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  • single-molecule
  • Herein we describe the design and synthesis of a redox-dependent single-molecule switch. (mdpi.com)
  • These possibilities have been demonstrated: "single-molecule transistors" incorporating the trinuclear dipyridylamido compounds Cu3(dpa)4Cl2 and Ni3(dpa)4Cl2 (dpa=dipyridylamide), fabricated on oxidized silicon substrates with aluminum gate electrodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polarity
  • In the same manner, symmetry is key in determining relative melting point as it allows for better packing in the solid state, even if it does not alter the polarity of the molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • coordination
  • Coordination isomerism Stereoisomer Clark, Jim. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the cobalt(II) hexahydrate ion or the hexaaquacobalt(II) ion [Co(H2O)+ is a hydrated-complex ion that consists of six water molecules attached to a metal ion Co. The oxidation state and the coordination number reflect the number of bonds formed between the metal ion and the ligands in the complex ion. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrogen
  • The hydrocarbons differ both in the total number of carbon and hydrogen atoms in their molecules and in the proportion of hydrogen to carbon. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An example is water, where some of its hydrogen-related isotopologues are: "light water" (HOH or H2O), "semi-heavy water" with the deuterium isotope in equal proportion to protium (HDO or 1H2HO), "heavy water" with two deuterium isotopes of hydrogen per molecule (D2O or 2H2O), and "super-heavy water" or tritiated water (T2O or 3H2O), where the hydrogen atoms are replaced with tritium isotopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the field of stable isotope geochemistry, isotopologues of simple molecules containing rare heavy isotopes of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur are used to trace equilibrium and kinetic processes in natural environments and in Earth's past. (wikipedia.org)
  • A molecular balance is a molecule that can interconvert between two and more conformational or configurational states in response to the dynamic of multiple intra- and intermolecular driving forces, such as hydrogen bonding, solvophobic/hydrophobic effects, π interactions, and steric and dispersion interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • atom
  • Isotopologues differ from isotopomers in that the atom(s) of different isotope may be placed anywhere in a molecule, while isotopomers specify where the atom of different isotope is located within a molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • The angles between bonds that an atom forms depend only weakly on the rest of molecule, i.e. they can be understood as approximately local and hence transferable properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stereogenic atom is usually carbon, as in many biological molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extended metal atom chains (EMACs) are molecules that consist of a linear string of directly bonded metal atoms, surrounded by organic ligands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each metal atom is six-coordinate, bonded to two other metals along the axis of the molecule (except terminal metals, which are bonded to one metal and one capping anion) and to four nitrogen atoms perpendicular to the axis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The notation dmso-S/O refers to the atom through which the dmso molecule is coordinated to the ruthenium center. (wikipedia.org)
  • spectra
  • If the molecules are light detectors, the prediction can be made that meta- rhodopsin must have a different absorption spectra than rhodopsin. (thecatalyst.org)
  • describes
  • Resonance describes the rearrangement of delocalized electrons in the molecule, which results in a set of contributing structures of the original structure. (chemaxon.com)
  • catenanes
  • Examples of such molecules are rotaxanes, catenanes with covalently linked rings (so-called pretzelanes), and open knots (pseudoknots) which are abundant in proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • trans
  • Molecule I is cis-1,2-dichloroethene and molecule II is trans-1,2-dichloroethene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consider the following fluoromethylpentene: The proper name for this molecule is either trans-2-fluoro-3-methylpent-2-ene because the alkyl groups that form the backbone chain (i.e., methyl and ethyl) reside across the double bond from each other, or (Z)-2-fluoro-3-methylpent-2-ene because the highest-priority groups on each side of the double bond are on the same side of the double bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the trans isomer on the other hand, this does not occur because the two C−Cl bond moments cancel and the molecule has a net zero dipole (it does however have a non-zero quadrupole). (wikipedia.org)
  • In a trans isomer, the dipoles of the substituents will cancel out[citation needed] due to being on opposite sides of the molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • shapes
  • Molecules are mobile entities, undergoing all sorts of rotational motions that change their shapes, and those motions require energy. (britannica.com)
  • bonds
  • Residual topology is a descriptive stereochemical term to classify a number of intertwined and interlocked molecules, which cannot be disentangled in an experiment without breaking of covalent bonds, while the strict rules of mathematical topology allow such a disentanglement. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • The expression is often more generally applied to molecules that simply mimic functions that occur at the macroscopic level. (wikipedia.org)
  • rotational
