• bacteria
  • It is thus not surprising that bacteria have evolved a variety of strategies to employ this information in the control of gene expression. (asmscience.org)
  • In B. subtilis and most endospore-forming bacteria, sporulation initiation is under the control of a phosphorelay, an expanded two-component sensory signaling system, and the key molecule in transducing signals into the activation of those genes required for sporulation is the response regulator Spo0A. (frontiersin.org)
  • Many bacteria produce, detect, and respond to diffusible QS signal molecules in a cell-density-dependent manner ( 1 , 4 ), highlighting the critical roles of QS signal and its receptor in bacterial cell-cell communications. (pnas.org)
  • The functionally enigmatic flagellar protein FlhF, which is the third paralog of the signal recognition particle (SRP) GTPases Ffh and FtsY, is required for swarming in many bacteria. (frontiersin.org)
  • She has an uncanny ability to unmask genes that play parallel roles in bacteria and mammals, and I expect her to continue to be as productive and creative as she was as a student in my lab. (essayforum.com)
  • For example, A. Homology of the gene coding for outer membrane lipoprotein within various gram-negative bacteria. (retzepti.ru)
  • Examples include the HU protein in Escherichia coli, a dimer of closely related alpha and beta chains and in other bacteria can be a dimer of identical chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Histone-like proteins were unknown to be present in bacteria until similarities between eukaryotic histones and the HU-protein were noted, particularly because of the abundancy, basicity, and small size of both of the proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon further investigation, it was discovered that the amino acid composition of HU resembles that of eukaryotic histones, thus prompting further research into the exact function of bacterial DNA binding proteins and discoveries of other related proteins in bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, many more functions of bacteria DNA binding proteins have been discovered, including the regulation of gene expression by histone-like nucleoid-structuring protein, H-NS. (wikipedia.org)
  • H-NS is about 15.6 kDa and assists in the regulation of bacterial transcription in bacteria by repressing and activating certain genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been shown that ActA is not only necessary but also sufficient to induce motility of bacteria in the absence of other bacterial factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The universal stress protein (USP) domain is a superfamily of conserved genes which can be found in bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa and plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bacteria is one of the best models of intracellular parasitism because it is particularly hardy, able to survive in a variety of cells, cross multiple host barriers, and spreads through ActA, the protein responsible for actin-based motility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regarding the origin of the individual protein components, an interesting paper on the evolution of dyneins shows that the more complex protein family of ciliary dynein has an apparent ancestor in a simpler cytoplasmic dynein (which itself has evolved from the AAA protein family that occurs widely in all archea, bacteria and eukaryotes). (wikipedia.org)
  • It's also one of a range of motility systems in bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • FtsZ is found in nearly all Bacteria and Archaea, where it functions in cell division, localizing to a ring in the middle of the dividing cell and recruiting other components of the divisome, the group of proteins that together constrict the cell envelope to pinch off the cell, yielding two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial cells can also be targeted by twitching: during the cell invasion phase of the lifecycle of Bdellovibrio, type IV pili are used by cells to pull themselves through gaps formed in the cell wall of prey bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite this morphological similarity to bacteria, archaea possess genes and several metabolic pathways that are more closely related to those of eukaryotes, notably the enzymes involved in transcription and translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bacterial endosymbiont is inside its body and is surrounded by two membranes typical of Gram-negative bacteria, but its cell membrane presents unusual features, such as the presence of phosphatidylcholine, a major membrane lipid (atypical of bacterial membranes), and the highly reduced peptidoglycan layer, which shows reduced or absence of rigid cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell membrane of the protozoan host contains an 18-domain β-barrel porin, which is a characteristic protein of Gram-negative bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • target genes
  • Both of these organisms cause significant losses in the aquaculture industry each year, and development of new genetic techniques will allow us to knock-out target genes and evaluate their role in the disease process. (uncw.edu)
