• Prenatal
  • Vagina Human fertilization Assisted reproductive technology Artificial insemination Fertility medication In vitro fertilisation Fertility awareness Unintended pregnancy Pregnancy test 3D ultrasound Home testing Obstetric ultrasonography Prenatal diagnosis Prenatal development Fundal height Gestational age Human embryogenesis Maternal physiological changes Prenatal care - regular medical and nursing care recommended for women during pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prenatal nutrition Maternal nutrition Nutrition and pregnancy Concomitant conditions Diabetes mellitus and pregnancy Systemic lupus erythematosus and pregnancy Amniocentesis Chorionic villus sampling Cardiotocography Nonstress test Childbirth Adaptation to extrauterine life Bradley method of natural childbirth Hypnobirthing Lamaze technique Nesting instinct Doula Midwife Mother - a woman who has raised a child, given birth to a child, and/or supplied the ovum that united with a sperm which grew into a child. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, risk factors in the mother that may contribute to low birth weight include young ages, multiple pregnancies, previous LBW infants, poor nutrition, heart disease or hypertension, untreated coeliac disease, drug addiction, alcohol abuse, and insufficient prenatal care. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis of cffDNA is a method of non-invasive prenatal diagnosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • It encompasses the health care dimensions of family planning, preconception, prenatal, and postnatal care in order to ensure a positive and fulfilling experience in most cases and reduce maternal morbidity and mortality in other cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetus
  • Maternal hyperglycemia leads to excess fetal insulin, itself a growth hormone for the fetus. (aappublications.org)
  • Furthermore, prolonged maternal amino acid infusion increased net transport of leucine to the fetus, fetal leucine concentrations, and fetal leucine oxidation rates, indicating that the fetus uses excess amino acids for oxidative metabolism, rather than protein synthesis and accretion ( 34 ). (physiology.org)
  • Although hysterotomy is crucial for resuscitation of the mother in such situations, if the gestational age is less than approximately 24 to 25 weeks the procedure will necessarily lead to sacrifice of the fetus (or fetuses), as this is estimated to be the lower limit for fetal viability. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the mother's medical condition is such that there is no reasonable prospect of maternal resuscitation or viability (for example, after a nonsurvivable injury, or an unwitnessed arrest with prolonged pulselessness), then the procedure may be attempted immediately as a means of saving the unborn fetus primarily. (wikipedia.org)
  • The procedure should not be performed if the uterus is not judged to be large enough to cause maternal haemodynamic changes through aortocaval compression, as there is no potential benefit to the mother and the fetus or fetuses will not be viable in such an early stage of pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potential structures that may be damaged during the procedure are as for Caesarean section, including the fetus itself and the maternal bowel, bladder, uterus and uterine blood vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • The manner selected often depends upon the gestational age of the embryo or fetus, which increases in size as the pregnancy progresses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The causes can be many, but most often involve poor maternal nutrition or lack of adequate oxygen supply to the fetus. (wikipedia.org)
  • This type of IUGR is most commonly caused by extrinsic factors that affect the fetus at later gestational ages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mothers whose fetus is diagnosed with intrauterine growth restriction by ultrasound can use management strategies based on monitoring and delivery methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • The International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology (ISUOG) recommends that pregnant women have routine obstetric ultrasounds between 18 weeks and 22 weeks gestational age (the anatomy scan) in order to confirm pregnancy timing, to measure the fetus so that growth abnormalities can be recognized quickly later in pregnancy, and to assess for congenital malformations and multiple pregnancies (i.e. twins). (wikipedia.org)
  • This usually has minimal effect on the first such pregnancy, but in a second such pregnancy, pre-existing maternal antibodies to Rho(D) antigens on fetal red blood cells often leads to erythroblastosis fetalis, a condition which can be fatal to the fetus. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • One common cause of this is the presence of maternal antibodies that temporarily impair thyroid function for several weeks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apgar also promoted effective use of Rh testing, which can identify women who are at risk for transmission of maternal antibodies across the placenta where they may subsequently bind with and destroy fetal red blood cells, resulting in fetal hydrops or even miscarriage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infant
  • In a large case-control study, we addressed the hypothesis that infants with congenital heart defects are more likely to be small for gestational age than infants without congenital heart defects after controlling for selected maternal and infant characteristics. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 4 - 7 It is particularly common in underweight women with a low muscle mass. 8 We hypothesised that the association of a low maternal weight with an increased risk of a low birthweight baby and poor infant survival 9 might be due in part to low blood pressure leading to poor placental perfusion. (bmj.com)
  • The earliest gestational age at which the infant has at least a 50% chance of survival is referred to as the limit of viability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistency and promptness of maternal response is associated with a decline in frequency and duration of crying by the end of the first year individual differences in crying reflect the history of maternal responsiveness rather than constitutional differences in infant irritability. (wikipedia.org)
  • During evaluations of maternal depression responses to infant crying, sleeping problems are closely associated with excessive crying and may confound the conclusions of such research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Obstetric
  • As women have gained access to family planning and skilled birth attendance with backup emergency obstetric care, the global maternal mortality ratio has fallen from 380 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in 1990 to 210 deals per 100,000 live births in 2013. (wikipedia.org)
  • Third, emergency obstetric care to address the major causes of maternal death which are haemorrhage, sepsis, unsafe abortion, hypertensive disorders and obstructed labour. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, the ISUOG recommends that pregnant women have obstetric ultrasounds between 11 weeks and 13 weeks 6 days gestational age in countries with resources to perform them (the nucal scan). (wikipedia.org)
