• Sperm
  • Donors must meet certain criteria in order to be eligible for sperm, egg, or embryo donation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sperm, eggs and embryos received in the donation process are currently tested for many medical conditions, and also quarantined for six months to reduce the risk of complications to the mother and child. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sperm, eggs and embryos are stored in liquid nitrogen using cryopreservation (defined as the freezing of cells or whole tissues to sub-zero temperatures-the boiling point of liquid nitrogen). (wikipedia.org)
  • The government's draft bill would allow surplus embryos to be used for medical research with the consent of the egg and sperm donors. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • Italy has a 2004 law that forbids all sperm or egg donations and the freezing of embryos, but allows, in effect, using existing stem cell lines that have been imported. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2004, the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (Disclosure of Donor Information) Regulations 2004/1511, enabled donor-conceived children to access the identity of their sperm, egg or embryo donor upon reaching the age of 18. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Regulations were implemented on 1 April 2005 and any donor who donated sperm, eggs or embryos from that date onwards is, by law, identifiable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sex selection is allowed for medical reasons-for example to avoid a serious disease that affects only boys recognise same-sex couples as legal parents of children conceived through the use of donated sperm, eggs or embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001
  • On Thursday, August 9, 2001, U.S. President George W. Bush's decided to allow federal funding for limited stem-cell research, as provided by the White House. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • Research leaves in 2000-2001 and 2004-5, supported by an Alexander von Humboldt Fellowship, gave me as a scholar of German foreign policy and European integration an opportunity to delve into a new topic area. (scribd.com)
  • In February 2001, George W. Bush requested a review of the NIH's guidelines, and after a policy discussion within his circle of supporters, implemented a policy in August of that year to limit the number of embryonic stem cell lines that could be used for research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists
  • How far should scientists be allowed to go in creating things that resemble primitive human brains, hearts, and even human embryos? (wkms.org)
  • Scientists are reporting the results of controversial experiments that they say are encouraging them to continue to try to develop embryos that are part-human and part-animal. (wkms.org)
  • The Obama administration has dropped a controversial proposal that would have required all federally funded scientists to get permission from patients before using their cells, blood, tissue or DNA for research. (wkms.org)
  • Cloned cows don't show the signs of premature aging that scientists found in Dolly the cloned sheep, and they may even be born genetically "younger" than conventionally produced calves, according to research published Friday. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Already, a bioethics group in Britain has recommended that scientists there be allowed to create cloned human embryos and then destroy them to retrieve potentially curative cells. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Federal funding of medical research on these existing stem cell lines will promote the sanctity of life " without undermining it " and will allow scientists to explore the potential of this research to benefit the lives of millions of people who suffer from life destroying diseases. (archives.gov)
  • Many scientists believe that embryonic stem cell research may eventually lead to therapies that could be used to treat diseases that afflict approximately 128 million Americans. (archives.gov)
  • Dr Wolinetz said that advances in stem cell and genome-editing technology have meant that scientists are increasingly interested in the potential of growing human organs for drug testing, disease modelling and - in the future - transplantation, by inserting stem cells into animal embryos. (bionews.org.uk)
  • It also recommends that, in countries which oppose embryonic stem cell research, scientists should be free to pursue their research elsewhere. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States, scientists at the Harvard Stem Cell Institute, the University of California San Francisco, the Oregon Health & Science University, Stemagen (La Jolla, CA) and possibly Advanced Cell Technology are currently researching a technique to use somatic cell nuclear transfer to produce embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • donor
  • The donor can donate for research purposes or fertility treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pluripotent stem cells can also be derived from Somatic cell nuclear transfer which is a laboratory technique where a clone embryo is created from a donor nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells genetically matched the donor organism from which they came.This gives them the ability to create patient specific pluripotent cells, which could then be used in therapies or disease research. (wikipedia.org)
  • prohibits
  • While there is no federal legislation that prohibits the creation of chimera embryos in the USA, the NIH's funding policy is considered heavily influential. (bionews.org.uk)
  • The Dickey-Wicker Amendment is the name of an appropriation bill rider attached to a bill passed by United States Congress in 1995, and signed by former President Bill Clinton, which prohibits the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) from using appropriated funds for the creation of human embryos for research purposes or for research in which human embryos are destroyed. (wikipedia.org)
