• gangliosides
  • The oligosaccharide groups on gangliosides extend well beyond the surfaces of the cell membranes, and act as distinguishing surface markers that can serve as specific determinants in cellular recognition and cell-to-cell communication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in genes coding for these enzymes leads to the accumulation of partially broken down gangliosides in lysosomes, which results in a group of diseases called gangliosidosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sialic acids are found widely distributed in animal tissues and to a lesser extent in other organisms, ranging from plants and fungi to yeasts and bacteria, mostly in glycoproteins and gangliosides (they occur at the end of sugar chains connected to the surfaces of cells and soluble proteins). (wikipedia.org)
  • Gangliosides are typically found as membrane constituents in brain, a finding that suggests a specific functional role in the central nervous system (CNS). (springer.com)
  • More recently, it has become evident that gangliosides are ubiquitous, i.e., occurring not only in the nervous system, and should be considered important constituents of the surface membrane of most, perhaps all, animal cells of Deuterostomia . (springer.com)
  • functions
  • It may also functions in the protection, maintenance, and adhesion of the lysosome. (ptglab.com)
  • Animal lectins containing such CRDs serve their biological functions by recognizing either endogenous or exogenous carbohydrate structures. (searlescholars.net)
  • Though it separates the cell's protoplasm from the external environment, the membrane is not completely impermeable, but functions as an exceptionally sensitive control mechanism, allowing suitable substances to enter and leave, while preventing others from entering. (evolutiondeceit.com)
  • phosphate
  • Therefore, Neufeld suggested that I-cell disease was caused by a deficiency in the enzymes that add a specific mannose 6-phosphate tag onto lysosomal enzymes so they can be targeted to the lysosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the enzyme has dissociated from the mannose 6-phosphate receptor, it is translocated from the endosome to the lysosome where the phosphate tag is removed from the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitochondria
  • Importantly, the endomembrane system does not include the membranes of chloroplasts or mitochondria, but might have evolved from the latter (see below: Evolution). (wikipedia.org)
  • hexosaminidase
  • For example, the fatal Tay-Sachs disease arises as a genetic defect which leads to no functional hexosaminidase A produced, causing GM2 to accumulate in lysosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial
  • Helicobacter pylori Cag type IV secretion system (Cag-T4SS) is a multi-component transporter of oncoprotein CagA across the bacterial membranes into the host epithelial cells. (jove.com)
  • Translocation of CagA across the bacterial membranes to cell surface is CagI-independent process. (jove.com)
  • surfaces
  • For example, A,B, and O blood group antigens give rise to the various blood types and these arise from carbohydrates on their cell surfaces. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Since water is a polar molecule with partial positive charges on both hydrogen atoms, it is attracted to cell surfaces and membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • These pores are about 120 nm in diameter and regulate the passage of molecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm, permitting some to pass through the membrane, but not others. (wikipedia.org)
  • The best studied example of carbohydrate-based cell adhesion is the initiation of extravasation resulting from binding of moving leukocytes to endothelial cells, which is mediated by selectin cell adhesion molecules. (searlescholars.net)
  • According to this model, the cell membrane consists of a highly viscous fluid matrix of two layers of phospholipid molecules. (studyadda.com)
  • The cell membrane separates the cell from the external environment, taking in those molecules that the cell requires and expelling those that need to be removed, without wasting any time. (evolutiondeceit.com)
  • complex
  • Basically, the membrane is a border protecting the cell from the outside, but it also possesses very many complex features and duties that scientists have still not discovered. (evolutiondeceit.com)
  • But the selection in the cell membrane is not fixed and mechanical, but is a very complex process that alters in accordance with conditions. (evolutiondeceit.com)