• matter
  • Organic matter decomposition pathways and oxygen consumption in c. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • In this study, we investigate the possible use of ∑CO 2 production, determined from anoxic incubation experiments, and natural solute (O 2 , NH 4 + , SO 4 - ) distributions to infer the pathways of organic matter decomposition in nearshore marine sediments. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Therefore, anoxic ∑CO 2 production, as a function of depth, was used to derive the relative roles of different electron acceptors in the organic matter decomposition process. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • One-dimensional models of O 2 distributions in sediments indicate that O 2 reduction can be a significant component of organic matter decomposition (>20%) only in benthic environments characterized by: (1) low total organic matter decomposition rates, (2) extremely rapid attenuation of organic matter decomposition with depth, and/or (3) very intense bioturbation. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • These results bring into question the generality of previous assertions that O 2 accounts for 50% or more of total organic matter decomposition in reactive nearshore marine sediments. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Organic matter is a small but active part of the global carbon cycle. (diva-portal.org)
  • Systems with large supply of organic matter by inflow can be net heterotrophic, which thus release more C02 than what they fix. (diva-portal.org)
  • In the Baltic primary production is the main source of organic matter, while in the lake dissolved organic matter from inflow dominates. (diva-portal.org)
  • Disinfection by-products form as chlorine reacts with organic matter that is present in the wastewater, especially with too high or too low pH levels. (appropedia.org)
  • The 30/30 allowable discharge permit states that Arcata's wastewater treatment plant must have an effluent with less than 30 mg/L of oxygen demanding organic matter (BOD 5 ) and 30 mg/L of total suspended solids (TSS). (appropedia.org)
  • For farmers, gardeners and landscapers, it means creating a compost product that economically and efficiently builds organic matter into soils and grows flourishing crops. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Direct contact between algae and corals, for example, delivers DOM, potential pathogens, and hydrophobic organic matter (including allelochemicals) to the tissue of the competitor. (reefcentral.com)
  • Given that direct and indirect contact between algae and corals can elicit negative influences, it will be important to determine how organic matter (OM) and microbes move between holobionts. (reefcentral.com)
  • Developed for chemical organic matter (COD) and turbidity responses, the quadratic polynomial model is suitable for prediction within the range of simulated variables. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The composition of riverine organic matter (OM) affects the size of these fluxes by governing how much carbon will be returned to the atmosphere while in transit versus exported to the ocean, where carbon can be permanently buried in marine sediments. (washington.edu)
  • In order to foresee the measures of the Directive 1999/31/EC, waste management policies are focused on the reduction of organic matter landfill disposal, through the recovering of the organic waste stream or the pre-treatment of residual wastes before landfilling. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Until 1850, natural BNF, cultivation-induced BNF (e.g., planting of leguminous crops), and incorporated organic matter were the only sources of N for agricultural production. (wikipedia.org)
  • As water moves out of the mixed layer into the thermocline, it is exposed to a rain of organic matter from above. (wikipedia.org)
  • The downward flux of organic matter decreases sharply with depth, with 80-90% being consumed in the top 1,000 m (3,300 ft). (wikipedia.org)
  • Low oxygen water may spread (by advection) from under areas of high productivity up to these physical boundaries to create a stagnant pool of water with no direct connection to the ocean surface even though (as in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific) there may be relatively little organic matter falling from the surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary role of all fungi is to degrade detrital organic matter from plants, and mycoplankton is no exception. (wikipedia.org)
  • By working with microbial communities, mycoplankton efficiently converts particulate organic matter to dissolved organic matter as part of the biogeochemical cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been shown that there are higher concentrations of mycoplankton near the surface and in shallow waters, which indicates their connection with the upwelling of organic matter. (wikipedia.org)
  • L a {\displaystyle L_{a}} is the initial oxygen demand of organic matter in the water, also called the ultimate BOD (BOD at time t=infinity). (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Another strategy used by some classes of bacteria in the oxygen minimum zones is to use nitrate rather than oxygen, thus drawing down the concentrations of this important nutrient. (wikipedia.org)
  • It occurs in yeast and bacteria, and also in oxygen-starved muscle cells, as in the case of lactic acid fermentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although yeast carries out the fermentation in the production of ethanol in beers, wines, and other alcoholic drinks, this is not the only possible agent: bacteria carry out the fermentation in the production of xanthan gum, while mammalian muscle carries out the fermentation that occurs during periods of intense exercise where oxygen supply becomes limited, resulting in the creation of lactic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • wastewater
  • The continuous measurements of N2O emissions from the aeration tanks of three activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) operated with biological nitrogen removal (BNR) and non-BNR were performed during the different operating conditions of several parameters, such as aeration, dissolved oxygen (DO) profiling and organic shock loading (with landfill leachate). (environmental-expert.com)
  • Modern wastewater plants are effective at processing organic solids into fertilizer products (known as biosolids), with advanced facilities also capturing methane for energy production. (wikipedia.org)
  • geochemical
