• larvae
  • Such larvae can be one of several general varieties: elateriform (wireworm-like, as in the beetle family Elateridae), eruciform (caterpillar-like, as in the Lepidoptera and Symphyta. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus is transmitted into a lepidopteran host (a caterpillar) and infects and manipulates the physiology of the caterpillar so that it can be used as a living incubator for wasp larvae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like most Lepidoptera, larvae produce a small silk pad before each moult, in which their prolegs are engaged. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, the wasps rarely parasitize larvae that are reared on artificial diet. (ufl.edu)
  • Hence, the larvae have to be presented to the wasps while feeding on a cruciferous plant (e. g., cabbage). (ufl.edu)
  • Inside a walk-in rearing chamber, the leaves of collards infested with diamondback moth larvae are presented to the free-flying wasps. (ufl.edu)
  • eggs
  • The wasp injects one or more eggs into its lepidoptera host along with a quantity of virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The wasps are polyembryonic, depositing one or two eggs into their host which then develop into multiple offspring and have a soldier caste and a reproductive caste. (wikipedia.org)
  • The wasp ovipositor is a sharp needle-like structure that efficiently delivers eggs into the host hemocoel. (jove.com)
  • Some wasps can insert two or more eggs into the same host, although the development of only one egg succeeds. (jove.com)
  • adult
  • The wasps of the genus Copidosoma are also of interest because they are polyembryonic, i.e. more than one embryo can be found in a single egg, and they have developed a caste system where an embryo can develop into a reproductive adult or a soldier caste. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mandibles are tough and sharp for chewing (this contrasts with most adult Lepidoptera, which have highly reduced or soft mandibles). (wikipedia.org)
  • D. insulare is highly susceptible to pesticides, which kill adult wasps through direct contact. (ufl.edu)
  • Lepidopteran
  • These are thought to be examples of Müllerian mimicry, since predators pay a high penalty for mistaking a Lepidopteran for the wasp and there is a small reward from correctly identifying the Lepidoptera, since they are bitter tasting and covered in scales. (wikipedia.org)
  • The polydnaviridae appear to replicate and accumulate in the ovarian calyx epithelial cells and calyx fluid of the wasps and do not replicate in the lepidopteran hosts of the wasps, although their gene products are expressed there. (wikipedia.org)
  • The packaged Virus is injected along with the wasp egg into the body cavity of a lepidopteran host caterpillar and infects cells of the caterpillar (Whitfield, 1990). (wikipedia.org)
  • These viruses are part of a unique biological system consisting of an endoparasitic wasp (parasitoid), a host (usually lepidopteran) larva, and the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • hosts
  • Parasitoid wasps in the subfamilies Microgastrinae, Miracinae, Cheloninae, Cardiochilinae, Khoikhoiinae, and Mendesellinae are the natural hosts for Bracoviruses, though the virus does not cause disease in these wasps. (wikipedia.org)
  • We hypothesize that these horizontal transfers are made possible by the unusual strategy many parasitoid wasps employ of injecting hosts with endosymbiotic polydnaviruses to minimize the host's defense response. (jove.com)
  • genomes
  • A non-autonomous Helitron independently annotated as BmHel-2 from Bombyx mori and the MITE01 element from Ostrinia nubilalis was predicted in the genomes of 24 species in the insect Order Lepidoptera. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We show here that 105 regions in two Lepidoptera genomes appear to derive from horizontally transferred wasp DNA. (jove.com)
  • phylogeny
  • Interpretation of results is hindered by lack of knowledge of autecology of moths and wasps, origins, phylogeny, systematics, competitive ability, and physiological limitations of each wasp species. (unl.edu)
  • genes
  • The virus and wasp are in a symbiotic relationship: expression of viral genes prevents the wasp's host's immune system from killing the wasp's injected egg and causes other physiological alterations that ultimately cause the parasitized host to die. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first suggests that the virus is derived from wasp genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • parasitism
  • Differential parasitism of seed-feeding Cydia (Lepidoptera: Tor" by Peter T. Oboyski, John W. Slotterback et al. (unl.edu)
  • Understanding the potential impacts of alien wasps requires knowledge of ecological parameters that influence parasitism rates for species in their new environment. (unl.edu)
  • lays
  • The wasp lays its egg onto the host moth's egg and after the caterpillar hatches it undergoes a number of instar stages until it reaches its final instar and during this time the wasp's egg produces as many as 3000 embryos through cloning, these form an assemblage called a polymorula and live as external endoparasitoids on the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • experimentally
  • When a large body (wasp egg or small particle used experimentally) is introduced into an insect's body, the classic immune reaction is the encapsulation by the hematocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • crops
  • These wasps are found in cruciferous crops, overwintering as a cocoon. (ufl.edu)
  • sequences
  • Studies conducted on Cotesia congregata have shown that male wasps do contain proviral sequences of DNA, but the females are the ones responsible for the amplification of the viral DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • This presents an interesting evolutionary paradigm in which host species can acquire new sequences from parasitoid wasps that attack them. (jove.com)
  • subfamily
  • They also have thoracic tympanal organs for hearing, a trait which has a fairly broad distribution in the Lepidoptera, but the location and structure is distinctive to the subfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • proviral
  • The parts of the cycle that relate to the transmission of wasp genomic DNA and therefore to proviral DNA are shown by the claret arrows. (wikipedia.org)
  • host
  • The arresting of the host increases the chance of success of the wasp larva developing successfully. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because these virus-like particles deliver wasp DNA to the cells of the host, there has been much interest in whether genetic information can be permanently transferred from the wasp to the host. (jove.com)
  • viruses
  • Nucleic acid analysis suggests a very long association of the viruses with the wasps (greater than 70 million years). (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Without the virus infection, Phagocyte Hemocyte (blood cells) will encapsulate and kill the wasp egg but the immune suppression caused by the virus allows for survival of the wasp egg, leading to hatching and complete development of the immature wasp in the caterpillar. (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • Analysis of Drosophila wasps is providing insights into how species-specific interactions shape the genetic structures of natural communities. (jove.com)
  • among
  • The work presented here is the first such discovery of what is likely to be a broader phenomenon among species affected by these wasps. (jove.com)
  • show
  • The Lepidoptera show many variations of the basic body structure that have evolved to gain advantages in lifestyle and distribution. (wikipedia.org)