**mathematical physicist**- 1976 Polish mathematical physicist Roman Stanisław Ingarden publishes a seminal paper entitled "Quantum Information Theory" in Reports on Mathematical Physics, vol. 10, 43-72, 1976. (wikipedia.org)
- Sir Roger Penrose OM FRS (born 8 August 1931) is an English mathematical physicist, mathematician and philosopher of science. (wikipedia.org)
- Shadows of the Mind: A Search for the Missing Science of Consciousness is a 1994 book by mathematical physicist Roger Penrose that serves as a followup to his 1989 book The Emperor's New Mind: Concerning Computers, Minds and The Laws of Physics. (wikipedia.org)

**mechanics**- These devices could be useful for modeling quantum mechanics - the realm of physics that describes how matter at the sub-microscopic scale can exist as both a particle and a wave - or for cracking encrypted online information. (csmonitor.com)
- Free will has nothing to do with quantum mechanics. (edge.org)
- An expert in regenerative medicine and the scientific director of Advanced Cell Technology Company, Lanza is also very interested in quantum mechanics and astrophysics, an interest that led him on a path to developing his theory of biocentrism: the theory that life and consciousness are fundamental to understanding the nature of our reality, and that consciousness comes prior to the creation of the material universe. (keelynet.com)
- The laws of quantum mechanics constrain how we can perform computational operations on these qubits, and thus determine how efficiently we can solve a certain computational problem. (cwi.nl)
- It was not possible to formulate the laws of quantum mechanics in a fully consistent way without reference to consciousness. (bibliotecapleyades.net)
- It is one of the first attempts at creating a quantum information theory, showing that Shannon information theory cannot directly be generalized to the quantum case, but rather that it is possible to construct a quantum information theory, which is a generalization of Shannon's theory, within the formalism of a generalized quantum mechanics of open systems and a generalized concept of observables (the so-called semi-observables). (wikipedia.org)
- First," he says, "there are implications in pure mathematics, which are really quite surprising, that is that you can use quantum mechanics to solve problems in pure math that are simply intractable on ordinary computers. (edge.org)
- Helmut Hönl (February 10, 1903 in Mannheim, Germany - March 29, 1981 in Freiburg im Breisgau) was a German theoretical physicist who made contributions to quantum mechanics and the understanding of atomic and molecular structure. (wikipedia.org)
- Even before acquiring his doctorate at Munich, Hönl had done seminal work which contributed to the advancement of quantum mechanics and the understanding of atomic and molecular structure and spectra. (wikipedia.org)
- In the first paper of the trilogy which launched the matrix mechanics formulation of quantum theory in 1925, Werner Heisenberg, a former student of Sommerfeld, working with Max Born at the University of Göttingen, used the work of Hönl, Kronig, and Goudsmit, referring to it as the "Goudsmit-Kronig-Hönl formula. (wikipedia.org)
- At this time, there were three centers of development for quantum mechanics and the interpretation of atomic and molecular structure, based on atomic and molecular spectroscopy, especially the Sommerfeld-Bohr model: the Theoretical Physics Institute at the University of Munich, under Arnold Sommerfeld, the Institute of Theoretical Physics at the University of Göttingen, under Max Born, and the Institute of Theoretical Physics, under Niels Bohr. (wikipedia.org)
- Springer, 2001) ISBN 0-387-95179-2 van der Waerden, B. L., editor, Sources of Quantum Mechanics (Dover Publications, 1968) ISBN 0-486-61881-1 Author Catalog: Hönl Archived 2007-02-05 at the Wayback Machine. (wikipedia.org)
- It combines approaches from molecular biology, neuroscience, quantum physics, pharmacology, philosophy, quantum information theory and from a yet to come theory to "gravitize" quantum mechanics. (wikipedia.org)
- The latter is based on Penrose's objective collapse theory for interpreting quantum mechanics, which postulates the existence of an objective threshold governing the collapse of quantum-states, related to the difference of the space-time curvature of these states in the universe's fine scale structure. (wikipedia.org)
- Penrose's theory of Objective Reduction predicts the relationship between quantum mechanics and general relativity. (wikipedia.org)
- He then hypothesizes that this energy difference causes the wave function to collapse to a single state, with a probability based on its amplitude in the original wave function, a procedure taken from standard quantum mechanics. (wikipedia.org)
- Parker-Rhodes was "an original thinker in information retrieval, quantum mechanics and computational linguistics. (wikipedia.org)
- He set up the Mind-Matter Unification Project at the Cavendish to explore the idea of intelligence in nature, the relationship between quantum mechanics and consciousness, and the synthesis of science and Eastern mysticism, broadly known as quantum mysticism. (wikipedia.org)
- The term is a pun on the name of Werner Heisenberg, the physicist who first asserted the observer effect of quantum mechanics, which states that the act of observing a system inevitably alters its state. (wikipedia.org)

