• superfood
  • Mark Brooks: 'We've got projects close to market where algae is actually the hero and they are really looking at the 'earth's first superfood' positioning. (foodnavigator-usa.com)
  • And while some customers just like the functionality and the fact it's a vegan source of protein without allergen issues, some larger customers are looking to build a story around microalgae as a superfood and are homing in on the 'whole food' angle, as Solazyme's ingredient also contains fiber and other key nutrients, he said. (foodnavigator-usa.com)
  • Source Naturals Emerald Garden Organic Chlorella is a green superfood of pure algae in which the cell walls have been broken to increase digestibility and nutrient availability. (vitaglo.com)
  • various proteins
  • Yaroslava Yingling, PhD, a professor in the NC State materials science and engineering department, worked with RENCI's Hong Yi to build a 3D visualization tool to study the structure of various proteins (seen above). (renci.org)
  • plants
  • Proteins are also found in algal cell walls including highly glycosylated and hydroxyproline-rich forms, some of which have structural semblance to extensins and arabinogalactan proteins of land plants. (springer.com)
  • Due to rapid DNA sequencing and public gene databases, we can now use this vast and ever-increasing store of gene sequences with powerful computer search methods to identify the best genes and proteins with optimal functions and capabilities independent of their origin in microbes, plants and animals," said Curtiss. (algaeindustrymagazine.com)
  • They share many similarities with the higher plants, including the presence of asymmetrical flagellated cells, the breakdown of the nuclear envelope at mitosis, and the presence of phytochromes, flavonoids, and the chemical precursors to the cuticle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reproductive success of seed plants is performed and based on the invention of the pollen tube, an extension of the pollen grain that is produced under favorable conditions and that allows the sperm cells to move from the male gametophyte towards the female one. (mdpi.com)
  • In both algae and plants, S assimilation mostly takes place in the chloroplast. (springer.com)
  • In eukaryotic algae (except dinoflagellates) and oceanic cyanobacteria the first step in sulphate assimilation, catalysed by ATP sulfurylase (ATPS) is subject to redox regulation, whereas in vascular plants APS reductase is the main control point in the pathway. (springer.com)
  • Of these two WRKY proteins, WRKY1 of Giardia has been demonstrated to be involved in cell wall formation, a process also likely important to algae and early land plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the 1980s, some authors suggested replacing the term "cell wall", particularly as it was used for plants, with the more precise term "extracellular matrix", as used for animal cells, but others preferred the older term. (wikipedia.org)
  • The flexibility of the cell walls is seen when plants wilt, so that the stems and leaves begin to droop, or in seaweeds that bend in water currents. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, plants and algae use water as their reducing agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the number of cells in plants and animals varies from species to species, humans contain more than 10 trillion (1013) cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like other cyanobacteria and plants, AFA uses photosynthesis to produce the food material (glycogen) that is stored and utilized by the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both marine and freshwater taxa are represented by free-living macroalgal forms and smaller endo/epiphytic/zoic forms, meaning they live in or on other algae, plants, and animals In addition, some marine species have adopted a parasitic lifestyle and may be found on closely or more distantly related red algal hosts In the system of Adl et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmodesmata evolved independently in several lineages, and species that have these structures include members of the Charophyceae, Charales, Coleochaetales and Phaeophyceae (which are all algae), as well as all embryophytes, better known as land plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • The composition of cell walls varies between species and may depend on cell type and developmental stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phlorotannins are a type of tannins found in brown algae such as kelps and rockweeds or sargassacean species, and in a lower amount also in some red algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chondrus crispus-commonly called Irish moss or carrageen moss (Irish carraigín, "little rock")-is a species of red algae which grows abundantly along the rocky parts of the Atlantic coast of Europe and North America. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chondrus crispus undergoes an alternation of generation life cycle common in many species of algae (see figure below). (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] As with any crop, differences exist with regard to harvesting procedures, quality control against contaminating species, adherence to proper processing to protect nutrients from degradation, and attention to adequate storage conditions of the processed algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Rhodophyta also comprises one of the largest phyla of algae, containing over 7,000 currently recognized species with taxonomic revisions ongoing. (wikipedia.org)
  • sugars
  • It is grown from a native microalgae strain that naturally converts sugars (Solazyme currently uses corn dextrose* but can use sugar cane or sugar beet) into oils and proteins via a fermentation process, after which it is harvested, washed, dried and milled into a fine powder. (foodnavigator-usa.com)
  • Charales
  • Tetraspora) In older classifications, the term Chlorophyceae is sometimes used to apply to all the green algae except the Charales, and the internal division is considerably different. (wikipedia.org)
  • evolutionary
  • Abedin M, King N (2010) Diverse evolutionary paths to cell adhesion. (springer.com)
  • Current hypotheses on the role of spatial and temporal changes of S availability on algae evolutionary trajectories are discussed. (springer.com)
  • green
  • Becker B, Melkonian M (1992) N-linked glycoproteins associated with flagellar scales in a flagellate green alga: characterization of interactions. (springer.com)
  • They also worked to optimize the growth conditions of their green recovery method, testing variables such as the cell culture density of the microbes, light intensity and agitation of the cultures. (algaeindustrymagazine.com)
