• Environmental Protec
  • The history of each criteria air pollutant is listed below: The six criteria air pollutants were the first set of pollutants recognized by the United States Environmental Protection Agency as needing standards on a national level. (wikipedia.org)
  • TEOM-based devices have been approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for environmental air quality monitoring, and by the U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration for monitoring coal dust exposure for miners to prevent several respiratory diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reference and Equivalent Methods Used to Measure National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Criteria Air Pollutants - Volume I". U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ambient standards, also known as the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), is set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to regulate how much pollutes are in the air. (wikipedia.org)
  • The U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS, pronounced \'naks\) are standards established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under authority of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under the CAA the Environmental Protection Agency is directed to establish National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) limiting major air pollutants to levels that will protect public health, including the health of sensitive groups such as children, the elderly, and people with respiratory illnesses. (learner.org)
  • As mandated by the Clean Air Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must periodically review the scientific bases (or "criteria") for the various NAAQS by assessing newly available scientific information on a given criteria air pollutant. (epa.gov)
  • The National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, also using the acronym NESHAP, are emissions standards set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency-EPA. (wikipedia.org)
  • WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) carries out experiments in which volunteer participants agree to be intentionally exposed by inhalation to specific pollutants at restricted concentrations over short periods to obtain important information about the effects of outdoor air pollution on human health. (junkscience.com)
  • In 1970, the Clean Air Act Amendments set six criteria air pollutants which are updated periodically by the National Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). (wikipedia.org)
  • The United States Environmental Protection Agency (responsible for air quality regulation at a national level under the U.S. Clean Air Act, utilizes performance standards under the New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) program. (wikipedia.org)
  • The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) began regulating greenhouse gases (GHGs) under the Clean Air Act ("CAA" or "Act") from mobile and stationary sources of air pollution for the first time on January 2, 2011. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a 5-4 decision in Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency, the Supreme Court held that "greenhouse gases fit well within the Act's capacious definition of 'air pollutant' " and that EPA therefore has statutory authority to regulate GHG emissions from new motor vehicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1967 - Air Quality Act (amendment to CAA) 1969 - Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act 1969 - National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) 1970 - Reorganization Plan No. 3 created the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) by Presidential Executive Order 1970 - Clean Air Act (Extension). (wikipedia.org)
  • National Ambient A
  • The Clean Air Act requires the EPA to set US National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for the six CAPs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The trends shown are for criteria air pollutants (CAPs) and precursors covered by the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), excluding lead. (epa.gov)
  • EPA's Office of Research and Development has requested CASAC peer review of a draft document, 'Draft Integrated Science Assessment fox Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur - Environmental Criteria (ISA),', intended to provide a synthesis and evaluation of science relevent for revising the secondary (welfare-based) standards for the national ambient air quality standards for nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. (epa.gov)
  • EPA's Office of Air and Radiation (OAR) has requested that CASAC review draft risk and exposure assessments for the secondary (welfare-based) standards for the national ambient air quality standards for nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. (epa.gov)
  • The standards are for air pollutants not covered by National Ambient Air Quality Standards-NAAQS, that may cause an increase in fatalities or in serious, irreversible, or incapacitating illness. (wikipedia.org)
  • These include prohibiting significant contribution to nonattainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in another state, interference with maintenance of the NAAQS in another state, interference with plans in another state to prevent significant deterioration of air quality, and interference with plans in another state to protect visibility. (federalregister.gov)
  • By the end of 1970, President Richard Nixon had signed the Clean Air Act Extension, which created regulatory programs governing National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), State Implementation Plans (SIPs), New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), and National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs). (wikipedia.org)
  • The models are typically employed to determine whether existing or proposed new industrial facilities are or will be in compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in the United States and other nations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Major rewrite of CAA, setting National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) Hazardous Air Pollutant standards, and auto emissions tailpipe standards. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ozone
  • Ozone (O3): Ozone found on the surface-level, also known as tropospheric ozone is also regulated by the NAAQS under the Clean Air Act. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CASAC Ozone Review Panel provides advice and recommendations to EPA concerning ozone and related photochemical oxidants in ambient air. (federalregister.gov)
  • The committee that conducted the study and wrote the report examined the contributions of CHIE experiments to the scientific information used for the reviews of NAAQS for ozone and PM. Ozone and PM CHIE studies have enabled investigators to separate the effects of exposure to such individual pollutants from effects associated with exposures to ambient complex mixtures. (junkscience.com)