  • somatic
  • A recent report by a group selected to advise the European Union on bioethics has found that using somatic-cell nuclear transfer to create embryos for stem-cell therapy research would be "premature. (readabstracts.com)
  • Nothing in this section shall prohibit the creation of a pre-implantation embryo by somatic cell nuclear transfer, parthenogenesis or other asexual means for research purposes. (malegislature.gov)
  • In genetics and developmental biology, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a laboratory strategy for creating a viable embryo from a body cell and an egg cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatic cell nuclear transplantation has become a focus of study in stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • clone
  • The federal government does not provide funding for scientific research involving stem cells, but has received patent applications from biotech firms planning to clone embryos for research purposes. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • once Professor Murdoch publishes her methods for creating viable cloned human embryos, it will be simple for those who want to clone babies to do so, in the many countries which have no legislation on cloning. (hgalert.org)
  • Human cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy (or clone) of a human. (wikipedia.org)
  • Development will ensue normally and after many mitotic divisions, this single cell forms a blastocyst (an early stage embryo with about 100 cells) with an identical genome to the original organism (i.e. a clone). (wikipedia.org)
  • SCNT
  • It was created using SCNT - a nucleus was taken from a man's leg cell and inserted into a cow's egg from which the nucleus had been removed, and the hybrid cell was cultured, and developed into an embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • In January 2008, Dr. Andrew French and Samuel Wood of the biotechnology company Stemagen announced that they successfully created the first five mature human embryos using SCNT. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cloning
  • Responding to widespread opposition to research that would lead to human cloning, 19 European partners signed a treaty banning human cloning in January. (cwhn.ca)
  • or cloning of human embryos for any purposes. (unt.edu)
  • 3) the cloning of human embryos for any purpose. (archives.gov)
  • Rather, it appears that Prof Murdoch is trying to apply cloning technology, primarily for the political reason of averting a global ban on embryo cloning which is being discussed at the UN. (hgalert.org)
  • We are writing to express our concern about Professor Alison Murdoch's proposed research involving the cloning of human embryos, which is currently before an HFEA licensing committee. (hgalert.org)
  • It was one of the main themes of the SRT Project study "Engineering Genesis",1 in which context it was mentioned briefly in SRT's 1998 Assembly report as well as in the 1997 National Mission report on Animal and Human Cloning.2 The recent genetic engineering of a monkey in the USA has now brought to the fore some important issues about the research on animals for human benefits. (srtp.org.uk)
  • The dramatic developments in cloning and embryonic human stem cells are raising another basic question of the increasingly blurred borderline between animal and human research. (srtp.org.uk)
  • genetically
  • The technique could allow patients to replace their failing tissues with cells that are young, healthy and genetically identical to themselves, because they would have been grown from embryos cloned from themselves. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • legislation
  • Controversial legislation to regulate the use of human embryos for research and treatment in the United Kingdom had its second reading in the House of Commons this week, but ministers face a fight next week to push the most contentious measures through. (bmj.com)
  • There are calls for the strictest legislation to be applied where no consensus exist, and that there should be a focus on research that is agreed by all to be necessary. (readabstracts.com)
  • Such research was forbidden by the initial bioethics legislation passed in France in 1994 and by the first revision to the law in 1999. (catholiclane.com)
  • After a state lawmaker recently introduced legislation that would have criminalized the creation of embryos for research, "my scientific priorities had to become public," says Gosden. (sciencemag.org)
  • The primary legislation in South Africa that deals with embryo research is the Human Tissue Act, which is set to be replaced by Chapter 8 of the National Health Act. (wikipedia.org)
  • experimentation
  • It is a system of acquiring knowledge based on empiricism, experimentation and methodological naturalism, as well as to the organized body of knowledge human beings have gained by such research. (wikipedia.org)
  • prohibit
  • Guidelines produced in 2009 by the NIH currently prohibit the use of federal funds for research involving the insertion of human pluripotent stem cells into nonhuman primate blastocysts . (bionews.org.uk)
  • Whereas Germany, Austria, Italy, Finland, Ireland, Portugal and the Netherlands prohibit or severely restrict the use of embryonic stem cells, Greece, Sweden, Spain and the United Kingdom have created the legal basis to support this research. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 2-1 opinion of April 29, 2011, the appeals panel said that the Dickey-Wicker Amendment was "ambiguous" and that the National Institutes of Health had "reasonably concluded" that although federal funds could not be used to directly destroy an embryo, the amendment does not prohibit funding a research project using embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • HFEA
