• amount of insulin
  • In the United Kingdom 1,000 iu of regular or NPH insulin costs the NHS 7.48 pounds, while this amount of insulin glargine costs 30.68 pounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pump operates with a single AAA battery and uses a piston-plunger pump to infuse a programmed amount of insulin into the patient through a length of tubing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The report identified factors linked to better outcomes for recipients, including age-35 years or older lower pre-transplant [serum] triglyceride, or blood fat, levels lower pre-transplant insulin use The report noted that even partial function of the transplanted islets can improve blood glucose control and reduce the amount of insulin needed after loss of insulin independence. (wikipedia.org)
  • sensitivity
  • Alpha Lipoic Acid is a vitamin-like compound that supports healthy blood sugar levels by helping the body utilize glucose and improve insulin sensitivity. (hihealth.com)
  • 200 However, in another study, after successfully managed marathon running, insulin sensitivity was not increased despite low glycogen content and enhanced glycogen synthase activity after marathon, likely due to increased lipid oxidation. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • Potential limiting factors include marked sensitivity to insulin that require extremely small insulin doses, unique patterns of eating, with unpredictability of food intake and small frequent meals or grazing rather than distinct meals, and varied activity level. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • No difference existed between groups for FPG level, body weight, albuminuria, β-cell function, insulin sensitivity, and rate of major clinical events. (acpjc.org)
  • Although the increased adiposity is paradoxical to an improvement in insulin sensitivity, the quantitative increase of adipose mass should be viewed in context of the qualitative changes in adipose tissue, including the remodeling of adipocytes to a smaller size with higher lipid storage potential. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This shift in energy balance is likely to result in lower circulating free fatty acid levels, ultimately improving insulin sensitivity and the metabolic state. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • analogs
  • These insulin analogs are cheaper and easier to use than insulin pumps, are not subject to the potential malfunction that any electromechanical device must risk, and need less staff time to administer and supervise. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • More recently, a study involving 14 male amateur athletes with T1D treated with insulin analogs examined responses to participation in two consecutive editions of the same half-marathon. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • Thus, athletes with T1D who are treated using insulin analogs alone may choose to make a lesser insulin reduction compared to traditional guidelines and slightly increase carbohydrate supplementation (amount and timing) to effectively balance blood glucose levels during long-distance competitions. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • We report on the effects of GLP-1 and two of its long-acting analogs, exendin-4 and exendin-4 WOT, on neuronal proliferation and differentiation, and on the metabolism of two neuronal proteins in the rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell line, which has been shown to express the GLP-1 receptor. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We have synthesized a number of novel GLP-1 analogs, which bind at the GLP-1 receptor and combine some of the best features of GLP-1 and exendin-4. (aspetjournals.org)
  • obesity
  • Low blood levels have been reported in people with heart failure , cardiomyopathy , gingivitis (inflammation of the gums), morbid obesity , hypertension , muscular dystrophy, diabetes , AIDS , and in some people on kidney dialysis. (evitamins.com)
  • So the treatment for this type of obesity is to avoid foods that cause the highest rise in blood sugar and to take medications that prevent your blood sugar levels from rising too high. (drmirkin.com)
  • A common cause of obesity in women is called polycystic ovary syndrome, which is caused by having high blood levels of insulin. (drmirkin.com)
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity, two of the common chronic diseases, are serious health problems that occur frequently among young people in western countries, even in the whole world [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • glargine
  • It is therefore important now to ask if glargine and detemir have replaced the need for CSII in type 1 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • It comes in three main types short-acting (such as regular insulin), intermediate-acting (such as NPH insulin), and longer-acting (such as insulin glargine). (wikipedia.org)
  • It consists of microcrystals that slowly release insulin, giving a long duration of action of 18 to 26 hours, with a "peakless" profile (according to the insulin glargine package insert). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the absence of endogenous insulin-type 1 diabetes, depleted type 2 (in some cases) or latent autoimmune diabetes of adults in late stage-insulin glargine needs the support of fast acting insulin taken with food to reduce the effect of prandially derived glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike some other longer-acting insulins, glargine must not be diluted or mixed with other insulin or solution in the same syringe. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of 2012 tentative evidence shows no association between insulin glargine and cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insulin glargine has a substitution of glycine for asparagine at N21 (Asn21) and two arginines added to the carboxy terminal of B chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insulin glargine is formulated at an acidic pH 4, where it is completely water-soluble. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gradual process ensures that small amounts of insulin glargine are released into the body continuously, giving an almost peakless profile. (wikipedia.org)
  • The development of insulin glargine was conducted at Sanofi-Aventis's biotechnology competence center in Frankfurt-Höchst. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patent protection for insulin glargine expired in most countries in 2015. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insulin glargine from competitor Eli Lilly became available in most countries during 2015, under the brand names Basaglar (as a follow-on in the US) and Abasaglar (as a biosimilar in the EU). (wikipedia.org)