**Roger Penrose**- The hypothesis was put forward in the early 1990s by theoretical physicist Roger Penrose and anaesthesiologist and psychologist Stuart Hameroff. (wikipedia.org)

**Richard Feynman**- Theoretical physicist Richard Feynman was one of the first to propose the idea of quantum computers in the 1980s, as a way to overcome the limitations of classical computers in simulating quantum systems in physics. (csmonitor.com)
- The second scientific implication is a use for quantum computers was first suggested by Richard Feynman in 1982, that one quantum system could simulate another quantum system. (edge.org)
- The field of quantum computing was initiated by the work of Paul Benioff (de) and Yuri Manin in 1980, Richard Feynman in 1982, and David Deutsch in 1985. (wikipedia.org)

**physics**- CARLO ROVELLI is a theoretical physicist, working on quantum gravity and on foundations of spacetime physics. (edge.org)
- E, Statistical physics, plasmas, fluids, and related interdisciplinary topics Physical strength Physical substance Physical system Physical theories modified by general relativity Physicist Physicist and Christian Physics PhysicsWeb Physics (American Physical Society journal) Physics Abstracts Physics Abstracts. (wikipedia.org)
- Today's computers---both in theory (Turing machines) and practice (PCs and smart phones)---are based on classical physics. (cwi.nl)
- However, modern quantum physics tells us that the world behaves quite differently. (cwi.nl)
- He proposed a basic model for a quantum computer that would be capable of such simulations Paul Benioff gave talk at the conference, "Physics of Computation" held at MIT in May 1981. (wikipedia.org)
- 1989 Bikas K. Chakrabarti & collaborators from Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata, proposed the idea that quantum fluctuations could help explore rough energy landscapes by escaping from local minima of glassy stems having tall but thin barriers by tunnelling (instead of climbing over using thermal excitations), suggesting effectiveness of quantum annealing over classical simulated annealing. (wikipedia.org)
- The quadratic speedup is not as dramatic as the speedup for factoring, discrete logs, or physics simulations. (wikipedia.org)
- Furthermore, with Sommerfeld educating such capable physicists, when they were called to other facilities, they effectively became extensions of Sommerfeld's Institute of Theoretical Physics. (wikipedia.org)
- At Stuttgart, Ewald and Hönl worked on the quantum theory atomic and molecular structure and solid-state physics. (wikipedia.org)
- The design, building and work on the various LNF accelerators entailed the birth and development of a large number of physicists, engineers and technicians skilled in the physics of accelerators. (wikipedia.org)
- The mechanism is held to be a quantum physics process called objective reduction that is orchestrated by molecular structures called microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
- The human mind has abilities that no Turing machine could possess because of this mechanism of non-computable physics. (wikipedia.org)
- Brian David Josephson, FRS (born 4 January 1940), is a Welsh theoretical physicist and professor emeritus of physics at the University of Cambridge. (wikipedia.org)
- Best known for his pioneering work on superconductivity and quantum tunnelling, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1973 for his prediction of the Josephson effect, made in 1962 when he was a 22-year-old PhD student at Cambridge University. (wikipedia.org)
- Physicist John Waldram recalled overhearing Nicholas Kurti, an examiner from Oxford, discuss Josephson's exam results with David Shoenberg, the reader in physics at Cambridge, and asking: "Who is this chap Josephson? (wikipedia.org)
- According to one eminent physicist speaking to Physics World, Josephson wrote several papers important enough to assure him a place in the history of physics even without his discovery of the Josephson effect. (wikipedia.org)
- Before Anderson and Rowell confirmed the calculations, the American physicist John Bardeen, who had shared the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics (and who shared it again in 1972), objected to Josephson's work. (wikipedia.org)

