• They do this by sensing changes in pH i and then appropriately speeding up or slowing down various transporters that move acids and/or bases across the plasma membrane. (
  • Just as a furnace makes the temperature go up, transporters called "acid extruders" (which move H + out of the cell and/or move bases such as HCO 3 − into the cell) make pH i go up. (


  • Analyses show encouraging benefits of our approach in overcoming common problems with computer-mediated communication. (
  • As it happens, the way cells approach the problem of pH i regulation is not so different-conceptually, at least-from the way we might approach the problem of regulating the temperature in a house. (


  • Finally, just as a temperature-control system might benefit from environmental sensors that provide clues about cold and heat loading, at least some cells seem to have extracellular CO 2 or extracellular HCO 3 − sensors that modulate acid-base transport. (


  • Students undertaking the first iteration of these three vertically integrated courses reported learning gains in course content as well as skills in scientific writing, hypothesis construction, experimental design, data analysis, and interpreting results. (