Loading...
  • plants
  • Proteins are also found in algal cell walls including highly glycosylated and hydroxyproline-rich forms, some of which have structural semblance to extensins and arabinogalactan proteins of land plants. (springer.com)
  • What suggests that land plants evolved form charophyte algae? (brainscape.com)
  • Due to rapid DNA sequencing and public gene databases, we can now use this vast and ever-increasing store of gene sequences with powerful computer search methods to identify the best genes and proteins with optimal functions and capabilities independent of their origin in microbes, plants and animals," said Curtiss. (algaeindustrymagazine.com)
  • They share many similarities with the higher plants, including the presence of asymmetrical flagellated cells, the breakdown of the nuclear envelope at mitosis, and the presence of phytochromes, flavonoids, and the chemical precursors to the cuticle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reproductive success of seed plants is performed and based on the invention of the pollen tube, an extension of the pollen grain that is produced under favorable conditions and that allows the sperm cells to move from the male gametophyte towards the female one. (mdpi.com)
  • Of these two WRKY proteins, WRKY1 of Giardia has been demonstrated to be involved in cell wall formation, a process also likely important to algae and early land plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the 1980s, some authors suggested replacing the term "cell wall", particularly as it was used for plants, with the more precise term "extracellular matrix", as used for animal cells, but others preferred the older term. (wikipedia.org)
  • The flexibility of the cell walls is seen when plants wilt, so that the stems and leaves begin to droop, or in seaweeds that bend in water currents. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, plants and algae use water as their reducing agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the number of cells in plants and animals varies from species to species, humans contain more than 10 trillion (1013) cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like other cyanobacteria and plants, AFA uses photosynthesis to produce the food material (glycogen) that is stored and utilized by the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both marine and freshwater taxa are represented by free-living macroalgal forms and smaller endo/epiphytic/zoic forms, meaning they live in or on other algae, plants, and animals In addition, some marine species have adopted a parasitic lifestyle and may be found on closely or more distantly related red algal hosts In the system of Adl et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such tissues include wood (lignin), spores and pollen (sporopollenin), the cuticles of plants (cutan) and animals, the cell walls of algae (algaenan), and potentially the polysaccharide layer of some lichens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmodesmata evolved independently in several lineages, and species that have these structures include members of the Charophyceae, Charales, Coleochaetales and Phaeophyceae (which are all algae), as well as all embryophytes, better known as land plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • various proteins
  • Yaroslava Yingling, PhD, a professor in the NC State materials science and engineering department, worked with RENCI's Hong Yi to build a 3D visualization tool to study the structure of various proteins (seen above). (renci.org)
  • species
  • The composition of cell walls varies between species and may depend on cell type and developmental stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chondrus crispus-commonly called Irish moss or carrageen moss (Irish carraigín, "little rock")-is a species of red algae which grows abundantly along the rocky parts of the Atlantic coast of Europe and North America. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chondrus crispus undergoes an alternation of generation life cycle common in many species of algae (see figure below). (wikipedia.org)
  • is a species of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) which is commercially processed into a dietary supplement. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] As with any crop, differences exist with regard to harvesting procedures, quality control against contaminating species, adherence to proper processing to protect nutrients from degradation, and attention to adequate storage conditions of the processed algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Rhodophyta also comprises one of the largest phyla of algae, containing over 7,000 currently recognized species with taxonomic revisions ongoing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of species (6,793) are found in the Florideophyceae (class), and consist of mostly multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Cell walls serve similar purposes in those organisms that possess them. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell theory, first developed in 1839 by Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells, that cells are the fundamental unit of structure and function in all living organisms, that all cells come from preexisting cells, and that all cells contain the hereditary information necessary for regulating cell functions and for transmitting information to the next generation of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • The transporter modulates the transport of the cargo across a biological barrier (e.g., a cell membrane) compared to the transport of the unconjugated cargo. (google.com)
  • Various integral proteins have multiple membrane-spanning -helices. (expertsmind.com)
  • A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, situated outside the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reduction of carbon dioxide into methane in the presence of hydrogen can be expressed as follows: CO2 + 4 H2 → CH4 + 2H2O Some of the CO2 is reacted with the hydrogen to produce methane, which creates an electrochemical gradient across cell membrane, used to generate ATP through chemiosmosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are simpler and smaller than eukaryotic cells, and lack membrane-bound organelles such as the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • All chromosomal DNA is stored in the cell nucleus, separated from the cytoplasm by a membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar structures, called gap junctions and membrane nanotubes, interconnect animal cells and stromules form between plastids in plant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • sugars
  • It is grown from a native microalgae strain that naturally converts sugars (Solazyme currently uses corn dextrose* but can use sugar cane or sugar beet) into oils and proteins via a fermentation process, after which it is harvested, washed, dried and milled into a fine powder. (foodnavigator-usa.com)
  • superfood
