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  • metabolic
  • An indirect calorimeter for calculating the metabolic rate of a subject by measuring the oxygen consumption during respiration over a period of time includes a gas flow meter providing output electric signals to a microprocessor which drives a display and printer. (google.com)
  • The difference in volume between the inhaled gas and the exhaled gas is proportional to the oxygen consumption of the subject and the microprocessor integrates that signal over the time of the test, and multiplies it by a constant to provide a metabolic rate display. (google.com)
  • This invention relates to indirect calorimeters for measuring metabolic rate on the basis of respiratory oxygen consumption and more particularly to such a calorimeter which scrubs the CO 2 from the exhaled gas and computes the difference between the inhaled gas volume and the volume of the scrubbed exhaled gas to calculate oxygen consumption. (google.com)
  • Other hospital situations in which the measurement of rate of metabolic oxygen consumption is important include the adjustment of parental feedings for infants, and the control of respiratory gases during surgical operations. (google.com)
  • oxygen is used as part of the bacterial metabolic process lowering its concentration within the water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any metabolic process that releases energy from a sugar or other organic molecule, does not require oxygen or an electron transport system, and uses an organic molecule as the final electron acceptor (most scientific). (wikipedia.org)
  • In this metabolic pathway, energy is derived from the carbon compound without the use of oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • salinity
  • The low oxygen and salinity levels in the Baltic have consequences for, among other things, the cod spawning success. (diva-portal.org)
  • Coastal lagoons and estuaries, which generally support high levels of biological productivity, represent a continuum between continental and marine aquatic ecosystems, and they are commonly characterized by a shallow water depth, strong fluctuations of physicochemical parameters, and marked gradients, such as in salinity [ 1 ], organic matter quantity and quality, oxygen availability, and the occurrence of pollutants [ 2 ]. (plos.org)
  • We have analyzed water column oxygen and salinity profiles to reconstruct oxygen and stratification conditions over the last 115 y and compare the influence of both climate and anthropogenic forcing on hypoxia. (pnas.org)
  • bacteria
  • It occurs in yeast and bacteria, and also in oxygen-starved muscle cells, as in the case of lactic acid fermentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although yeast carries out the fermentation in the production of ethanol in beers, wines, and other alcoholic drinks, this is not the only possible agent: bacteria carry out the fermentation in the production of xanthan gum, while mammalian muscle carries out the fermentation that occurs during periods of intense exercise where oxygen supply becomes limited, resulting in the creation of lactic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are also many varieties of anoxygenic photosynthesis, used mostly by certain types of bacteria, which consume carbon dioxide but do not release oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • sludge
  • The continuous measurements of N2O emissions from the aeration tanks of three activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) operated with biological nitrogen removal (BNR) and non-BNR were performed during the different operating conditions of several parameters, such as aeration, dissolved oxygen (DO) profiling and organic shock loading (with landfill leachate). (environmental-expert.com)
  • The required reactor volume and oxygen supply are lower if compared to the removal in the conventional activated sludge process. (wikipedia.org)
  • The B-stage, or bio-oxidation stage, is a typical low-loaded activated sludge process, where biodegradation of the remaining organic material occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lower aeration requirements decrease energy consumption and aeration costs for 20 percent if compared with conventional single stage activated sludge plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stability towards the shock loads (pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), toxic substances) explained by the wide-ranging biochemical potential, high mutation capacity and adaptability of sludge in the A-stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • A-stage can receive higher organic loads than conventional activated sludge systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • geochemical
  • Rhoads and Germano (1982) took this concept one step further by assigning categories to the various successional stages in an attempt to integrate the biotic and geochemical responses to organic enrichment. (wikipedia.org)
  • algae
  • Low oxygen along the coral algae interaction zone can be alleviated by removal of the alga or by treatment with antibiotics, showing in all experiments to date that hypoxia is the result of microbial activity. (reefcentral.com)
  • Dissolved organic C loss occurs in algae, though there is net organic C entry in osmo-chemorganotrophic growth. (springer.com)
  • sediments
  • 2016): Diffusive transfer of oxygen from seamount basaltic crust into overlying sediments: an example from the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone. (pangaea.de)
  • For example, one of the reported effects of sustained aquaculture activity on coastal environments is the deposition and accumulation of organic-rich sediments near the production site whether from the faeces and pseudofaeces of shellfish or uneaten food and excretion of fin fish. (wikipedia.org)
  • solids
  • Organic solids are present in very large quantities as products or waste from agriculture, food industry, household and many other fields. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Modern wastewater plants are effective at processing organic solids into fertilizer products (known as biosolids), with advanced facilities also capturing methane for energy production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Baltic Sea
  • In the Baltic Sea, oxygen-deficient waters have expanded from 5,000 to over 60,000 km 2 with large decadal fluctuations over the last century, reducing the potential fish yield and favoring noxious algal blooms. (pnas.org)
  • flux of organic
  • This helps to sustain the community structure that develops around a whale fall, but it also has potential implications for the biological pump, or the flux of organic material from the surface ocean to depth. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactive
  • We report that biguanides inhibit complex I by inhibiting ubiquinone reduction (but not competitively) and, independently, stimulate reactive oxygen species production by the complex I flavin. (biochemj.org)
  • deficit
  • Lateral advection of carbon, especially in coastal areas contributes to this deficit in the model, but food falls are also another source of organic carbon for the deep ocean (Higgs et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • While some functions of dissolved organic molecules lost from cells are known, more remains to be established on the magnitude and role of this loss in photolithotrophic relative to phago-chemorganotrophic and phagomixotrophic growth. (springer.com)
  • carbohydrate
  • This would suggest they are actively increasing their carbohydrate consumption to maximize their reproductive fitness and attractiveness to potential female mates. (wikipedia.org)
  • minimum zones
  • Deoxygenation is a global problem in coastal and open regions of the ocean, and has led to expanding areas of oxygen minimum zones and coastal hypoxia. (pnas.org)
  • The oxygen minimum zones thus play an important role in regulating the productivity and ecological community structure of the global ocean. (wikipedia.org)
  • aquatic
  • Redirected storm water is often warmer than the groundwater normally feeding a stream, and has been linked to upset in some aquatic ecosystems primarily through the reduction of dissolved oxygen (DO). (wikipedia.org)
  • 2016
  • This was substantiated in 2016 by the $50,000 DiNenno Prize, which recognized oxygen consumption calorimetry as a significant technical achievement that has had a major impact on public safety. (wikipedia.org)
  • waters
  • Oxygen-deficient waters are expanding globally in response to warming and coastal eutrophication. (pnas.org)
  • The dense saltwater inflows bring new supplies of oxygen to bottom waters, but at the same time enhance stratification, creating larger bottom areas that experience hypoxia ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • In general, colder waters hold more oxygen than warmer waters. (wikipedia.org)
  • The deep ocean thus has higher oxygen because rates of oxygen consumption are low compared with the supply of cold, oxygen-rich deep waters from polar regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depths in between, however, have higher rates of oxygen consumption and lower rates of advective supply of oxygen-rich waters. (wikipedia.org)
  • converts
  • ABSTRACT This paper describes how the Cambi Thermal Hydrolysis Process (THP) treats biodegradable organic waste and converts it to renewable energy and pathogen-free and bio-fertilizer. (environmental-expert.com)
  • diffusion
  • They have highly developed gills with large surface area and thin blood-to-water diffusion distance that enables effective removal of oxygen from the water (up to 90% O2 removal from inhaled water) and an efficient circulatory system with high capacity and high blood concentration of a protein (hemocyanin) that readily binds oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • ecosystems
  • Coastal ecosystems provide valuable services to humans, but these services are severely reduced with decreasing oxygen conditions. (pnas.org)
  • Dead zones are hypoxic (low-oxygen) areas unable to support most marine life, and over the past 50 y they have spread rapidly in the open ocean ( 1 ) as well as in coastal ecosystems ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • fermentation
  • For that reason, fermentation is rarely utilized when oxygen is available. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fermentation products contain chemical energy (they are not fully oxidized), but are considered waste products, since they cannot be metabolized further without the use of oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • This technique is used in Colombia and Mexico in order to reduce the water consumption from the long fermentation process and the extensive washing. (wikipedia.org)
  • process
  • In this contribution, removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD), acute toxicity, genotoxicity and estrogenicity in landfill leachate membrane concentrates (MCs) among UV-Fenton, Fenton and activated carbon adsorption process were compared. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The unpicked fruit of the coffee tree, known as the coffee cherry, undergoes a long process to make it ready for consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • material
  • Various studies on smaller cetaceans and other marine vertebrate food falls come to similar conclusions that these falls bring a large amount of new organic material to depth, but support mostly a scavenger community, as opposed to the diverse assemblage seen at whale falls. (wikipedia.org)
  • fuel consumption
  • Biofouling occurs everywhere but is most significant economically to the shipping industries, since fouling on a ship's hull significantly increases drag, reducing the overall hydrodynamic performance of the vessel, and increases the fuel consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, its low energy content of 19.7 MJ/kg and stoichiometric air-to-fuel ratio of 6.42:1 mean that fuel consumption (on volume or mass bases) will be higher than hydrocarbon fuels. (wikipedia.org)
  • particularly
  • In turn, Shelleyan prose regarding forms of consumption, particularly vegetarianism, is read as a call for social reform and figurative discussions of intemperance and intoxication as warnings against tyranny. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can, however, be attacked by some molten salts, such as sodium cyanide and potassium cyanide, as well as oxygen and the halogens (particularly fluorine) at higher temperatures. (wikipedia.org)
  • live
  • Elsinochromes were proven to kill cells of the host plant and even cause necrotic legions on live tissue by reactions of a singlet oxygen species from the pigment. (wikipedia.org)
  • water
  • The extra water produced also makes the charge rather wet (similar to hydrogen/oxygen combustion engines) and with the formation of acidic products during combustion, the wearing of valves, valve seats and cylinder might be higher than with hydrocarbon burning. (wikipedia.org)
  • safety
  • With the feature of innovative functions, convenient operation, less gas consumption, compact but reasonable structure, and outstanding safety and reliability, it is an indispensable instrument in emergency and ICU rooms, and an essential tool to rescue the life of infants and children. (cima-medical.com)
  • Comparison
  • Marine Ecology Progress Series 1986 Nancy N. Rabalais, 1997-1999 "Comparison of continuous records of near-bottom dissolved oxygen from the hypoxia zone along the Louisiana Coast. (wikipedia.org)