  • The Chlorophyceae are one of the classes of green algae, distinguished mainly on the basis of ultrastructural morphology. (wikipedia.org)
  • One outcome of this work was the development of a two-stage process for production of astaxanthin - the algae is allowed to grow under optimal conditions for the green stage, then the biomass is subjected to stress conditions such as high light or nutrient deprivation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Larger molecules, including proteins (for example green fluorescent protein) and RNA, can also pass through the cytoplasmic sleeve diffusively. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipids
  • AlgaVia whole algae protein - which contains 63% protein, along with fiber, lipids and micronutrients such as lutein and zeaxanthin - has a slightly nutty taste similar to crushed pistachios. (foodnavigator-usa.com)
  • citation needed] Algae utilize light energy from the sun, carbon dioxide from the air, and water to synthesize proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • minerals
  • Supplement programs boosting protein, energy, or minerals are commonly practiced in livestock operations when feeding cattle with low quality forage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • soluble
  • They are found within the cell in small vesicles called physodes, where the soluble, polar fraction is sequestrated, and as part of the cell wall, where they are insoluble and act as a structural component. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Modern molecular and immunobinding studies are now probing the specific mechanisms in wall development including modulations that occur during morphogenesis and in response to environmental triggers. (springer.com)
  • grows
  • From a pure biological point of view, the pollen tube is an atypical plant cell, because it grows by a tip-growing mechanism, rather than by the typical diffuse way of somatic cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Hugo von Mohl (1853, 1858) advocated the idea that the cell wall grows by apposition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytoplasmic
  • Cytoplasmic as well as exuded phlorotannins seem to play a role in algal reproduction, by contributing to the formation of the zygote's cell wall and perhaps avoiding multiple fertilization by inhibiting spermatozoid movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inside the cell is the cytoplasmic region that contains the genome (DNA), ribosomes and various sorts of inclusions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary plasmodesmata are formed when portions of the endoplasmic reticulum are trapped across the middle lamella as new cell wall is laid down between two newly divided plant cells and these eventually become the cytoplasmic connections between cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • vesicles
  • The photosynthesis is facilitated thanks to aerial vesicles which allows the algae to raise to the surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • plant
  • Most algae contain one or a few WRKY proteins, whereas even the earliest land plant, moss (Physcomitrella patens), possesses at least 30 WRKY factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Outside of plant WRKY proteins have been identified in Giardia lamblia and Dictyostelium discoideum. (wikipedia.org)
  • It remains unclear how and why the WRKY proteins dramatically expanded and diversified in the plant lineage but not algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Often, other polymers such as lignin, suberin or cutin are anchored to or embedded in plant cell walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • A plant cell wall was first observed and named (simply as a "wall") by Robert Hooke in 1665. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1930, Ernst Münch coined the term apoplast in order to separate the "living" symplast from the "dead" plant region, the latter of which included the cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • The apparent rigidity of primary plant tissues is enabled by cell walls, but is not due to the walls' stiffness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most plant and animal cells are visible only under a microscope, with dimensions between 1 and 100 micrometres. (wikipedia.org)
  • from Ancient Greek: ῥόδον rhodon, "rose" and φυτόν phyton, "plant"), are one of the oldest groups of eukaryotic algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biotrophic fungal pathogens colonize living plant tissue and obtain nutrients from living host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neighbouring plant cells are therefore separated by a pair of cell walls and the intervening middle lamella, forming an extracellular domain known as the apoplast. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmodesmata can also be inserted into existing cell walls between non-dividing cells (secondary plasmodesmata) A typical plant cell may have between 103 and 105 plasmodesmata connecting it with adjacent cells equating to between 1 and 10 per µm2. (wikipedia.org)
  • secondary
  • These compounds are rigid and waterproof, making the secondary wall stiff. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both wood and bark cells of trees have secondary walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • These phenolic compounds are integral structural components of cell walls in brown algae, but they also seem to play many other secondary ecological roles such as protection from UV radiation and defense against grazing. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two forms of plasmodesmata: primary plasmodesmata, which are formed during cell division, and secondary plasmodesmata, which can form between mature cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • complexes
  • In contrast, under similar experimental conditions three types of terrestrial tannins (procyanidins, profisetinidins, and gallotannins) apparently did not form covalent complexes with proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular matrix
  • Transglutaminases are also secreted in the extracellular matrix, where they may take part in the assembly and/or strengthening of the pollen tube cell wall. (mdpi.com)
  • structural
  • Often, post-secretory crosslinking with cations alters the structural architecture of these polymers that, in turn, influences the strength and function of the cell wall. (springer.com)
  • It provides the cell with both structural support and protection, and also acts as a filtering mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Robert Hooke
  • The cell was discovered by Robert Hooke in 1665, who named the biological units for their resemblance to cells inhabited by Christian monks in a monastery. (wikipedia.org)