  • And while some customers just like the functionality and the fact it's a vegan source of protein without allergen issues, some larger customers are looking to build a story around microalgae as a superfood and are homing in on the 'whole food' angle, as Solazyme's ingredient also contains fiber and other key nutrients, he said. (foodnavigator-usa.com)
  • Charales
  • Tetraspora) In older classifications, the term Chlorophyceae is sometimes used to apply to all the green algae except the Charales, and the internal division is considerably different. (wikipedia.org)
  • green
  • Becker B, Melkonian M (1992) N-linked glycoproteins associated with flagellar scales in a flagellate green alga: characterization of interactions. (springer.com)
  • They also worked to optimize the growth conditions of their green recovery method, testing variables such as the cell culture density of the microbes, light intensity and agitation of the cultures. (algaeindustrymagazine.com)
  • The Chlorophyceae are one of the classes of green algae, distinguished mainly on the basis of ultrastructural morphology. (wikipedia.org)
  • One outcome of this work was the development of a two-stage process for production of astaxanthin - the algae is allowed to grow under optimal conditions for the green stage, then the biomass is subjected to stress conditions such as high light or nutrient deprivation. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipids
  • AlgaVia whole algae protein - which contains 63% protein, along with fiber, lipids and micronutrients such as lutein and zeaxanthin - has a slightly nutty taste similar to crushed pistachios. (foodnavigator-usa.com)
  • citation needed] Algae utilize light energy from the sun, carbon dioxide from the air, and water to synthesize proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Methods and compositions are provided for translational profiling and molecular phenotyping of specific tissues, cells and cell subtypes of interest. (patents.com)
  • Modern molecular and immunobinding studies are now probing the specific mechanisms in wall development including modulations that occur during morphogenesis and in response to environmental triggers. (springer.com)
  • Chloroplasts
  • The red algae form a distinct group characterized by having eukaryotic cells without flagella and centrioles, chloroplasts that lack external endoplasmic reticulum and contain unstacked (stoma) thylakoids, and use phycobiliproteins as accessory pigments, which give them their red color. (wikipedia.org)
  • minerals
  • Supplement programs boosting protein, energy, or minerals are commonly practiced in livestock operations when feeding cattle with low quality forage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • synthesize
  • In recent years, algae have become a hot prospect as a way to synthesize biofuels, chemical building blocks, vaccines, pharmaceuticals, and other useful compounds. (bestinscience.com)
  • soluble
  • They are found within the cell in small vesicles called physodes, where the soluble, polar fraction is sequestrated, and as part of the cell wall, where they are insoluble and act as a structural component. (wikipedia.org)
  • grows
  • From a pure biological point of view, the pollen tube is an atypical plant cell, because it grows by a tip-growing mechanism, rather than by the typical diffuse way of somatic cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Hugo von Mohl (1853, 1858) advocated the idea that the cell wall grows by apposition. (wikipedia.org)
  • compounds
  • Provided herein are methods, compounds, and compositions for reducing expression of transthyretin mRNA and protein in an animal. (patents.com)
  • These compounds are rigid and waterproof, making the secondary wall stiff. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structural role of phlorotannins in brown algal cell wall is a primary role of these polyphenolic compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytoplasmic
  • Cytoplasmic as well as exuded phlorotannins seem to play a role in algal reproduction, by contributing to the formation of the zygote's cell wall and perhaps avoiding multiple fertilization by inhibiting spermatozoid movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inside the cell is the cytoplasmic region that contains the genome (DNA), ribosomes and various sorts of inclusions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary plasmodesmata are formed when portions of the endoplasmic reticulum are trapped across the middle lamella as new cell wall is laid down between two newly divided plant cells and these eventually become the cytoplasmic connections between cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • vesicles
  • The photosynthesis is facilitated thanks to aerial vesicles which allows the algae to raise to the surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • secondary
  • Both wood and bark cells of trees have secondary walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two forms of plasmodesmata: primary plasmodesmata, which are formed during cell division, and secondary plasmodesmata, which can form between mature cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmodesmata can also be inserted into existing cell walls between non-dividing cells (secondary plasmodesmata) A typical plant cell may have between 103 and 105 plasmodesmata connecting it with adjacent cells equating to between 1 and 10 per µm2. (wikipedia.org)
  • nutrients
  • Biotrophic fungal pathogens colonize living plant tissue and obtain nutrients from living host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Necrotrophic fungal pathogens infect and kill host tissue and extract nutrients from the dead host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • complexes
  • In contrast, under similar experimental conditions three types of terrestrial tannins (procyanidins, profisetinidins, and gallotannins) apparently did not form covalent complexes with proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • freshwater
  • Approximately 5% of the red algae occur in freshwater environments with greater concentrations found in the warmer area. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2015). Freshwater Algae of North America: Ecology and Classification. (wikipedia.org)
  • plant pathogens
  • Compositions, systems and methods are provided for conferring disease resistance to plant pathogens that use proteases to target plant substrate proteins inside. (patents.com)
  • extracellular matrix
  • Transglutaminases are also secreted in the extracellular matrix, where they may take part in the assembly and/or strengthening of the pollen tube cell wall. (mdpi.com)
  • structural
  • Often, post-secretory crosslinking with cations alters the structural architecture of these polymers that, in turn, influences the strength and function of the cell wall. (springer.com)
  • It provides the cell with both structural support and protection, and also acts as a filtering mechanism. (wikipedia.org)