• Putative
  • Moreover, RNA-seq allowed a deep characterization of the transcriptional landscape that led to the identification of 460 putative small RNA genes and the detection of 298 protein-coding genes previously unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell membrane
  • A NIST-developed model of a simplified cell membrane has been discovered by researchers, which may now accurately detect and measure protein associated with bacterial vaginosis. (medindia.net)
  • Ehrlichia are obligately intracellular pathogens and are transported between cells through the host cell filopodia during initial stages of infection, whereas, in the final stages of infection the pathogen ruptures the host cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The types and abundance of fatty acid chains in the cell membrane also respond to changes in pressure and temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Remarkably, nature offers precise genetic control over mineral formation (down to the nanoscale) using a suite of biomineralization proteins [ 5 , 6 ]. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • The argininosuccinate lyase gene of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: an important tool for nuclear transformation and for correlating the genetic and molecular maps of the ARG7 locus," The EMBO Journal, vol. 8, No. 10, pp. 2803-2809, 1989. (patentgenius.com)
  • Aggravating genetic interactions allow a solution to redundancy in a bacterial pathogen. (sciencemag.org)
  • Over time, individuals may expand or contract parts of their genes and alleles which adds genetic variation and may sometimes affect phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • When such a mutation causes some observable effect, the mutated gene can be identified by locating the transposon, sequencing the DNA around it and mapping its location. (membs.org)
  • Williams et al, "Molecular Cloning and Sequence Analysis of the Chlamydomonas Gene Doding for Radial Spoke Protein 3: Flagellar Mutation pf-14 is an Ochre Allele," The Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 109, pp. 235-245, 1989. (patentgenius.com)
  • Determination of Retroviral Vector Mutation Rates and a Promoterless Retroviral Vector," Gene Transfer Vectors for Mammalian Cells, pp. 18-23, 1987. (patentgenius.com)
  • A polar mutation affects expression of downstream genes or operons. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • p>This subsection of the 'Names and taxonomy' section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (uniprot.org)
  • My intentions with this contribution are twofold: to describe briefly some methods of computer-aided sequence analysis in molecular biology, and to review the most important results obtained through such theoretical studies in the related fields of protein sorting and membrane protein biogenesis. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, the sequence of the mature ActA protein consist of 610 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein contains 294 amino acids, the first 22 of which are characteristic of a bacterial signal sequence peptide. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-26 is a 171-amino acid protein, which is similar in amino acid sequence to interleukin 10. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apart from the conserved region, the sequence of these proteins is quite divergent, and they have a variable number of transmembrane helices, however they can be classified into seven families which have been respectively termed: araH, cysTW, fecCD, hisMQ, livHM, malFG and oppBC. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogens
  • New work by McIver and others, published in the journal PLOS Pathogens, has identified genes that help these infections spread. (membs.org)
  • Since bacterial pathogens often release toxins through their membrane as they attack hosts, it's a good location for proteins that play a role in infection. (membs.org)
  • They correspond to functions allowing opportunistic pathogens to colonise the mucus layers, breach the host barriers and invade the mucosae, which could still be aggravated by decreased host-derived pancreatic zymogen granule membrane protein GP2 in CD patients. (bmj.com)
  • Tetracyclines remain especially useful in the management of infections by certain obligately intracellular bacterial pathogens such as Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, and Rickettsia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenotype
  • The absence of an obvious ppi3 phenotype in green tissues presumably reflects the ability of atToc33 to substitute for atToc34 in the mutant, and the relatively high level of expression of the atTOC33 gene in these tissues. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Gene inactivation in the zebrafish also causes a cardiac arrhythmia phenotype and defective skeletal muscle development. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • This non-coding RNA was initially identified from Tn5 transposon mutant libraries of Vibrio cholerae and its location within the bacterial genome was mapped to the intergenic region between genes VC1741 and VC1743 by RACE analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome-wide prediction of the operon structure, the transcription start and termination sites, revealed an unexpected high number of genes (992) with large 5'-UTRs, long enough to harbor cis-regulatory RNA structures, suggesting a correlation between intergenic region size and UTR length. (wikipedia.org)
  • A4GALT human gene location in the UCSC Genome Browser. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterium
  • The new technique-called insertional mutagenesis and depletion (iMAD)-was used to probe for proteins of the bacterium Legionella pneumophila that are required for intracellular growth in cells from fruit flies ( Drosophila ). (sciencemag.org)
  • this is the largest number of rRNA genes found in any bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • infect
  • When pathogenic organisms infect humans, they express a multitude of proteins, and similarly, host cells express numerous proteins that can either restrict or collaborate with the pathogen. (sciencemag.org)
  • The evolutionary changes in the outer membrane proteins have led to the emergence of new strains which can infect a larger variety of hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • multidrug
  • Examples of one nutrient uptake and one multidrug extrusion protein from Helicobacter pylori are described. (hud.ac.uk)
  • intestinal
  • Here we explore the feasibility of extracting bacterial protein signals relevant to CD, by interrogating myriads of intestinal bacterial proteomes from a small number of patients and healthy controls. (bmj.com)
  • Results Our 2D-DIGE-based discovery approach revealed an imbalance of intestinal bacterial functions in CD. (bmj.com)
  • Though trehalose is not known to be present in mammals, trehalase enzyme is found to be present in the kidney brush border membrane and the intestinal villi membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • characterization