**mathematician**- Later, mathematician Peter Shor showed that a quantum computer could factor an integer into prime numbers, an ability that could be used to crack encryption algorithms on the Internet. (csmonitor.com)
- Together with his father, a physicist and mathematician, Penrose went on to design a staircase that simultaneously loops up and down. (wikipedia.org)

**Esaki**- This period included pioneering work on superlattice heterostructures with Nobel Prize-winning physicist Leo Esaki. (wikipedia.org)
- The impact of the research carried out in the 1970s by Chang and his colleagues, including Nobel Prize-winning Leo Esaki and Ray Tsu, was highlighted by IBM researchers Theis and Coufal in 2004: Leo Esaki, Ray Tsu, and Leroy Chang began to envision and investigate designed quantum structures - which are based on interfaces between lattice-matched compound semiconductors - early in the 1970s. (wikipedia.org)
- He shared the prize with physicists Leo Esaki and Ivar Giaever, who jointly received half the award for their own work on quantum tunnelling. (wikipedia.org)

**Turing**- Just as a Universal Turing machine can simulate any other Turing machine efficiently, so the universal quantum computer is able to simulate any other quantum computer with at most a polynomial slowdown. (wikipedia.org)
- A quantum Turing machine is a theoretical model of such a computer, and is also known as the universal quantum computer. (wikipedia.org)
- A classical computer could in principle (with exponential resources) simulate a quantum algorithm, as quantum computation does not violate the Church-Turing thesis. (wikipedia.org)
- Penrose hypothesizes that: Human consciousness is non-algorithmic, and thus is not capable of being modelled by a conventional Turing machine type of digital computer. (wikipedia.org)

**consciousness**- Physicists are being forced to admit that the universe could be a mental construction, or at the very least, that consciousness plays a fundamental role in the creation of matter. (keelynet.com)
- He is basically saying that the immaterial 'substance' of consciousness is directly intertwined with what we perceive to be our physical material world in some sort of way, shape or form, that consciousness is required for matter to be, that it becomes after consciousness and he's not the only physicist to believe that. (bibliotecapleyades.net)
- The quantum double slit experiment is a very popular experiment used to examine how consciousness and our physical material world are intertwined. (bibliotecapleyades.net)
- Objective reduction is proposed to be influenced by non-computable factors imbedded in spacetime geometry which thus may account for the Hard Problem of Consciousness. (wikipedia.org)
- The hypothesis states that consciousness derives from deeper-level, finer-scale quantum activities inside cells, most prevalent in the neurons. (wikipedia.org)
- While mainstream theories assert that consciousness emerges as the complexity of the computations performed by cerebral neurons increases, Orch-OR posits that consciousness is based on non-computable quantum processing performed by qubits formed collectively on cellular microtubules, a process significantly amplified in the neurons. (wikipedia.org)
- The objective collapse of the quantum wavefunction of the microtubules is critical for consciousness. (wikipedia.org)
- When he wrote his first consciousness book, The Emperor's New Mind in 1989, Penrose lacked a detailed proposal for how such quantum processes could be implemented in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
- Subsequently, Hameroff read The Emperor's New Mind and suggested to Penrose that certain structures within brain cells (microtubules) were suitable candidate sites for quantum processing and ultimately for consciousness. (wikipedia.org)