  • Biosimilar insulin glargine has only been released in 100U/mL strength to date, and biosimilar equivalents in the 300U/mL strength of Toujeo are yet to launch. (wikipedia.org)
  • hypertension
  • Very low levels of microalbuminuria are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and death independently of renal function, hypertension, and diabetes," Circulation , vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 32-35, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • RESULTS -Patients with diabetic nephropathy, compared with those without diabetic nephropathy, had a higher prevalence of maternal (41 vs. 35%, P = 0.046) and parental (62 vs. 55%, P = 0.044) hypertension, maternal stroke (7.6 vs. 5.1%, P = 0.044), and maternal (1.4 vs. 0.7%, P = 0.058) and parental (4.3 vs. 2.9%, P = 0.030) type 1 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The adjusted OR for diabetic nephropathy was 2.13 (1.36-3.33) for the parental hypertension-diabetes score (3-4 vs. 0 points) and 2.13 (1.37-3.33) for the parental hypertension-cardiovascular disease (CVD)-diabetes score (4-6 vs. 0 points). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS -A cluster of parental hypertension, CVD, and diabetes is associated with diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes, as is paternal mortality. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • coronary artery
  • Serum concentration of lipoprotein (a) decreases on treatment with hydrosoluble coenzyme Q10 in patients with coronary artery disease: discovery of a new role. (evitamins.com)
  • A Prospective study of maturity-onset diabetes mellitus and risk of coronary artery disease and stroke in women. (washington.edu)
  • Most heart failure in people with diabetes results from coronary artery disease, and diabetic cardiomyopathy is only said to exist if there is no coronary artery disease to explain the heart muscle disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -We conducted a randomized 1-year feasibility trial comparing CSII with continuing MDIs in preschool children with a history of type 1 diabetes for at least 6 months' duration. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Though purity has improved steadily since the 1920s ultimately reaching purity of 99% by the mid-1970s thanks to high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods, minor allergic reactions still occur occasionally, although the same types of allergic reactions have also been known to occur in response to synthetic "human" insulin varieties. (wikipedia.org)
  • hypoglycemic
  • Insulin treatment is safe (associated with few hypoglycemic episodes) ( 2 ), effective, and not limited by a maximum dosage. (acpjc.org)
  • This study aimed to identify the usefulness and safety of the bariatric surgery for obese patients with type 2 diabetes compared with medical treatment in regards of diabetes remission, standards of HbA1c, FBG, high-density lipoprotein and triglycerides, dose of hypoglycemic, antihypertensive, lipid-lowering medicine, weight loss, and adverse events, respectively. (hindawi.com)
  • Unfortunately, the evidence shows that patients with type 1 diabetes do not normally wake during nocturnal hypoglycemic episodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A commonly used "number" to define the lower limit of normal glucose is 70 mg/dl (3.9 mmol/l), though in someone with diabetes, hypoglycemic symptoms can sometimes occur at higher glucose levels, or may fail to occur at lower. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Edmonton Protocol is a method of implantation of pancreatic islets for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus, specifically "brittle" type 1 diabetics prone to hypoglycemic unawareness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insulin independence is not usually sustainable in the long term, but the transplanted islets still function enough to provide protection from severe hypoglycemic episodes and unawareness. (wikipedia.org)
  • rapid-acting
  • 141 Participants self-administered 100%, 75%, 50%, or 25% of their full, rapid-acting insulin dose immediately before consuming a meal and 2 h before completing 45 min of moderate running. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • levels were highest 3 h postexercise with the lowest dose (25%) of rapid-acting insulin, which was maintained over the rest of the 24-h period despite less energy and carbohydrate intake. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • The Minimed Paradigm REAL-Time and Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) system, which received FDA clearance in 2006, uses tubing and a reservoir with rapid-acting insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • hyperglycemia
  • Similarly, a study of nine males with T1D during a 75-km cross-country skiing race reported that insulin dose reductions of 30-40% before the event resulted in hyperglycemia during the early part of the race, but near normoglycemia during the remainder, likely attributable to several-fold increases in counterregulatory hormone levels. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • Based on this study, one can conclude that greater reductions in mealtime insulin may result in greater protection during the activity but may also result in a greater likelihood for post-exercise hyperglycemia. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • On the other hand, if too little insulin is delivered, there will be hyperglycemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Occasionally, insufficient insulin can result in hyperglycemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The appropriate response is to take a correction dose of insulin to reduce the blood sugar level and to consider adjusting the insulin regimen to deliver additional insulin in the future to prevent hyperglycemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Testing occasionally during the middle of the night is also important, particularly when high waking blood sugars are found, to determine if more insulin is needed to prevent hyperglycemia or if less insulin is needed to prevent such a rebound. (wikipedia.org)
  • While it has been evident for a long time that the complications seen in diabetes are related to the hyperglycemia associated to it, several factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Citation
  • medical citation needed] This may be deduced logically from the huge increase in the occurrence of type 2 diabetes that has correlated with the significant change in western lifestyle and diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • cardiovascular