  • Further amendments were made in 1990 to address the problems of acid rain, ozone depletion, and toxic air pollution, and to establish a national permit program for stationary sources, and increased enforcement authority. (wikipedia.org)
  • CFCs as agents of ozone depletion), and on human health (e.g., asbestos in indoor air). (wikipedia.org)
  • 1970
  • The latest version of the 1970 - 2016 data show the trends for Tier 1 categories which distinguish pollutant emission contributions among major source types. (epa.gov)
  • The CAA has been amended several times since its passage in 1970 to tighten standards and institute new controls that reflect advances in scientific understanding of air pollution. (learner.org)
  • These standards are authorized by Section 112 of the 1970 Clean Air Act and the regulations are published in 40 CFR Parts 61 and 63. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • The regulation of ambient pollutants in the air ensures that the air remains breathable and does not further deteriorate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, these regulation help preserve public welfare from any known pollutants that could potentially damage it. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new report by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine finds these studies are warranted and recommends that they continue under --two conditions: when they provide additional knowledge that informs policy decisions and regulation of pollutants that cannot be obtained by other means, and when it is reasonably predictable that the risks for study participants will not exceed biomarker or physiologic responses that are of short duration and reversible. (junkscience.com)
  • Air quality regulation must identify the substances and energies which qualify as "pollution" for purposes of further control. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1990
  • The EPA established the NAAQS according to Sections 108 and 109 of the U.S. Clean Air Act, which was last amended in 1990. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1990, a Lead Staff Paper was prepared by the EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OPQPS), which was based on information presented in the 1986 Lead/AQCD/Addendum and 1990 Supplement, in addition to other OAQPS sponsored lead exposure/risk analyses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Air pollution Air Quality Index Asthma Atmospheric dispersion modeling Clean Air Act (1990) Portable Emissions Measurement System Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 Trans-Alaska Pipeline System Renewal Environmental Impact Statement article Hall, Eric S. (wikipedia.org)
  • A set of CAA amendments passed in 1990 has produced significant cuts in SO 2 emissions through what was then a new approach to reducing air pollution: capping the total allowable amount of pollution emitted nationally and then allocating emission rights among major sources (mainly coal-burning electric power plants and industrial facilities). (learner.org)
  • The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments direct EPA to set standards for all major sources of air toxics (and some area sources that are of particular concern). (wikipedia.org)
  • Reviewing his tenure as EPA Administrator under President George H. W. Bush, William K. Reilly characterized passage of the 1990 Clean Air Act as his most notable accomplishment. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1990 - Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clean Air
  • We are proposing to approve local rules to regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act). (federalregister.gov)
  • The Clean Air Act requires periodic review of NAAQS, and new scientific data published after 1977 made it necessary to revise the standards previously established in the 1977 Lead AQCD document. (wikipedia.org)
  • As part of the Clean Air Act initiative, ambient standards are set to ensure that people are breathing clean air. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clean Air Act standards. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Clean Air Act (CAA) sets out a comprehensive set of national standards for controlling air pollutants that are considered harmful to public health and the environment in the United States. (learner.org)
  • The CASAC, which is comprised of seven members appointed by the EPA Administrator, was established under section 109(d)(2) of the Clean Air Act (CAA or Act) ( 42 U.S.C. 7409 ) as an independent scientific advisory committee. (federalregister.gov)
  • Air pollution in the United States EPA: Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Overview, a brief description of the sections of the Clean Air Act related to air toxics as well as further links to relevant rules, reports, and programs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The submission would address the "good neighbor" provisions of the Clean Air Act (CAA). (federalregister.gov)
  • The Clean Air Act is a United States federal law designed to control air pollution on a national level. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first federal legislation to actually pertain to "controlling" air pollution was the Clean Air Act of 1963. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Clean Air Act was the first major environmental law in the United States to include a provision for citizen suits. (wikipedia.org)
  • At industrial facilities, this type of consequence assessment or emergency planning is required under the Clean Air Act (United States) (CAA) codified in Part 68 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxic
  • Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers (PRTR) are systems to collect and disseminate information on environmental releases and transfers of toxic chemicals from industrial and other facilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, some proposals for emissions trading are more controversial-specifically, whether it is a safe approach for cutting toxic pollutants such as mercury. (learner.org)
  • Of the releases to air by the pulp and paper industry, 60% were methanol which is not a persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) chemical and is not a carcinogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two types of stationary sources that generate routine emissions of air toxics: "Major" sources are defined as sources that emit 10 or more tons per year of any of the listed toxic air pollutants, or 25 or more tons per year of a mixture of air toxics. (wikipedia.org)
  • These sources may release air toxics from equipment leaks, when materials are transferred from one location to another, or during discharge through emission stacks or vents "Area" sources consist of smaller-size facilities that release lesser quantities of toxic pollutants into the air. (wikipedia.org)