  • IR, microwave and Raman spectroscopy can give information about the molecule geometry from the details of the vibrational and rotational absorbance detected by these techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • rotate
  • Such molecules with a "handedness" typically rotate the plane of polarization of light that passes through them, but in opposite directions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • From a classical point of view it can be stated that at higher temperatures more molecules will rotate faster, which implies that they have higher angular velocity and angular momentum. (wikipedia.org)
  • compound
  • As the majority of drugs are molecules that have ionizable groups, the solubility of the compound depends highly on the pH environment. (chemaxon.com)
  • scientists
  • In 2004, scientists reported detecting the spectral signatures of anthracene and pyrene in the ultraviolet light emitted by the Red Rectangle nebula (no other such complex molecules had ever been found before in outer space). (wikipedia.org)
  • bond
  • When a light isotope is replaced with a heavy isotope (e.g., 13C for 12C), the bond between the two atoms will vibrate more slowly, thereby lowering the zero-point energy of the bond and acting to stabilize the molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluoro is the highest-priority group on the left side of the double bond, and ethyl is the highest-priority group on the right side of the molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cobalt-containing molecule Co3(dpa)4Cl2 (dpa = 2,2'-dipyridylamide) was synthesized by both research groups, but each proposed a different structure: the group from Taiwan reported an unsymmetric structure with a long and a short Co-Co bond, whereas the Texas group identified a symmetric structure with equal Co-Co bond lengths. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus
  • Thus, some molecules can be the same on one timescale or set of energy conditions but different, or isomeric, on others. (britannica.com)
  • Thus, at room temperature less than 0.07 percent of all the molecules of a given amount of water will vibrate faster than at absolute zero. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • There are two elements noted for their ability to form long strings of atoms and seemingly endless varieties of molecules: one is carbon, and the other is silicon, directly below it on the periodic table. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This finding suggests that complex organic molecules may form in stellar systems prior to the formation of planets, eventually arriving on young planets early in their formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This feature, in combination with the fact that the molecules have well-defined ends, differentiates EMACs from other kinds of molecular wires: EMACs exist only as distinct molecular entities, they do not aggregate and they do not form periodic structures of repeating units. (wikipedia.org)
  • whereas
  • In general, synthetic molecular machines refer to molecules that are artificially designed and synthesized whereas biological molecular machines can commonly be found in nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas molecular models of DNA molecules such as closely packed spheres (CPK models) made of plastic or metal wires for skeletal models are useful representations of static DNA structures, their usefulness is very limited for representing complex DNA dynamics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The electric field of a light beam causes a linear displacement of charge when interacting with a molecule (electric dipole), whereas its magnetic field causes a circulation of charge (magnetic dipole). (wikipedia.org)
  • chemistry
  • Such varying molecular geometries can also be computed, at least in principle, by employing ab initio quantum chemistry methods that can attain high accuracy for small molecules, although claims that acceptable accuracy can be also achieved for polynuclelotides, and DNA conformations, were recently made on the basis of vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectral data. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein
  • That is, for instance, a protein molecule with a helical secondary structure can have a CD that changes with changes in the conformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • upon
  • the effect on the physical or biological properties these relationships impart upon the molecules in question, and the manner in which these relationships influence the reactivity of the molecules in question (dynamic stereochemistry). (wikipedia.org)
  • yellow
  • Ostwald, W. (1900) "Über die vermeintliche Isomerie des roten und gelben Quecksilbersoxyds und die Oberflächenspannung fester Körper" (On the supposed isomerism of red and yellow mercury oxide and the surface tension of solid bodies) Zeitschrift für physikalische Chemie, 34 : 495-503. (wikipedia.org)
  • light
  • The molecules may be shifted between the states in response to changes in pH, light, temperature, an electric current, microenvironment, or the presence of a ligand. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the interaction with the molecule, the electric field vector of the light traces out an elliptical path after passing through the sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • simply
  • In many practical applications of circular dichroism (CD), as discussed below, the measured CD is not simply an intrinsic property of the molecule, but rather depends on the molecular conformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM, also termed specialized proresolving mediators) are a large and growing class of cell signaling molecules formed in cells by the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) by one or a combination of lipoxygenase, cyclooxygenase, and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase enzymes. (wikipedia.org)