  • In this report, we describe the identification and characterization of two atToc34 knockout mutants, plastid protein import 3-1 (ppi3-1) and ppi3-2. (ox.ac.uk)
  • redox
  • Acts by coupling the redox reaction via ferredoxin and iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters to proton translocation across the membrane, thereby conserving the redox energy in a proton gradient. (uniprot.org)
  • Drosophila
  • Kornfeld et al, "Structure and expression of a family of Ultrabithorax mRNAs generated by alternative splicing and polyadenylation in Drosophila," Genes & Development, 3:243-258, pp. 243-258, 1989. (patentgenius.com)
  • chromosome
  • Chromosome 1 consists largely of genes which are essential for growth whereas chromosome 2 appears to be a large plasmid, which, on an evolutionary time scale, has gained several transposable elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • bilayer
  • NABBs containing KcsA were stable, homogeneous, and able to spontaneously deliver the channel to black lipid membranes without measurably affecting the electrical properties of the bilayer. (rupress.org)
  • Chernomordik and Kozlov, 2003 ), resulting in the vesicle lipids and proteins getting incorporated into the "expanded" target bilayer. (rupress.org)
  • Ribosomal
  • Ribosomal protection proteins interact with the ribosome and dislodge tetracycline from the ribosome, allowing for translation to continue. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymology
  • In enzymology, a protein-glutamate O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.80) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction S-adenosyl-L-methionine + protein L-glutamate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + protein L-glutamate methyl ester Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are S-adenosyl methionine and protein L-glutamic acid, whereas its two products are S-adenosylhomocysteine and protein L-glutamate methyl ester. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • The Actin assembly-inducing protein (ActA) is a protein encoded and used by Listeria monocytogenes to propel itself through a mammalian host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a mammalian cell the bacterial ActA interacts with the Arp2/3 complex and actin monomers to induce actin polymerization on the bacterial surface generating an actin comet tail. (wikipedia.org)
  • NPFs in the mammalian cell recruit and bind to the already existing actin-related-protein 2 and 3 complex (Arp2/3 complex) and induce an activating conformational change of the Arp2/3 complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • arabidopsis
  • An outer envelope membrane component of the plastid protein import apparatus plays an essential role in Arabidopsis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • FLS1 was the original gene discovered shown to correspond with a specific ecotype within Arabidopsis thaliana. (wikipedia.org)
  • One experiment performed to show involvement of FLS2 in flagellin perception was an ectopic expression of FLS2 using the CaMV 35S gene promotor in one wild type Arabidopsis thaliana plant and two supposed mutant Arabidopsis thaliana plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Though MotA and MotB are part of the proteins required for H+ mediated flagellar motility, they show a high degree of homology to the PomA and PomB proteins present in bacterial species utilizing Na+ ion fluxes to power flagella and studies have revealed that a 'pomA' mutant of Vibrio alginolyticus can regain motility by expression of MotA. (wikipedia.org)
  • CRP proteins function as cyclic nucleotide-regulated transcription factors that modulate the expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can also affect the expression of the gene in which it occurs, if it occurs in a transcribed region. (wikipedia.org)
  • As discovered by the ectopic expression of FLS2 study , FLS2 is directed related to flagellin perception, so by discovery and by natural way of the plant, FLS2 is the gene responsible for perception of flagellin which signals a plant defense response. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was also shown that VrrA transcription increases on exposure to UV light and that over expression of VrrA resulted in an increase in outer membrane vesicles secreted. (wikipedia.org)
  • which detailed microarray work comparing gene expression at sub-optimal, optimal and supra-optimal temperatures and pressure for strains SS9, 3TCK and DSJ4. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results obtained from RNA-seq experiments revealed a complex expression pattern with a group of 22 genes having expression profiles similar to OmpH that is an outer membrane protein transcribed in response to high hydrostatic pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1985
  • Cell display systems were first used in 1985, when peptides were genetically fused with proteins displayed on the M13 bacteriophage. (wikipedia.org)
  • rRNA
  • In parallel, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing for an integrated analysis of gut ecosystem structure and functions. (bmj.com)
  • lytic
  • A novel cell surface protein, IseA, inhibits the cell wall lytic activities of these d,l-endopeptidases in vitro, and IseA negatively regulates the cell separation enzymes at the post-translational level. (biomedsearch.com)
  • annotation
  • p>An evidence describes the source of an annotation, e.g. an experiment that has been published in the scientific literature, an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc. (uniprot.org)
  • 1992
  • Use of an Epitope-Tagged cDNA Library to Isolate cDNAs Encoding Proteins with Nuclear Localization Potential," Gene, 120(2),pp. 227-233, 1992. (patentgenius.com)
  • Taillon et al, "Mutational Analysis of Centrin: An EF-Hand Protein Associated with Three Distinct Contractile Fibers in the Basal Body Apparatus of Chlamydomonas," The Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 119, No. 6, pp. 1613-1623, 1992. (patentgenius.com)
  • sequences
  • Currently, at least five subgroups of β-lactam resistance genes have been identified, and these genes share certain similarities in their DNA sequences. (frontiersin.org)
  • von Heijne, G. (1984) Analysis of the Distribution of Charged Residues in the N-terminal Region of Signal Sequences: Implications for Protein Export in Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells . (springer.com)
  • transposon
  • iMAD uses both bacterial mutagenesis and host RNA interference (RNAi) screening methods to identify double-stranded DNA from bacterial transposon mutants that altered growth of host cells in which selected genes were silenced by means of RNAi. (sciencemag.org)
  • amino acids
  • The primary proteinous product of the actA gene consists of 639 amino acids and includes the signal peptide (first N-terminal 29 amino acids) and the ActA chain (C-terminal 610 amino acids). (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is with an open reading frame of 2079 base pairs (bp), encoding a protein of 693 amino acids, corresponding to a molecular mass of 79569 Da. (wikipedia.org)