  • Area sources are defined as sources that do not emit more than 10 tons per year of a single air toxic or more than 25 tons per year of a combination of air toxics. (wikipedia.org)
  • govern
  • These revisions include a state statute and certain state rules that govern air pollution sources under the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ) and the Pinal County Air Quality Control District (PCAQCD). (federalregister.gov)
  • It is performed with computer programs that include algorithms to solve the mathematical equations that govern the pollutant dispersion. (wikipedia.org)
  • emissions standards
  • For example, California set their own emissions standards through the California Air Resources Board (CARB), whose numbers were beginning to be adopted by other states. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numerous methods exist for determining appropriate emissions standards, and different regulatory approaches may be taken depending on the source, industry, and air pollutant under review. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon
  • Carbon monoxide (CO): The EPA set the first NAAQS for carbon monoxide in 1971. (wikipedia.org)
  • These standards are put into place in order to maintain air quality and human health and regulate the release the of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), oxides of nitrogen and oxides of sulfur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fund pollutants do not cause damage to the environment unless the emission rate exceeds the receiving environment's absorptive capacity (e.g. carbon dioxide, which is absorbed by plants and oceans). (wikipedia.org)
  • The United States has recently seen controversy over whether carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases should be classified as air pollutants. (wikipedia.org)
  • The petitioners argued that carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and hydrofluorocarbons meet the definition of an air pollutant under section 302(g) of the Act, and that statements made by the EPA, other federal agencies, and the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) amounted to a finding that these pollutants are reasonably anticipated to endanger public health and welfare. (wikipedia.org)
  • For pollutants that have a very high spatio-temporal variability (i.e. have very steep distance to source decay such as black carbon) and for epidemiological studies statistical land-use regression models are also used. (wikipedia.org)
  • USEPA
  • Source: USEPA The EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory can designate a measurement device using an established technological basis as a Federal Reference Method (FRM) to certify that the device has undergone a testing and analysis protocol, and can be used to monitor NAAQS compliance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polycyclic
  • The act lists unregulated radioactive pollutants such as cadmium, arsenic, and polycyclic organic matter and mandates listing them if they will cause or contribute to air pollution that endangers public health, under section 7408 or 7412. (wikipedia.org)
  • emit
  • Opponents argue that letting some large sources continue to emit such pollutants could create dangerous "hot spots" that would be hazardous to public health, and that the only safe way to control hazardous pollutants like mercury is to require specific reductions from each individual source. (learner.org)
  • Design for disposal or reuse: The end-of-life of a product is very important, because some products emit dangerous chemicals into the air, ground and water after they are disposed of in a landfill. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atmospheric
  • The dispersion models vary depending on the mathematics used to develop the model, but all require the input of data that may include: Meteorological conditions such as wind speed and direction, the amount of atmospheric turbulence (as characterized by what is called the "stability class"), the ambient air temperature, the height to the bottom of any inversion aloft that may be present, cloud cover and solar radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The atmospheric dispersion models are also known as atmospheric diffusion models, air dispersion models, air quality models, and air pollution dispersion models. (wikipedia.org)
  • secondary
  • The NAAQS are health based and the EPA sets two types of standards: primary and secondary. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such standards generally are expressed as levels of specific air pollutants that are deemed acceptable in ambient air, and are most often designed to reduce or eliminate the human health effects of air pollution, although secondary effects such as crop and building damage may also be considered. (wikipedia.org)
  • respiratory
  • Inhalation is a major route of exposure that occurs when an individual breathes in polluted air which enters the respiratory tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identification of the pollutant uptake by the respiratory system can determine how the resulting exposure contributes to the dose. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this way, the mechanism of pollutant uptake by the respiratory system can be used to predict potential health impacts within the human population. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of this pollutant is exhaled, and the fraction that is absorbed by the respiratory system is known as the absorbed dose. (wikipedia.org)
  • The remaining pollutant that is transported through the liquid layer, making contact with the respiratory tract tissues is the fraction of bioavailability, called the effective dose. (wikipedia.org)
  • acceptable
  • At this stage, however, the government's merits brief signals quite clearly that the more limited "NAAQS-only" reading of the trigger would be an acceptable place to land. (harvard.edu)
  • Regulatory efforts include identifying and categorizing air pollutants, setting limits on acceptable emissions levels, and dictating necessary or appropriate mitigation technologies. (wikipedia.org)
  • degradation
  • Furthermore, the enforcement of these set standards are designed to prevent further degradation of air quality. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the degradation products of some pollutants are themselves polluting such as the products DDE and DDD produced from degradation of DDT. (wikipedia.org)
  • amounts
  • The agency could have opted to interpret the PSD program in a more limited fashion, treating the program's permitting requirements and technology controls as triggered only by the emission of NAAQS pollutants in amounts over the statutory threshold (just as Judge Kavanaugh proposed in his dissent from the D.C. Circuit's denial of rehearing en banc), arguably without losing anything too precious. (harvard.edu)
  • exposure