  • This act established the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) to regulate treatment and research in the UK involving human embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • The HFEA grants licenses and research permission for up to three years, based on approval of five steps by the Research License Committee. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the UK, it is lawful to create admixed embryos (by inserting human genetic material into a denucleated animal egg ) under licence from the HFEA . (bionews.org.uk)
  • The HFEA has given approval for the creation of cytoplasmic hybrid embryos on three occasions, and the first human-animal hybrid embryo was created in 2008. (bionews.org.uk)
  • The HFEA is the independent regulator for IVF treatment and human embryo research and came into effect on 1 August 1991. (wikipedia.org)
  • retain a duty to take account of the welfare of the child in providing fertility treatment, but replace the reference to "the need for a father" with "the need for supportive parenting"-hence valuing the role of all parents alter the restrictions on the use of HFEA-collected data to help enable follow-up research of infertility treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • donors
  • Other than a screening for genetic disorders, donors are tested for HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. Embryos must be donated by a woman between the ages of 18-35 years old, who has also undergone a medical screening and given informed consent (which can be revoked at any point up until the embryo is used). (wikipedia.org)
  • blastocyst stage
  • The NIH extended the ban in 2015 , imposing a funding moratorium on such research involving pre-blastocyst stage embryos prior to gastrulation (when the three germ layers start to appear), and applying this restriction to all animal embryos. (bionews.org.uk)
  • The latest announcement by the NIH marks the start of a one-month consultation on its proposal to replace the moratorium with an internal steering committee, which would make funding decisions on research that involves inserting human stem cells into all vertebrate animal embryos up to the end of the gastrulation stage - except for primate embryos, which would only be considered after blastocyst stage. (bionews.org.uk)
  • The embryos were developed only to the blastocyst stage, at which point they were studied in processes that destroyed them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ethics
  • The views, opinions and positions expressed by these authors and blogs are theirs and do not necessarily represent that of the Bioethics Research Library and Kennedy Institute of Ethics or Georgetown University. (georgetown.edu)
  • procedure
  • Finally, on January 12, 2011, hearings were held in an appeal to the Court of Justice of the European Communities to debate the definition of "human embryo" and to determine whether a procedure for deriving nerve cells from embryonic stem cells can be patented under EU regulations. (catholiclane.com)
  • It also addresses licensing conditions, code of practice, and procedure of approval involving human embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetuses
  • or (2) research in which a human embryo or embryos are destroyed, discarded, or knowingly subjected to risk of injury or death greater than that allowed for research on fetuses in utero under 45 CFR 46.208(a)(2) and Section 498(b) of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 289g(b)) (Title 42, Section 289g(b), United States Code). (wikipedia.org)
  • 1990
  • They are in charge of reviewing information about human embryos and subsequent development, provision of treatment services, and activities governed by the Act of 1990. (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratory
  • Medical genetics encompasses many different areas, including clinical practice of physicians, genetic counselors, and nutritionists, clinical diagnostic laboratory activities, and research into the causes and inheritance of genetic disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Translational medicine thus represents a stem of scientific research that aims to move "from bench to bedside" or from laboratory experiments through clinical trials to point-of-care patient applications. (hindawi.com)
  • moral
  • Indeed, while on one hand science and the diffusion of scientific education are widely believed to foster democratic values and maintain political [ 3 ], moral, and economic stability of modern democracies, on the other hand political prejudices together with religious and other ideological interests as well as economic issues may limit and quench the advancement and diffusion of scientific research and with its potential applications [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The creation of embryos purely as a means to an end (as raw material for research), and not for the purpose of reproduction, fails to respect their moral status. (hgalert.org)
  • create
  • We don't believe that embryos are people with rights to life but neither is it right to create them as mere raw material for research. (hgalert.org)
  • As you know, in order to perform this research, Prof Murdoch and her colleagues would have to dramatically improve and refine existing techniques to create cloned human blastocysts. (hgalert.org)
  • The decision put on hold research to create sheep-human or pig-human chimera embryos to generate organs, explains Science - although no such funding applications had yet been received. (bionews.org.uk)
  • Committee
  • But it hopes the ethical and scientific questions about when and how embryos are used will be determined by a parliamentary committee that begins hearings this fall, Health Minister Allan Rock's spokesman said in late July. (theglobeandmail.com)