991. (wikipedia.org)
  • retain a duty to take account of the welfare of the child in providing fertility treatment, but replace the reference to "the need for a father" with "the need for supportive parenting"-hence valuing the role of all parents alter the restrictions on the use of HFEA-collected data to help enable follow-up research of infertility treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • federal
  • With certain restrictions, the President has announced that federal funds may be used to conduct research on human embryonic stem cells. (unt.edu)
  • Bush is being urged to allow federal funding for the research by such anti-abortion political figures as Nancy Reagan, Sens. (blogspot.com)
  • The appeals court overturned a ruling by a federal judge who found that the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) guidelines on such research violated the law because embryos were destroyed and it put other researchers working with adult stem cells at a disadvantage to win federal grants. (reuters.com)
  • His decision was put on hold pending appeal so federal money continued to flow after the White House warned research costing millions of dollars would be lost if halted. (reuters.com)
  • Shortly after taking office in 2009, President Barack Obama expanded federal funding for research involving human embryonic stem cells in hopes it would lead to cures for diseases. (reuters.com)
  • Judge Douglas Ginsburg, appointed by President Ronald Reagan, wrote that it was "entirely reasonable" for the NIH to interpret the law as "permitting funding for research using cell lines derived without federal funding, even as it bars funding for the derivation of additional lines. (reuters.com)
  • mitochondrial
  • This policy allows for the use of techniques which alter the mitochondrial DNA of the egg or an embryo used in IVF, to prevent serious mitochondrial diseases from being inherited. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cybrids are valuable in mitochondrial research and have been used to provide suggestive evidence of mitochondrial involvement in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and other conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • derive
  • Right now, to derive embryonic stem cells, an embryo -- which many, including myself, consider nascent human life -- must be destroyed. (blogspot.com)
  • We now have preliminary data which looks promising but this is very much work in progress and the next step is to get the embryos to survive to around six days when we can hopefully derive stem cells from them. (blogspot.com)
  • medical
  • Medical genetics differs from human genetics in that human genetics is a field of scientific research that may or may not apply to medicine, while medical genetics refers to the application of genetics to medical care. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, research on the causes and inheritance of genetic disorders would be considered within both human genetics and medical genetics, while the diagnosis, management, and counselling people with genetic disorders would be considered part of medical genetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some ways, many of the individual fields within medical genetics are hybrids between clinical care and research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The President's decision reflects his fundamental commitment to preserving the value and sanctity of human life and his desire to promote vital medical research. (archives.gov)
  • Obama, whose mother died from ovarian cancer , also supports doubling cancer research funding and has called the cuts to the National Cancer Institute counterproductive, saying they hurt the country's tradition of 'medical innovation. (foxnews.com)
  • The embryos survived for up to three days and are part of medical research into a range of illnesses. (blogspot.com)
  • But medical bodies and patient groups say such research is vital for our understanding of disease. (blogspot.com)
  • The public has been grossly misled by the hype that this is vital medical research. (blogspot.com)
  • As with all forms of clinical treatment, the medical community looked to basic science research to improve the safety and efficacy of IVF for mothers and babies. (wikipedia.org)
  • After spending 14 months recovering in a hospital, he returned to medical school, graduating to become a psychiatrist involved in the creation of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders III, and later developing a career as a Pulitzer prize-winning writer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Committee
  • But it hopes the ethical and scientific questions about when and how embryos are used will be determined by a parliamentary committee that begins hearings this fall, Health Minister Allan Rock's spokesman said in late July. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • experiments
  • Ali Brivanlou slides open a glass door at the Rockefeller University in New York to show off his latest experiments probing the mysteries of the human embryo. (wkms.org)
  • the Catalonian Ministry of Health has authorized experiments to duplicate the technique with human embryos. (catholiclane.com)
  • researchers
  • The researchers, Dr. James Sherley, a biological engineer at Boston Biomedical Research Institute, and Theresa Deisher, of Washington-based AVM Biotechnology, could appeal the ruling to the full appeals court, a lawyer involved in the case said. (reuters.com)