**simulating quantum systems**- 1975 R. P. Poplavskii publishes "Thermodynamical models of information processing" (in Russian) which showed the computational infeasibility of simulating quantum systems on classical computers, due to the superposition principle. (wikipedia.org)
- Lloyd points out that "if you've ever tried to calculate Feynman diagrams and do quantum dynamics, simulating quantum systems is hard. (edge.org)
- It's hard for a good reason, which is that classical computers aren't good at simulating quantum systems. (edge.org)

**researchers**- A team of researchers compared the performance of a D-Wave Two device to that of a classical computer on a specific set of problems, and failed to find evidence that the quantum computer was faster. (csmonitor.com)
- For the problems they tested, the researchers found no evidence of "quantum speedup," or faster performance, on the D-Wave Two. (csmonitor.com)
- The researchers used a top-down nanofabrication technique to embed color centers into a variety of machined structures. (bio-medicine.org)

**superposition**- A quantum system can be in a superposition of many different states at the same time, and can exhibit interference effects during the course of its evolution. (cwi.nl)
- Quantum computing is computing using quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement. (wikipedia.org)
- a pair of qubits can be in any quantum superposition of 4 states, and three qubits in any superposition of 8 states. (wikipedia.org)
- In general, a quantum computer with n {\displaystyle n} qubits can be in an arbitrary superposition of up to 2 n {\displaystyle 2^{n}} different states simultaneously (this compares to a normal computer that can only be in one of these 2 n {\displaystyle 2^{n}} states at any one time). (wikipedia.org)
- Penrose proposes that a quantum state remains in superposition until the difference in space-time curvature reaches a significant level. (wikipedia.org)
- This idea is inspired by quantum gravity, because it uses both the physical constants ℏ {\displaystyle \scriptstyle \hbar } and G {\displaystyle \scriptstyle G} . It is an alternative to the Copenhagen interpretation, which posits that superposition fails under observation, and the many-worlds hypothesis, which states that each alternative outcome of a superposition becomes real in a separate world. (wikipedia.org)
- Penrose theorises that the wave function cannot be sustained in superposition beyond a certain energy difference between the quantum states. (wikipedia.org)

**physical**- This is one of the first documented examples in which a physical quantum processor has been applied to real biological data . (bctechnology.com)
- In addition to such algorithms, there is a plethora of other applications: quantum cryptography, quantum communication, simulation of physical systems, and many others. (cwi.nl)
- He has played a leading role in the development of the lattice formulation of QCD into a quantitative non-perturbative technique and in the use of this formulation to compute, from first principles, a number of physical quantities, including deep inelastic structure functions, electromagnetic form factors of hadrons and semi-leptonic decays of charmed mesons. (wikipedia.org)
- Since Paul Forman's 1987 article "Behind quantum electronics: National security as a basis for physical research in the United State, 1940-1960," there has been an ongoing historical debate over precisely how and to what extent military funding affected the course of scientific research and discovery. (wikipedia.org)

**qubits**- Quantum computers instead use quantum bits, or "qubits," that can exist as a 0 and 1 at the same time. (csmonitor.com)
- A quantum computer maintains a sequence of qubits. (wikipedia.org)
- A quantum computer operates on its qubits using quantum gates and measurement (which also alters the observed state). (wikipedia.org)
- An algorithm is composed of a fixed sequence of quantum logic gates and a problem is encoded by setting the initial values of the qubits, similar to how a classical computer works. (wikipedia.org)
- A quantum computer with a given number of qubits is fundamentally different from a classical computer composed of the same number of classical bits. (wikipedia.org)