  • Esr41 sequence is not present in nonpathogenic E. coli K12, but the sRNA can induce cell motility in K12 as well, suggesting that target genes controlled by Esr41 are present in both E.coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Bacillus subtilis is a soil-dwelling Gram-positive bacterial species that has been extensively studied as a model of biofilm formation and stress-induced cellular differentiation. (rti.org)
  • The ubiquitous nature of these proteins suggests the domain evolved in an ancestral species as well as highlighting the clear biological significance these proteins have in order to still be present the three domains of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • As part of her work she has also developed important biological tools, including a transgenic mouse that was the first animal model to overcome bacterial species-specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The engine is powered by proton motive force, i.e., by the flow of protons (hydrogen ions) across the bacterial cell membrane due to a concentration gradient set up by the cell's metabolism (Vibrio species have two kinds of flagella, lateral and polar, and some are driven by a sodium ion pump rather than a proton pump). (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been observed in many bacterial species, but is most well studied in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Myxococcus xanthus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences, it is known that it originated from a common ancestor kinetoplastid with Blastocrithidia species. (wikipedia.org)
  • pili
  • however, genome analyses suggest this type of cell movement does not involve well-studied structures such as flagella or pili that drive other types of bacterial locomotion. (uncw.edu)
  • These include motility, chemotaxis to seed and root exudates, production of pili or fimbriae, production of specific cell surface components, ability to use specific components of root exudates, protein secretion, and quorum sensing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pattern of motility that results is highly dependent upon cell shape and the distribution of pili over the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type IV pili also mediate a form of walking motility in P. aeruginosa, where pili are used to pull the cell rod into a vertical orientation and move it at much higher speeds than during horizontal crawling motility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial type IV pili are surface structures that can be extended and retracted and are used to adhere to or move on solid surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, the structure of the archaellum filament resembles type IV pili as it has no central lumen excluding the possibility that it might assembled in a similar fashion like bacterial flagella via a type III secretion system. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomes
  • In this article we present a systematic overview of the genomic arrangement patterns of quorum sensing genes found in Pseudomonas and compare the topologies with those found in other bacterial genomes. (hindawi.com)
  • This wide adaptability is associated with their resourceful metabolic potential and their ability to control gene expression via regulatory elements highly represented in their large genomes. (hindawi.com)
  • UspA is the most commonly studied USP due to its widespread presence within bacterial genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • similarity
  • Long-standing suspicions that tubulin was homologous to FtsZ (based on very weak sequence similarity and some behavioral similarities) were confirmed in 1998 by the independent resolution of the 3-dimensional structures of the two proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is good evidence that the bacterial flagellum has evolved from a Type III secretory and transport system, given the similarity of proteins in both systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • locomotion
  • MotB - MotA and MotB make the stator PomA - protein that is part of the stator in Na+ PomB - protein that is part of the stator in Na+ Integral membrane protein a type of membrane protein Archaellum Cilium Ciliopathy Rotating locomotion in living systems Undulipodium Blair DF, Berg HC (February 1990). (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotes
  • Once again, Susan discovered a gene that is found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, this time in a search for sporulation genes in B. subtilis. (essayforum.com)
  • Such extreme levels of induction are forex by hands ru in eukaryotes, except for some genes in lower eukaryotes such as yeast. (retzepti.ru)
  • The primary point in favor of the symbiotic hypothesis is that there are eukaryotes that use symbiotic spirochetes as their motility organelles (some parabasalids inside termite guts, such as Mixotricha and Trichonympha). (wikipedia.org)
  • specific genes
  • Musculus in the laboratory, including a forex magic breakout plus package at the mouse genome, the mouse life cycle, and two powerful transgenic protocols the addition of specific genes to the mouse genome by nuclear injection and the removal of specific genes from the mouse genome by targeted mutagenesis. (retzepti.ru)