  • Rhoads and Germano (1982) took this concept one step further by assigning categories to the various successional stages in an attempt to integrate the biotic and geochemical responses to organic enrichment. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • OMZs are found worldwide, typically along the western coast of continents, in areas where an interplay of physical and biological processes concurrently lower the oxygen concentration (biological processes) and restrict the water from mixing with surrounding waters (physical processes), creating a "pool" of water where oxygen concentrations fall from the normal range of 4-6 mg/l to below 2 mg/l. (wikipedia.org)
  • In much of the ocean, mixing processes enable the resupply of oxygen to these waters (i.e. waters that are part of the wind-driven subtropical gyre circulations are rapidly exchanged with the surface and never acquire a strong oxygen deficit). (wikipedia.org)
  • The distribution of the open-ocean oxygen minimum zones is controlled by the large-scale ocean circulation as well as local physical as well as biological processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physical processes then constrain the mixing and isolate this low oxygen water from outside water. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactive
  • We report that biguanides inhibit complex I by inhibiting ubiquinone reduction (but not competitively) and, independently, stimulate reactive oxygen species production by the complex I flavin. (biochemj.org)
  • landfill
  • In this contribution, removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD), acute toxicity, genotoxicity and estrogenicity in landfill leachate membrane concentrates (MCs) among UV-Fenton, Fenton and activated carbon adsorption process were compared. (environmental-expert.com)
  • In the present study, a batch electrocoagulation reactor containing aluminum and iron electrodes was used to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) from landfill leachate (Tunceli, Turkey). (environmental-expert.com)
  • carbohydrate
  • This would suggest they are actively increasing their carbohydrate consumption to maximize their reproductive fitness and attractiveness to potential female mates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Earth's
  • Surface ocean waters generally have oxygen concentrations close to equilibrium with the Earth's atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • converts
  • ABSTRACT This paper describes how the Cambi Thermal Hydrolysis Process (THP) treats biodegradable organic waste and converts it to renewable energy and pathogen-free and bio-fertilizer. (environmental-expert.com)
  • calculate
  • This invention relates to indirect calorimeters for measuring metabolic rate on the basis of respiratory oxygen consumption and more particularly to such a calorimeter which scrubs the CO 2 from the exhaled gas and computes the difference between the inhaled gas volume and the volume of the scrubbed exhaled gas to calculate oxygen consumption. (google.com)
  • algae
  • Low oxygen along the coral algae interaction zone can be alleviated by removal of the alga or by treatment with antibiotics, showing in all experiments to date that hypoxia is the result of microbial activity. (reefcentral.com)
  • accumulation
  • For example, one of the reported effects of sustained aquaculture activity on coastal environments is the deposition and accumulation of organic-rich sediments near the production site whether from the faeces and pseudofaeces of shellfish or uneaten food and excretion of fin fish. (wikipedia.org)
  • fermentation
  • Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • For that reason, fermentation is rarely utilized when oxygen is available. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fermentation products contain chemical energy (they are not fully oxidized), but are considered waste products, since they cannot be metabolized further without the use of oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • This technique is used in Colombia and Mexico in order to reduce the water consumption from the long fermentation process and the extensive washing. (wikipedia.org)
  • process
  • A process is disclosed for generating burnable gas by gasifying water- and ballast-containing organic materials, be it coal or garbage. (google.com)
  • The advantage of the invention is that the ashes may be transformed into an elution-resistant granulated building material, in that a tar-free burnable gas is generated and in that oxygen consumption is strongly reduced in comparison with the fly stream gasification process. (google.com)
  • 3. A process according to claim 1, wherein said organic materials are selected from the group consisting of water-containing or ballast-containing materials. (google.com)
  • 5. A process according to claim 1, wherein said organic materials have been previously comminuted. (google.com)
  • oxygen is used as part of the bacterial metabolic process lowering its concentration within the water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any metabolic process that releases energy from a sugar or other organic molecule, does not require oxygen or an electron transport system, and uses an organic molecule as the final electron acceptor (most scientific). (wikipedia.org)
  • The unpicked fruit of the coffee tree, known as the coffee cherry, undergoes a long process to make it ready for consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • readily
  • They have highly developed gills with large surface area and thin blood-to-water diffusion distance that enables effective removal of oxygen from the water (up to 90% O2 removal from inhaled water) and an efficient circulatory system with high capacity and high blood concentration of a protein (hemocyanin) that readily binds oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • lesser
  • Sulfur is insoluble in water but soluble in carbon disulfide and, to a lesser extent, in other nonpolar organic solvents, such as benzene and toluene. (wikipedia.org)
  • substances
  • In these light-dependent reactions, some energy is used to strip electrons from suitable substances, such as water, producing oxygen gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • Then the minimum dissolved oxygen concentration is D O c r i t = D O s a t − D c r i t {\displaystyle DO_{crit}=DO_{sat}-D_{crit}} It should be noted that, mathematically it is possible to get a negative value of D O c r i t {\displaystyle DO_{crit}} , even though it is not possible to have a negative amount of DO in reality. (wikipedia.org)
  • production
  • About 6.7 million tonnes were produced worldwide in 2010, mainly for use as a solvent and production of methyl methacrylate and bisphenol A. It is a common building block in organic chemistry. (wikipedia.org)