**computational**- Chemistry PhD candidate Richard Li, computational nano/bio physicist Rosa Di Felice, quantum computing expert and Viterbi Professor of Engineering Daniel Lidar along with computational biologist Remo Rohs sought to apply machine learning to derive models from biological data to predict whether certain sequences of DNA represented strong or weak binding sites for binding of a particular set of transcription factors. (bctechnology.com)
- Quantum computation is the field that investigates the computational power and other properties of computers based on quantum-mechanical principles. (cwi.nl)
- However, the real aim is to find computational problems where a quantum computer is much more efficient than classical computers. (cwi.nl)
- As of 2018,[update] the development of actual quantum computers is still in its infancy, but experiments have been carried out in which quantum computational operations were executed on a very small number of quantum bits. (wikipedia.org)

**spacetime**- A quantum computer with spins as quantum bits was also formulated for use as a quantum spacetime in 1968. (wikipedia.org)

**speedup**- We do not see any evidence of quantum speedup in the D-Wave device ," said Matthias Troyer, a theoretical physicist at ETH Zurich, in Switzerland, and co-author of the study, detailed today (June 19) in the journal Science. (csmonitor.com)
- Colin Williams, a quantum computer scientist and D-Wave's director of business development, told Science Magazine that the problems used in the study were "not at all the right choice for probing a quantum speedup. (csmonitor.com)
- So far, no one has found cases where the D-Wave shows quantum speedup, Troyer said. (csmonitor.com)

**2018**- At the JEC World Composite Show in Paris in March 2018, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be focusing on the latest trends and innovations in laser machining of composites. (innovations-report.com)
- Burnaby, BC, March 15, 2018--(T-Net)-- D-Wave Systems has announced that anew research study by USC Viterbi shows D-Wave's Two X quantum computing machine has promise for biological research. (bctechnology.com)

**1994**- For example, Peter Shor in 1994 found a quantum algorithm that can efficiently factor large integers into their prime factors. (cwi.nl)

**qubit**- The quantum (qubit) state can be initialized and measured using light. (bio-medicine.org)
- A small 16-qubit quantum computer exists and is available for experiments via the IBM quantum experience project. (wikipedia.org)

**1993**- 1993 Dan Simon, at Université de Montréal, invented an oracle problem for which a quantum computer would be exponentially faster than a conventional computer. (wikipedia.org)

**simulate**- Lloyd notes that Feynman suggested the possibility of making one quantum system simulate another. (edge.org)
- In 90s Lloyd showed that in fact Feynman's conjecture was correct, and that not only could you simulate virtually any other quantum system if you had a quantum computer, but you could do so remarkably efficiently. (edge.org)

**made contributions**- Sachrajda has made contributions to the development of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the theory of the strong interactions. (wikipedia.org)

**Peter Shor**- Peter Shor and Andrew Steane simultaneously proposed the first schemes for quantum error correction. (wikipedia.org)

**theory**- But at the beginning of the twentieth century, Newton's equations have been replaced by those of quantum theory, which bring back an element of indeterminism, quite similar, in fact, to Epicurus's correction of Democritus's determinism. (edge.org)
- This theory is best illustrated by the quantum double slit experiment. (keelynet.com)
- Physicists should rethink interference experiments to reveal whether or not general relativity follows classical theory, argue Chiara Marletto and Vlatko Vedral. (nature.com)
- English translation from the German) Annalen der Physik 26 (8): 673-696 (1936) Mehra, Jagdish, and Helmut Rechenberg The Historical Development of Quantum Theory. (wikipedia.org)
- the brain's unsuitability to host the quantum phenomena required by the theory, since it is considered too "warm, wet and noisy" to avoid decoherence. (wikipedia.org)
- Some physicists speculate that the CTCs which appear in certain GR solutions might be ruled out by a future theory of quantum gravity which would replace GR, an idea which Stephen Hawking has labeled the chronology protection conjecture. (wikipedia.org)

**Wayback Machine**- 141-161 (1925) as cited in Arnold Sommerfeld Bibliography Archived 2008-10-03 at the Wayback Machine. (wikipedia.org)