  • A variety of bacterial traits and specific genes contribute to this process, but only a few have been identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • In a mammalian cell the bacterial ActA interacts with the Arp2/3 complex and actin monomers to induce actin polymerization on the bacterial surface generating an actin comet tail. (wikipedia.org)
  • NPFs in the mammalian cell recruit and bind to the already existing actin-related-protein 2 and 3 complex (Arp2/3 complex) and induce an activating conformational change of the Arp2/3 complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary function of this superfamily is to protect the organism from environmental stress such as exposure to UV light, which may induce genes containing the USP domain in order to protect the DNA and more generally the cell from further damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • characteristic
  • The protein forms an asymmetric dimer with characteristic alpha and beta fold structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name twitching motility is derived from the characteristic jerky and irregular motions of individual cells when viewed under the microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • This bacterium exhibits characteristic tumbling motility when viewed with light microscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • This interaction results in a dramatic structural rearrangement of both proteins. (rti.org)
  • in these processes, bacterial DNA binding proteins have an architectural role, maintaining structural integrity as transcription, recombination, replication, or any other DNA-dependent process proceeds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aravind suggested that these proteins were part of a much larger protein structural family which was present and diversified in our last universal common ancestor for all extant life. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genetic locus contains genes encoding archaellins (flaA and flaB) - the structural components of the filament - and core components (flaI, flaJ, flaH). (wikipedia.org)
  • In spite of the structural dissimilarities with the bacterial flagellum, the main function thus far attributed for archaellum is swimming in liquid and semi-solid surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • biosynthetic
  • The tetrameric protein, SinR, has been identified as a master regulator for biofilm formation and linked to the regulation of the early transition states during cellular stress response, such as motility and biofilm-linked biosynthetic genes. (rti.org)
  • bacterium
  • To elucidate potential PT8 genes affected by TC and EG during colonization, a whole-genome microarray analysis of the bacterium treated with TC and EG was conducted. (frontiersin.org)
  • cytoskeletal
  • Recent studies have demonstrated that these proteins, directly or indirectly, associate with the small GTPase, Cdc42, known to regulate formation of actin filaments, and the cytoskeletal organizing complex, Arp2/3. (wikipedia.org)
  • These regions mimic those of the host cell cytoskeletal protein zyxin, vinculin and palladin, known to associate with focal adhesions or stress fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Haloferax volcanii, CetZ forms dynamic cytoskeletal structures required for differentiation from a plate-shaped cell form into a rod-shaped form that exhibits swimming motility. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • The plant-derived compounds TC and EG exert antimicrobial effects on S . Enteritidis PT8 by affecting multiple genes, including those associated with virulence, colonization, cell membrane composition, and transport systems. (frontiersin.org)
  • The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) family of proteins share similar domain structure, and are involved in transduction of signals from receptors on the cell surface to the actin cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent work has demonstrated that the cell surface components of the machinery are partially redundant, and loss of one component does not result in a complete loss of motility. (uncw.edu)
  • As an example, one of the cell surface components required for spreading on agar surfaces is the large (670 kDa) adhesin protein SprB. (uncw.edu)
  • In addition to actin nucleators, other actin-binding proteins cap, depolymerize, elongate and bundle actin filaments, and are therefore crucial for actin dynamics in various cell types ( Pollard and Cooper, 2009 ). (biologists.org)
  • indicating the importance of this protein in cell migration. (biologists.org)
  • Generally, the sporulation process can be thought of as the last opportunity for the bacterial cell to endure when all other attempts to grow, compete, and survive have been exhausted. (frontiersin.org)
  • Above a critical threshold concentration or cell density, AHLs interact directly with the LuxR-family protein, which in most cases results in the formation of homodimers. (hindawi.com)
