• biochemical
  • The raw leachate with a low biochemical oxygen demand/COD ratio was electrochemically oxidized to prepare the purified leachate for discharge into a sewage system or a receiving water body. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Stability towards the shock loads (pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), toxic substances) explained by the wide-ranging biochemical potential, high mutation capacity and adaptability of sludge in the A-stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • While some functions of dissolved organic molecules lost from cells are known, more remains to be established on the magnitude and role of this loss in photolithotrophic relative to phago-chemorganotrophic and phagomixotrophic growth. (springer.com)
  • bacteria
  • Another strategy used by some classes of bacteria in the oxygen minimum zones is to use nitrate rather than oxygen, thus drawing down the concentrations of this important nutrient. (wikipedia.org)
  • It occurs in yeast and bacteria, and also in oxygen-starved muscle cells, as in the case of lactic acid fermentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although yeast carries out the fermentation in the production of ethanol in beers, wines, and other alcoholic drinks, this is not the only possible agent: bacteria carry out the fermentation in the production of xanthan gum, while mammalian muscle carries out the fermentation that occurs during periods of intense exercise where oxygen supply becomes limited, resulting in the creation of lactic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • algae
  • Low oxygen along the coral algae interaction zone can be alleviated by removal of the alga or by treatment with antibiotics, showing in all experiments to date that hypoxia is the result of microbial activity. (reefcentral.com)
  • Dissolved organic C loss occurs in algae, though there is net organic C entry in osmo-chemorganotrophic growth. (springer.com)
  • processes
  • OMZs are found worldwide, typically along the western coast of continents, in areas where an interplay of physical and biological processes concurrently lower the oxygen concentration (biological processes) and restrict the water from mixing with surrounding waters (physical processes), creating a "pool" of water where oxygen concentrations fall from the normal range of 4-6 mg/l to below 2 mg/l. (wikipedia.org)
  • In much of the ocean, mixing processes enable the resupply of oxygen to these waters (i.e. waters that are part of the wind-driven subtropical gyre circulations are rapidly exchanged with the surface and never acquire a strong oxygen deficit). (wikipedia.org)
  • The distribution of the open-ocean oxygen minimum zones is controlled by the large-scale ocean circulation as well as local physical as well as biological processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physical processes then constrain the mixing and isolate this low oxygen water from outside water. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactive
  • We report that biguanides inhibit complex I by inhibiting ubiquinone reduction (but not competitively) and, independently, stimulate reactive oxygen species production by the complex I flavin. (biochemj.org)
  • landfill
  • In this contribution, removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD), acute toxicity, genotoxicity and estrogenicity in landfill leachate membrane concentrates (MCs) among UV-Fenton, Fenton and activated carbon adsorption process were compared. (environmental-expert.com)
  • In the present study, a batch electrocoagulation reactor containing aluminum and iron electrodes was used to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) from landfill leachate (Tunceli, Turkey). (environmental-expert.com)
  • carbohydrate
  • This would suggest they are actively increasing their carbohydrate consumption to maximize their reproductive fitness and attractiveness to potential female mates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Earth's
  • Surface ocean waters generally have oxygen concentrations close to equilibrium with the Earth's atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • converts
  • ABSTRACT This paper describes how the Cambi Thermal Hydrolysis Process (THP) treats biodegradable organic waste and converts it to renewable energy and pathogen-free and bio-fertilizer. (environmental-expert.com)
  • calculate
  • This invention relates to indirect calorimeters for measuring metabolic rate on the basis of respiratory oxygen consumption and more particularly to such a calorimeter which scrubs the CO 2 from the exhaled gas and computes the difference between the inhaled gas volume and the volume of the scrubbed exhaled gas to calculate oxygen consumption. (google.com)
  • process
  • A process is disclosed for generating burnable gas by gasifying water- and ballast-containing organic materials, be it coal or garbage. (google.com)
  • The advantage of the invention is that the ashes may be transformed into an elution-resistant granulated building material, in that a tar-free burnable gas is generated and in that oxygen consumption is strongly reduced in comparison with the fly stream gasification process. (google.com)
  • 3. A process according to claim 1, wherein said organic materials are selected from the group consisting of water-containing or ballast-containing materials. (google.com)
  • 5. A process according to claim 1, wherein said organic materials have been previously comminuted. (google.com)
  • oxygen is used as part of the bacterial metabolic process lowering its concentration within the water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any metabolic process that releases energy from a sugar or other organic molecule, does not require oxygen or an electron transport system, and uses an organic molecule as the final electron acceptor (most scientific). (wikipedia.org)
  • The unpicked fruit of the coffee tree, known as the coffee cherry, undergoes a long process to make it ready for consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • This technique is used in Colombia and Mexico in order to reduce the water consumption from the long fermentation process and the extensive washing. (wikipedia.org)
  • accumulation
  • For example, one of the reported effects of sustained aquaculture activity on coastal environments is the deposition and accumulation of organic-rich sediments near the production site whether from the faeces and pseudofaeces of shellfish or uneaten food and excretion of fin fish. (wikipedia.org)
  • fermentation
  • For that reason, fermentation is rarely utilized when oxygen is available. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fermentation products contain chemical energy (they are not fully oxidized), but are considered waste products, since they cannot be metabolized further without the use of oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • readily
  • They have highly developed gills with large surface area and thin blood-to-water diffusion distance that enables effective removal of oxygen from the water (up to 90% O2 removal from inhaled water) and an efficient circulatory system with high capacity and high blood concentration of a protein (hemocyanin) that readily binds oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • lesser
  • Sulfur is insoluble in water but soluble in carbon disulfide and, to a lesser extent, in other nonpolar organic solvents, such as benzene and toluene. (wikipedia.org)
  • responses
  • Rhoads and Germano (1982) took this concept one step further by assigning categories to the various successional stages in an attempt to integrate the biotic and geochemical responses to organic enrichment. (wikipedia.org)
  • substances
  • In these light-dependent reactions, some energy is used to strip electrons from suitable substances, such as water, producing oxygen gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • excess
  • the excess oxygen they produced contributed directly to the oxygenation of the Earth, which rendered the evolution of complex life possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • water
  • Andreev A, Watanabe S (2002) Temporal changes in dissolved oxygen of the intermediate water in the subarctic North Pacific. (springer.com)