**calculations**- This allows quantum devices to perform multiple calculations at once. (csmonitor.com)

**experimental**- In initial experiments, the system has independently (re)discovered experimental techniques that are nowadays standard in modern quantum optical laboratories. (innovations-report.com)
- The algorithm they developed specifically for the D-Wave Two X quantum annealing machine led to predictions that were in agreement with real-world experimental data. (bctechnology.com)
- AdA's success led to the design of a more powerful machine: ADONE, with 4 experimental zones and energy beams of 1.5 GeV. (wikipedia.org)
- 20 January 1936 - 10 August 2008) was an experimental physicist and solid state electronics researcher and engineer. (wikipedia.org)

**1985**- 1985 David Deutsch, at the University of Oxford, described the first universal quantum computer. (wikipedia.org)
- This was followed by 7 years as manager of the Quantum Structure section (1985 to 1992). (wikipedia.org)

**superpositions**- Whereas common digital computing requires that the data be encoded into binary digits (bits), each of which is always in one of two definite states (0 or 1), quantum computation uses quantum bits, which can be in superpositions of states. (wikipedia.org)
- specifically, he believes that microtubules within neurons support quantum superpositions. (wikipedia.org)

**Shor's**- Large-scale quantum computers would theoretically be able to solve certain problems much more quickly than any classical computers that use even the best currently known algorithms, like integer factorization using Shor's algorithm or the simulation of quantum many-body systems. (wikipedia.org)

**Computation**- Michael A. Nielsen and Isaac L. Chuang, Quantum Computation and Quantum Information , Cambridge University Press, 2000. (cwi.nl)

**efficiently**- On the other hand, quantum computers may be able to efficiently solve problems which are not practically feasible on classical computers. (wikipedia.org)

**experiments**- On the way to an intelligent laboratory, physicists from Innsbruck and Vienna present an artificial agent that autonomously designs quantum experiments. (innovations-report.com)
- ADONE's experiments revolved around quantum electrodynamics (QED) tests, proton and neutron form factors, muon study and multihadron production. (wikipedia.org)

**algorithm**- A second important quantum algorithm is Grover's search algorithm, which searches through an unordered search space quadratically faster than is possible classically. (cwi.nl)
- 1996 Lov Grover, at Bell Labs, invented the quantum database search algorithm. (wikipedia.org)
- There exist quantum algorithms, such as Simon's algorithm, that run faster than any possible probabilistic classical algorithm. (wikipedia.org)
- The outcome can therefore be at most n {\displaystyle n} classical bits of information (or, if the algorithm did not end with a measurement, the result is an unobserved quantum state). (wikipedia.org)

**structures**- Further, the diamond nanowire is designed to overcome hurdles that have challenged other state-of-the-art systemssuch as those based on fluorescent dye molecules, quantum dots, and carbon nanotubesas the device can be readily replicated and integrated with a variety of nano-machined structures. (bio-medicine.org)

**bits**- So by using quantum computers, even quite simple ones, once again you surpass the limits of classical computers when you get down to, say, 30 or 40 bits in your quantum computer. (edge.org)

**1982**- 1982 Paul Benioff proposes the first recognisable theoretical framework for a quantum computer William Wootters and Wojciech Zurek, and independently Dennis Dieks prove the no-cloning theorem. (wikipedia.org)

**theoretical model**- They developed a theoretical model of electron densities and the atomic scattering factor in solids. (wikipedia.org)

**Science**- This might change with a new study from the USC Center for Quantum Information Science & Technology at the Viterbi School of Engineering and the USC Dana and David Dornsife College of Arts, Letters and Sciences. (bctechnology.com)
- CAMBRIDGE, Mass., By creating diamond-based nanowire devices, a team at Harvard has taken another step towards making applications based on quantum science and technology possible. (bio-medicine.org)
- Starting with these synthetic, nanostructured diamond samples, we can start dreaming about the diamond-based devices and systems that could one day lead to applications in quantum science and technology as well as in sensing and imaging. (bio-medicine.org)
- The course is taught from a computer science perspective but should be accessible for physicists as well. (cwi.nl)
- The course is taught from a mathematical and theoretical computer science perspective, but should be accessible for physicists as well. (cwi.nl)
- Physicists also contributed to the war effort, developing wireless communication technologies and sound-based methods of detecting U-boats, resulting in the first tenuous long-term connections between academic science and the military. (wikipedia.org)