  • The Actin assembly-inducing protein (ActA) is a protein encoded and used by Listeria monocytogenes to propel itself through a mammalian host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the presence of these stressors, Usp genes are upregulated resulting in large quantities of Usp proteins being produced by the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • During bacterial starvation the USP genes upregulated will often arrest cell growth and promote its metabolism to adapt to sparse nutrients. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The bacterial flagellum is driven by a rotary engine (Mot complex) made up of protein, located at the flagellum's anchor point on the inner cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • TubZ functions in segregating low copy-number plasmids during bacterial cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • This consists of a pore formed from the PilQ protein, through which the assembled pilus can exit the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, it was demonstrated that the rotation of the archaellum is dependent on ATP concentration in the cell rather than PMF (proton motive force) as in the bacterial flagellum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of the sRNAs identified in this screen, including RprA, RyhB, SraB and SraL, are only expressed in the stationary phase of bacterial cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell motility enhancing sRNA named Esr41, was discovered in intergenic region of pathogenic enterohemorrhagic E.coli (EHEC) O157:H7 Sakai. (wikipedia.org)
  • secretory system
  • however, whether these pores are derived from the bacterial flagella or the bacterial secretory system is not known for certain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hypothesis that the flagellum evolved from the type three secretory system has been challenged by recent phylogenetic research that strongly suggests the type three secretory system evolved from the flagellum through a series of gene deletions. (wikipedia.org)
  • interactions
  • p>Covers physical interactions between the gene product of interest and another molecule (or ion, or complex). (uniprot.org)
  • A specific motif that we identify to be required for HD-GYP domain interaction is conserved in a number of GGDEF domain proteins, suggesting that regulation via interdomain interactions is of broad relevance. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Only a small number of H. pylori -infected individuals develop tumors ( 1 , 2 ) and complex interactions between bacterial and host factors may contribute to the development of gastric carcinoma ( 1 , 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • heterologous
  • This Research Topic in Frontiers in Microbiology details the most recent advances in spore research basic science, covers emerging areas of scientific importance involving the use of spores, including their use as probiotics in humans and animals, and examines the use of spores as tools for nano-biotechnology where the spore surface can be used to efficiently display heterologous proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • mammalian
  • However, the roles of capping protein in mammalian oocyte maturation are poorly understood. (biologists.org)
  • She identified a new sporulation gene, designated spoW, which has a mammalian homologue that appears to be associated with lympshocyte differentiation and maturation. (essayforum.com)
  • negatively
  • Here we show that in Burkholderia cenocepacia the DSF-family signal cis -2-dodecenoic acid (BDSF) negatively controls the intracellular cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) level through a receptor protein RpfR, which contains Per/Arnt/Sim (PAS)-GGDEF-EAL domains. (pnas.org)
  • These results are consistent if one assumes that the synthesis of IF2, like that of NusA, is negatively regulated by the nusA gene product. (retzepti.ru)
  • They negatively regulate the expression of several genes encoding outer membrane proteins, including cirA, CsgD, fecA, fepA and ompT by binding in the vicinity of the Shine-Dalgarno sequence, suggesting the control of these targets is dependent on Hfq protein and RNase E. Taken together, these data suggest that OmrA-B participates in the regulation of outer membrane composition, responding to environmental conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together with the RNA chaperone Hfq, OmrA-B positively controls bacterial motility and negatively controls the production of acidic exopolysaccharide amylovoran in plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • Database cross-references information related as given gene ID or sequence (nucleotide or amino acid) can be accessed through HTTP GET/POST request using unique URI . (g-language.org)
  • However, the activity of the cytotoxin differs considerably among strains because of sequence variations in the vacA gene ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Therefore, the sequence of the mature ActA protein consist of 610 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Archaea were first classified as a separate group of prokaryotes in 1977 by Carl Woese and George E. Fox based on the differences in the sequence of ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • ribosomal
  • Archaea were first classified as a separate group of prokaryotes in 1977 by Carl Woese and George E. Fox in phylogenetic trees based on the sequences of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This new appreciation of the importance and ubiquity of archaea came from using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect prokaryotes from environmental samples (such as water or soil) by multiplying their ribosomal genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • crucial