  • Research shows that routine obstetric ultrasound before 24 weeks gestational age can significantly reduce the risk of failing to recognize multiple gestations and can improve pregnancy dating to reduce the risk of labor induction for post-dates pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • mothers
  • OBJECTIVE: We used non-invasive anthropometric methods to estimate the body composition and the thickness of the interventricular heart septum in 18 infants of mothers with well-controlled T1DM, 10 infants of mothers with GDM and 28 infants of healthy control mothers matched for gestational age and mode of delivery. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Review on the effects of passive maternal smoking, also called environmental tobacco exposure (ETS), demonstrated that increased risks of infants with LBW were more likely to be expected in ETS-exposed mothers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caesarean
  • However, there was tentative evidence that children who were born by caesarean had more health problems at age two. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cesarean delivery on maternal request (CDMR) is a caesarean section birth requested by the pregnant woman without a medical reason. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concept of "caesarean delivery on maternal request" is not well-recognized in health care, and consequently, when it occurs there are not mechanisms in place for reporting it for research or distinguishing it in medical billing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increasingly, caesarean sections are performed in the absence of obstetrical or medical necessity at the patient's request, and the term Caesarean delivery on maternal request has been used. (wikipedia.org)
  • babies
  • The birth weight of babies being delivered after 34 weeks was highest for highest recorded maternal diastolic blood pressures of between 70 and 80 mm Hg and lower for blood pressures outside this range. (bmj.com)
  • Babies who had experienced birth complications had longer crying spells at three months of age and awakened more frequently at night crying. (wikipedia.org)
  • risk
  • 95th percentile, and at risk for overweight as 85th to 95th percentile, for age and gender from US national data. (aappublications.org)
  • As cffDNA is found in maternal blood, sampling carries no associated risk of spontaneous abortion. (wikipedia.org)
  • weeks
  • Overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 26 kg / m²), gestational age between 14 and 24 weeks and from age 18 years were included. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • for a singleton pregnancy, this occurs at around 20 weeks of gestational age (but may be earlier in multiple pregnancy). (wikipedia.org)
  • Fetuses aged 14 to 18 weeks show a pronounced circadian rhythm in their activity level, which can be detected both by fetal electrocardiogram and by measuring locomotor activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • A maternal peripheral blood sample is taken by venesection at about ten weeks gestation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 401 of 403 pregnancies where maternal blood was drawn at seven weeks gestation or more, both segments of DNA were found. (wikipedia.org)
  • After 13 weeks of gestation, the fetal age may be estimated using the biparietal diameter (the transverse diameter of the head, across the two parietal bones), the head circumference, the length of the femur, the crown-heel length (head to heel), and other fetal parameters. (wikipedia.org)
  • pregnancies
  • Retrospective cohort study of 4002 singleton pregnancies with a gestational age ≥34 w at Sodersjukhuset, Stockholm, during 2009-2010 and 2012-2013. (hindawi.com)
  • Due to high numbers of CS among induced pregnancies at the clinic of Sodersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden, a decision of changing the method for labor induction was taken in 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • Between 15% and 30% of known pregnancies end in clinically apparent miscarriage, depending upon the age and health of the pregnant woman. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a Rhesus-negative mother, Rho(D) immune globulin can prevent temporary sensitization of the maternal immune system to Rh D antigens, which can cause rhesus disease in the current or in subsequent pregnancies. (wikipedia.org)
  • causal
  • Although the etiology of growth retardation among infants with congenital heart defects is uncertain, further exploration may uncover a common pathogenesis or causal relationship between congenital heart defects and small for gestational age. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Our results only modestly support a causal role of altered maternal-fetal glucose metabolism in the genesis of obesity in the offspring. (aappublications.org)
  • retrospective
  • Method We did a retrospective and prospective review of maternity and neonatal records between January 2004 and April 2007 in Mayday University Hospital Croydon. (bmj.com)
  • clinical
  • Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields. (omicsonline.org)
  • outcome
  • In 46% of maternal deaths 1 and 65% of fetal deaths 5 due to pre-eclampsia reported through the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths and the Confidential Enquiry into Stillbirths and Deaths in Infancy, different management would reasonably have expected to alter the outcome. (bmj.com)
  • findings
  • These findings indicate that maternal amino acid supplementation results in competition among coinfused amino acids for transport across the placenta. (physiology.org)
  • cause
  • Despite excellent results, the medication retains an FDA Pregnancy Category C. RhIG is recommended in the UK after antenatal pathological events that are likely to cause a feto-maternal hemorrhage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therapy
  • American Music Therapy Association, 2011. (wikipedia.org)
  • Approaches used in music therapy that have emerged from the field of music education include Orff-Schulwerk (Orff), Dalcroze Eurhythmics,and Kodály Method. (wikipedia.org)
  • Models that developed directly out of music therapy are neurologic music therapy (NMT), Nordoff-Robbins music therapy and the Bonny method of guided imagery and music. (wikipedia.org)
  • factors
  • In other words, as a judging standard, setting immunologic factors as main items, we will judge superior and inferior of methods of each country. (omicsonline.org)
  • 13 - 30 Many are limited, however, by incomplete data on gestational age, parental adiposity, or socioeconomic factors, which may have independent influences on both birth weight and later weight gain. (aappublications.org)
  • include
  • A study conducted in Kenya observed that common maternal health problems in poverty-stricken areas include hemorrhaging, anemia, hypertension, malaria, placenta retention, premature labor, prolonged/complicated labor, and pre-eclampsia. (wikipedia.org)
  • poor
  • In fact, maternal mortality rates reflect disparities between wealthy and poor countries more than any other measure of health. (wikipedia.org)
  • weight gain
  • Linear regression was used to assess the association between weight gain and children's (n=344) full-scale, performance and verbal IQ measured at age 5 using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence-Revised. (bmj.com)