  • The EPA elected to not modify the Pb NAAQS further, but decided to instead focus on the 1991 U.S. EPA Strategy for Reducing Lead Exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The EPA concentrated on regulatory and remedial clean-up efforts to minimize Pb exposure from numerous non-air sources that caused more severe public health risks, and undertook actions to reduce air emissions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The biologic responses of the participants in the past studies, as anticipated by the study protocol, dissipated once the exposure to air pollutants stopped and did not result in any serious effects with long-term consequences. (junkscience.com)
  • Out of the 845 intentional pollutant exposures conducted at EPA's study facility from Jan. 2009 to Oct. 2016, one participant developed an unexpected episode of irregular heart beat during an experimental PM exposure. (junkscience.com)
  • Determining appropriate air quality standards generally requires up-to-date scientific data on the health effects of the pollutant under review, with specific information on exposure times and sensitive populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1977
  • Based on this report (1977 Lead AQCD), the EPA established a "1.5 µg/m3 (maximum quarterly calendar average) Pb NAAQS in 1978. (wikipedia.org)
  • compliance
  • States and counties that fail to achieve these standards are required to develop plans for bringing their air quality into compliance. (learner.org)
  • quality
  • Emission standards are enacted to control the amount of pollutants that are released into the air in order to maintain air quality. (wikipedia.org)
  • An air quality control region is an area, designated by the federal government, where communities share a common air pollution problem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ambient Air Quality Guidelines" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • These provisions require each state to submit a SIP that prohibits emissions that adversely affect another state's air quality through interstate transport. (federalregister.gov)
  • It is one of the United States' first and most influential modern environmental laws, and one of the most comprehensive air quality laws in the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • A second amendment, the Air Quality Act of 1967, enabled the federal government to increase its activities to investigate enforcing interstate air pollution transport, and, for the first time, to perform far-reaching ambient monitoring studies and stationary source inspections. (wikipedia.org)
  • This section of the act declares that protecting and enhancing the nation's air quality promotes public health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Grants for air pollution planning and control programs, and interstate air quality agencies and program cost limitations are also included in this section of the act. (wikipedia.org)
  • A distinction may be made between mandatory and aspirational air quality standards. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, employers may be required immediately to rectify any violation of OSHA workplace air quality standards. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are generally designed to achieve air quality standards and to protect human health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specific limits may be set by reference to and within the confines of more general air quality standards. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, they are the dominant type of model used in air quality policy making. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dispersion models are important to governmental agencies tasked with protecting and managing the ambient air quality. (wikipedia.org)
  • sources
  • The majority of CO emitted into the ambient air is from mobile sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sources: USEPA's original list & Modifications Most air toxics originate from human-made sources, including mobile sources (e.g., cars, trucks, buses) and stationary sources (e.g., factories, refineries, power plants), as well as indoor sources (e.g., building materials and activities such as cleaning). (wikipedia.org)
  • 2 Type A sources are a subset of the Type B sources and are the larger emitting sources by pollutant. (tn.gov)
  • Emission standards set quantitative limits on the permissible amount of specific air pollutants that may be released from specific sources over specific timeframes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specific sources may be regulated by means of performance standards, meaning numerical limits on the emission of a specific pollutant from that source category. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dispersion models are used to estimate the downwind ambient concentration of air pollutants or toxins emitted from sources such as industrial plants, vehicular traffic or accidental chemical releases. (wikipedia.org)
  • reasonably
  • Section 202(a)(1) of the CAA requires the Administrator of the EPA to establish standards "applicable to the emission of any air pollutant from…new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines, which in [her] judgment cause, or contribute to, air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare" (emphasis added). (wikipedia.org)
  • climate change
  • The rise in global environmental issues such as air and water pollution, climate change, overflowing landfills and clearcutting have all lead to increased government regulations. (wikipedia.org)
  • On September 8, 2003, EPA denied the ICTA petition on the ground that it did not have authority under the CAA to promulgate regulations to address global climate change and that CO2 and other GHGs therefore could not be considered air pollutants under the provisions of the CAA, including section 202. (wikipedia.org)
  • temperature
  • In addition, water droplets cannot be distinguished from particle mass, so the device must adjust the incoming air temperature to cause water droplets to evaporate, or contain a dryer or humidity sensor to adjust the readings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Standards
  • To ensure that the ambient standards are met, the EPA uses the Federal Reference Method (FRM) and Federal Equivalent Method (FEM) systems measure the amount of pollutants in the air are within the limits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conventional pollutant - U.S. Clean Water Act List of environmental issues Pollutant Standards Index. (wikipedia.org)
  • NAAQS are set based on input from scientific advisory committees, and the act specifically directs EPA not to consider costs in setting NAAQS, although states can consider costs when they develop their plans for meeting the standards. (learner.org)
  • Another set of standards, for indoor air in employment settings, is administered by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. (wikipedia.org)