**algorithms**- Quantum algorithms are often probabilistic, in that they provide the correct solution only with a certain known probability. (wikipedia.org)

**Professor**- Professor Keith Frayn from the University of Oxford, Chairman of the Task Force, said 'this timely and comprehensive report provides an authoritative and independent account of the relationship between diet and the emerging risk factors for cardiovascular disease. (innovations-report.com)

**conventional**- We chose to attack the problem using machine learning implemented on a D-Wave quantum annealer, in order to test our ability to translate complicated real-life biology problems to the setting of quantum machine learning, and to look for any advantages this approach might offer over more conventional, yet state-of-the-art classical machine learning techniques," Lidar added . (bctechnology.com)

**artificial**- This structure can be used for automated inference in artificial intelligence and machine translation. (wikipedia.org)

**computer**- An analysis of the world's first commercially available quantum computer found it to be no faster than a classical personal computer. (csmonitor.com)
- The world's first commercial quantum computer, made by the Canadian company D-Wave Systems Inc., performed no better than a classical computer in a recent analysis. (csmonitor.com)
- The company D-Wave, based in Burnaby, Canada, built what it called the first commercial quantum computer in 2011. (csmonitor.com)
- It allowed a quantum computer to factor large integers quickly. (wikipedia.org)
- He conjectured that it might be possible to do this using something like a quantum computer. (edge.org)
- A quantum computer is a device that performs quantum computing. (wikipedia.org)
- Along with the IBM computer a company called D-Wave has also been developing their own version of a quantum computer that uses a process called annealing. (wikipedia.org)

**large**- By creating large device arrays rather than just "one-of-a-kind" designs, the realization of quantum networks and systems, which require the integration and manipulation of many devices in parallel, is more likely. (bio-medicine.org)

**consistent**- The quantum machine was also able to generate conclusions that were consistent with a biologist's current understanding of gene regulation. (bctechnology.com)

**collectively**- Worldwide, these nine factors collectively predict more than 90 per cent of the risk of a heart attack. (innovations-report.com)

**suitable**- The finding could lead to a new class of nanostructured diamond devices suitable for quantum communication and computing, as well as advance areas ranging from biological and chemical sensing to scientific imaging. (bio-medicine.org)

**classical computers**- Quantum computers are thought to be able to solve complex problems thousands of times faster than classical computers, and scientists have been working on developing them for more than a decade. (csmonitor.com)

**systems**- The first quantum computers, made by the Canadian company D-Wave Systems, Inc., may be no faster than classical PCs, a study finds. (csmonitor.com)
- Moreover, spatially separated quantum systems may be entangled with each other and operations may have ``non-local'' effects because of this. (cwi.nl)

**development**- In the 1970s, he pioneered development of quantum well and superlattice structure (SLS) techniques. (wikipedia.org)

**virtually**- A major Canadian-led global study has found that the vast majority of heart attacks may be predicted by nine easily measurable factors and that these factors are the same in virtually every region and ethnic group worldwide. (innovations-report.com)
- These risk factors appear to predict the majority of the risk in virtually every region, every ethnic group, in men and women and in the old and the young," said Yusuf. (innovations-report.com)

**find**- Physicists find ways to make LIGO and other gravitational-wave detectors even more sensitive. (nature.com)

**problem**- One novelty of the study was the mapping of a biological problem using actual protein-DNA binding data to a quantum chip. (bctechnology.com)
- It solved both the factoring problem and the discrete log problem. (wikipedia.org)

**real**- To date, much has been stated about the promise of quantum computing for myriad of applications but there have been few examples of a quantum advantage for real-world problems of practical interest. (bctechnology.com)