  • By knocking down or ectopically overexpressing this protein, we revealed that it is crucial for efficient spindle migration and maintenance of the cytoplasmic actin mesh density. (biologists.org)
  • Taken together, these findings show that capping protein is an essential component of the actin cytoskeleton machinery that plays crucial roles in oocyte maturation, presumably by controlling the cytoplasmic actin mesh density. (biologists.org)
  • We hypothesize that the negative regulators of QS that are often found between the canonical luxR / and luxI -family genes may be crucial for stabilizing the output of QS circuits. (hindawi.com)
  • The central proline-rich region of ActA is crucial for ensuring efficient bacterial motility. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotypes
  • Many important phenotypes are regulated by AHL QS and QS has been suggested as a possible target to control bacterial colonization [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • sporulation
  • Besides sporulation, Bacillus cereus can undergo a differentiation process in which short swimmer cells become elongated and hyperflagellated swarmer cells that favor migration of the bacterial community on a surface. (frontiersin.org)
  • expression
  • Virulence gene expression serves two main functions, growth in/on the host, and the acquisition of nutrients. (asmscience.org)
  • The WASL gene product is a homolog of WAS protein, however, unlike the latter, it is ubiquitously expressed and shows highest expression in neural tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • RpoE can promote flagellar gene expression and motility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coincidently, expression of AsrC increased bacterial swimming motility. (wikipedia.org)
  • it is possible that it is because AsrC is promoting the expression of genes related to motility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of the capping-protein-binding region of CARMIL (also known as LRRC16A) impaired spindle migration and polar body extrusion during oocyte maturation and decreased the density of the cytoplasmic actin mesh. (biologists.org)
  • These complexes can then bind at specific sequences called lux -boxes that are located in the promoter region of target QS-regulated genes, affecting their expression. (hindawi.com)
  • However, the USPs will alter the expression of a variety of genes that help to cope with stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • UspA during normal growth conditions does not seem to influence gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, during stressful conditions such as carbon starvation, UspA has been shown to have a global influence on gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • These RNAs bind to the Hfq protein and regulate gene expression by antisense binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • To investigate a possible link between bacterial infection and genetic instability of the host genome, we examined the effect of H. pylori infection on known cellular repair pathways in vitro and in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Archaellum versus Bacterial flagellum Despite the limited amount of details presently available regarding the structure and assembly of archaellum, it has become increasingly evident from multiple studies that archaella play important roles in a variety of cellular processes in archaea. (wikipedia.org)
  • microarray
  • Labeled cDNA from three replicate experiments was subsequently hybridized to a microarray of over 99% of S . Enteritidis PT4 genes, and the hybridization signals were quantified. (frontiersin.org)
  • From this set of candidate genes, microarray analysis and northern blotting confirmed the existence of 17 previously undescribed sRNAs, many of which bind to the chaperone protein Hfq and regulate the translation of RpoS (Sigma 38). (wikipedia.org)
  • UniProt
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (uniprot.org)
  • The system supports rapid querying with numerous gene IDs from multiple databases or nucleotide/amino acid sequences, by internally centralizing gene annotations based on UniProt entries. (g-language.org)
  • HTML output example of BRCA1_HUMAN (UniProt ID of BRCA1 gene in humans). (g-language.org)
  • ActA
  • ActA is a bacterial surface protein comprising a membrane-spanning region. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene encoding ActA is named actA or prtB. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the cytosol they start to polymerize actin on their surface by the help of the ActA protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • To determine whether actA itself, plcB or other co-transcribed downstream regions are involved in actin assembly, mutations in the appropriate genes were generated. (wikipedia.org)
  • ActA is a protein which acts as a mimic of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP), a nucleation promoting factor (NPF) present in host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus ActA localizes in a polarized and anchored manner on the bacterial surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary proteinous product of the actA gene consists of 639 amino acids and includes the signal peptide (first N-terminal 29 amino acids) and the ActA chain (C-terminal 610 amino acids). (wikipedia.org)