  • Albuminuria and kidney function independently predict cardiovascular and renal outcomes in diabetes," Journal of the American Society of Nephrology , vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1813-1821, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • Albuminuria and cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy: the LIFE study," Annals of Internal Medicine , vol. 139, no. 11, pp. 901-I26, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • Fathers of patients with diabetic nephropathy, compared with those without diabetic nephropathy, had reduced overall survival (log-rank P = 0.04) and reduced cardiovascular survival (log-rank P = 0.03). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Patients with type 1 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy have a several-fold increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality compared with patients without diabetic nephropathy ( 12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Hence, genetic factors that contribute to an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) may explain some of the risk for diabetic nephropathy in the diabetic patient. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A parental history of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity has accordingly been associated with a higher prevalence of nephropathy in diabetic offspring ( 13 - 15 ) and an increase in CVD among patients with diabetic nephropathy ( 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The early mortality among parents to patients with nephropathy seems to be due to an excess of cardiovascular deaths. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Behavioural and Generational Change: What physical activity, diet and other behavioural patterns are optimal at different life stages in preventing diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and how can behavioural and generational change best be addressed? (wikipedia.org)
  • amounts
  • There are several anecdotal reports of large amounts of CoQ10 resulting in improvements in certain types of cancer. (evitamins.com)
  • use of appropriate types of insulin (long-acting, short-acting, etc.) in appropriate amounts. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some patients, this reduction in function of the respiratory chain is suggested to be caused by unbalanced amounts of proteins that are encoded by mitochondrial DNA, due to the presence of the A3243G mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • injection
  • or a second injection of insulin in the morning (24 patients/group). (acpjc.org)
  • However, diet, drugs, and insulin injection could hardly cure and prevent these obese-related diabetes [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In the neutral subcutaneous space, higher-order aggregates form, resulting in a slow, peakless dissolution and absorption of insulin from the site of injection. (wikipedia.org)
  • After subcutaneous injection of the acidic solute (which can cause discomfort and a stinging sensation), when a physiologic pH (approximately 7.4) is achieved the increase in pH causes the insulin to come out of solution resulting in the formation of higher order aggregates of insulin hexamers. (wikipedia.org)
  • dose
  • Patients were allocated to acarbose ( n = 973), titrated to a maximum dose of 100 mg 3 times/d, or placebo ( n = 973). (acpjc.org)
  • In practice, the difficulty for a diabetic person to aggressively dose insulin to keep blood sugars levels close to normal and at the same time constantly adjust the insulin regimen to the dynamic demands of exercise, stress, and wellness can practically assure occasional hyperinsulinemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In comparison, of PNDM, the insulin dose requirement of TNDM is often lower. (wikipedia.org)
  • doses
  • 198 In another study, on the day of a marathon, runners with T1D reduced prerace insulin doses by an average of 26% and ingested 130 g of carbohydrate before, 91 g during, and 115 g after the race. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • 1989
  • Diabetes 1989;38(suppl 1):1-3. (springer.com)
  • In 1989, Novo Industri A/S (Novo Terapeutisk Laboratorium) and Nordisk Gentofte A/S (Nordisk Insulinlaboratorium) merged to become Novo Nordisk A/S, the world's largest producer of insulin with headquarters in Bagsværd, Copenhagen. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • 1996 The CTLA-4 gene region on chromosome 2q33 is linked to and associated with type 1 diabetes Hum. (springer.com)
  • It is classified by gene structure and coding sequence as a type III IF protein because of its homology with vimentin, GFAP and desmin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene like APOM and APM1 increase the risk of type 2 diabetes when there are SNPs in their proximal promoter regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Decreasing the level these gene products reduce the body's ability to handle glucose, which leads to the increased risk of diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the risk of diabetes is combination of the gene regulations and the interplay between those gene products, certain genes may not pose a threat to increase the susceptibility. (wikipedia.org)
  • NDM is a monogenic (controlled by a single gene) form of diabetes that occurs in the first 6 months of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there are two genes in this region that can be associated with TNDM: ZAC and HYMAI Genes ZAC is a zinc-finger protein that controls apoptosis (programmed cell death) and cell cycle arrest (cell division and duplication of DNA stops when the cell detects cell damage or defects) in PLAG1 (pleomorphic adenoma gene-like 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • diabetics
  • Metformin, sold under the trade name Glucophage, is used to treat diabetes, but several studies show that it also helps non-diabetics to lose weight by reducing hunger (1). (drmirkin.com)
  • Since Glucophage lowers insulin, diabetics should be placed on Glucophage to lower their requirements for all other medications used to treat diabetes (6). (drmirkin.com)
  • About 50% of diabetics with diabetic cardiomyopathy show pathologic evidence for microangiopathy such as sub-endothelial and endothelial fibrosis, compared to only 21% of non-diabetic heart failure patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetically
  • Nordisk marketed a genetically engineered human growth hormone in 1988 and Novo Nordisk is market leading in the world today in this area and introduced the world's first liquid growth hormone in a pen system in 1999. (wikipedia.org)