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  • anaerobic
  • Results from microcosms using raw karst-aquifer water found that aerobic cometabolism and anaerobic reductive-dechlorination degradation processes were possible when appropriate conditions were established in the microcosms. (usgs.gov)
  • The use of Polysulfides is a type of abiotic reduction and works best in anaerobic conditions where iron (III) is available. (wikipedia.org)
  • The different anaerobic, autocatalysed, reductive, metabolic pathways seen in the earliest known cells developed in separate energised vesicles, protocells, where they were produced cooperatively with certain bases of the nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • ions
  • An eco-friendly and economic process capable to replace current industrial production via oxidation of bromide ions using gaseous chlorine is highly desirable, he explained opening his presentation. (rsc.org)
  • Transition metal ions, due to their multiple oxidation states, were the only elements capable of controlling the oxidation states of such molecules, and thus were selected for. (wikipedia.org)
  • electrons
  • Irrespective of scan rate, the area under the peak (in units of AV) is equal to n F A Γ ν {\displaystyle nFA\Gamma \nu } , where n {\displaystyle n} is the number of electrons exchanged in the oxidation/reduction of the center, A {\displaystyle A} is the electrode surface and Γ {\displaystyle \Gamma } is the electroactive coverage (in units of mol/cm2). (wikipedia.org)
  • potentials
  • Ionic liquids are thermally stable, have negligible vapor pressure, and are electrochemically stable at negative potentials that encompass the reduction potential of actinide species. (dissertation.com)
  • Continuous monitoring devices placed in four wells during the spring of 1998 indicated that pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and oxidation-reduction potentials changed very little in areas isolated from active ground-water flow paths. (usgs.gov)
  • involve
  • Reductive elimination is often seen in higher oxidation states, and can involve a two-electron change at a single metal center (mononuclear) or a one-electron change at each of two metal centers (binuclear, dinuclear, or bimetallic). (wikipedia.org)
  • Reductions with samarium(II) iodide involve the conversion of various classes of organic compounds into reduced products through the action of samarium(II) iodide, a mild one-electron reducing agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbonyl
  • Carbonyl reduction of [carbonyl-14C]NNK with either sodium borohydride or cultured rat liver slices gave [carbinol-14C] 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl) butan-1-ol. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the presence of a proton source, however, the dimer may undergo either disproportionation to form a samarium alkoxide and carbonyl compound, or protonation to form a carbinol radical ii followed by a second reduction and protonation, yielding an alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygen
  • Technically speaking, oxidation is the process of a compound picking up an oxygen atom and reduction is the process by which a compound loses an oxygen atom. (specsfinewine.com)
  • However, atmospheric oxygen levels increased considerably, and it was then necessary for cells to have control over the reduction and oxidation of such small molecules in order to build and break down cells when necessary, without the inevitable oxidation (breaking down) of everything. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metal exchange with the hydrosilane produces a silyl peroxide product and further reduction (via homolysis of the oxygen-oxygen bond) leads to the product alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most synthetically useful methods are: Oxidation of hydrazine with oxygen, in the presence of a copper(II) catalyst and/or a carboxylic acid Decarboxylation of dipotassium azodicarboxylate in the presence of an acid Thermal decomposition of sulfonylhydrazides Procedures (particularly those employing air as an oxidant) are typically straightforward and do not require special handling techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemistry
  • Reductive elimination is an elementary step in organometallic chemistry in which the oxidation state of the metal center decreases while forming a new covalent bond between two ligands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gillham and Tratnyek in particular applied the reductive chemistry to groundwater treatment with the emplacement of ZVI barriers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The prebiotic chemistry of life had to be reductive in order to obtain, e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • This effect is mainly caused by the surrounding ligands that are complexed to the metal and it is the ligands that are involved in the reduction chemistry instead of the metal due to electronic destabilization by being significantly distanced from the metal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reactivity
  • This type of reactivity is generally seen with first row metals, which prefer a one-unit change in oxidation state, but has been observed in both second and third row metals. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, steric factors must also be considered on the reactivity of the Sm(III) complex as less crowded structures do not have any reductive activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • hence
  • Hence, we investigated the impact of side chain oxidation at two vicinal cysteine residues on local conformational flexibility in the protein by comparative molecular dynamics simulations. (jove.com)
  • either
  • If little or no "air effect" or oxidation is desired, the wine is either bottled very young or kept in tanks to age before bottling. (specsfinewine.com)
  • A second reduction immediately follows, after which either protonation or elimination-tautomerization affords the product. (wikipedia.org)
  • complexes
  • Reductive elimination of square planar complexes can progress through a variety of mechanisms: dissociative, nondissociative, and associative. (wikipedia.org)
  • First-row metal complexes tend to undergo reductive elimination faster than second-row metal complexes, which tend to be faster than third-row metal complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • Samarium iodide is a one-electron reductant, and typically effects reduction through a series of electron transfer and proton transfer (from protic solvent) steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemical
  • In situ chemical reduction (ISCR) is a new type of environmental remediation technique used for soil and/or groundwater remediation to reduce the concentrations of targeted environmental contaminants to acceptable levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • ISCR is usually applied in the environment by injecting chemically reductive additives in liquid form into the contaminated area or placing a solid medium of chemical reductants in the path of a contaminant plume. (wikipedia.org)
  • possible
  • Compared to cork, screw caps reduce the wine faults of oxidation and of cork taint, although it is possible to find TCA contamination in a screw cap bottle. (wikipedia.org)
  • naturally
  • These substances are very interesting because they are naturally present, and learning about how they produce reductive zones could lead to the development of better reductants for ISCR. (wikipedia.org)
  • yields
  • Unfortunately, this means that in the case of alkyne reduction, over-reduction to the alkane can occur resulting in diminished yields where the cis alkene is the desired product. (wikipedia.org)
  • allows
  • If managed properly with careful elevage, oxidation at this level is all good as it allows the wine to develop and gets rid of any reductive character the wine might have before bottling. (specsfinewine.com)
  • although
  • Scientists have also found that certain iron minerals, like green rust, magnetite, and pyrite, also have reductive capabilities although they contain ferrous iron rather than ZVI. (wikipedia.org)
  • conditions
  • Geochemical analysis established that sulfate-reducing conditions, essential for reductive dechlorination of chlorinated solvents, existed in parts of the contaminated karst aquifer. (usgs.gov)
  • These stable areas in the karst aquifer had geochemical conditions and bacteria conducive to reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes. (usgs.gov)
  • Many groups that are ordinarily sensitive to reductive conditions, including peroxides, are not affected by the conditions of diimide reductions. (wikipedia.org)
  • wine
  • If some oxidation is desired (as for many great whites and almost all great reds), the wine is put into barrels for a period of aging before the final blending (or assemblage) and bottling. (specsfinewine.com)
  • negative
  • In a voltammetric experiment carried out with an adsorbed redox protein, the oxidation and reduction of each redox site shows as a pair of positive and negative peaks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Around 4 Ga , the acidic seawater contained high amounts of H2S and thus created a reducing environment with a potential of around -0.2 V. So any element that had a large negative value with respect to the reduction potential of the environment was available in its free ionic form and can subsequently be incorporated into cells, i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • faster
  • Additionally, electron-poor metal centers undergo reductive elimination faster than electron-rich metal centers since the resulting metal would gain electron density upon reductive elimination. (wikipedia.org)
  • another
  • Additionally, mononuclear reductive elimination requires that the groups being eliminated must be cis to one another on the metal center. (wikipedia.org)