• perinatal
  • Low birth weight infants are at increased risk of perinatal and infant death. (bmj.com)
  • Perinatal factors, including gestational age and birth weight, influence the development of atopy in early life. (aappublications.org)
  • Four hundred fifty-four infants who had a history of allergy or asthma in at least 1 parent, were born in the 36th week of gestation or later, and did not develop perinatal respiratory distress were monitored for at least 6 years. (aappublications.org)
  • This article details our evaluation of the relationship between perinatal factors, including anthropometric measures and gestational age, and asthma at 6 years of age. (aappublications.org)
  • Perinatal asphyxia, neonatal asphyxia or birth asphyxia is the medical condition resulting from deprivation of oxygen to a newborn infant that lasts long enough during the birth process to cause physical harm, usually to the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • An infant suffering severe perinatal asphyxia usually has poor color (cyanosis), perfusion, responsiveness, muscle tone, and respiratory effort, as reflected in a low 5 minute Apgar score. (wikipedia.org)
  • David A. Savitz is a professor of Community Health in the Epidemiology Section of the Program in Public Health, Vice President for Research, and Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, at The Alpert Medical School of Brown University, and Associate Director for Perinatal Research in The Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Women & Infants Hospital, both in Providence, Rhode Island. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is a former president of the Society for Epidemiologic Research and the Society for Pediatric and Perinatal Epidemiologic Research and the North American Regional Councilor for the International Epidemiological Association. (wikipedia.org)
  • newborn infants
  • Recent data suggest that deficiency is no longer limited to higher latitudes, with reports of deficiency in more than 75% of pregnant African American women living at 32˚N in South Carolina with expected parallels of such deficiency noted in their newborn infants [6- (scirp.org)
  • There has long been a scientific debate over whether newborn infants with asphyxia should be resuscitated with 100% oxygen or normal air. (wikipedia.org)
  • mortality ratio
  • As women have gained access to family planning and skilled birth attendance with backup emergency obstetric care, the global maternal mortality ratio has fallen from 380 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in 1990 to 210 deals per 100,000 live births in 2013. (wikipedia.org)
  • As women have gained access to family planning and skilled birth attendance with backup emergency obstetric care, the global maternal mortality ratio has fallen from 380 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in 1990 to 210 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2013, and many countries halved their maternal death rates in the last 10 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • premature infants
  • To find predictive and indicative markers of risk for development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and its progression to the stage requiring laser treatment, in premature infants whose gestational age (GA) was under 33 weeks. (hindawi.com)
  • Although it is well established that prematurity is a major risk factor for the development of chronic lung disease, as a result of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, 1 , 2 and that extremely premature infants more frequently demonstrate persistent airway hyperresponsiveness in early childhood, 3 the influence of less extreme prematurity on the development of asthma among otherwise healthy children remains unresolved. (aappublications.org)
  • pregnancies
  • In general, risk factors in the mother that may contribute to low birth weight include young ages, multiple pregnancies, previous LBW infants, poor nutrition, heart disease or hypertension, untreated coeliac disease, drug addiction, alcohol abuse, and insufficient prenatal care. (wikipedia.org)
  • IUGR
  • IUGR is associated with a wide range of short- and long-term neurodevelopmental disorders white matter effects - In postpartum studies of infants, it was shown that there was a decrease of the fractal dimension of the white matter in IUGR infants at one year corrected age. (wikipedia.org)
  • grey matter effects - Grey matter was also shown to be decreased in infants with IUGR at one year corrected age. (wikipedia.org)
  • IUGR infants with brain-sparing show accelerated maturation of the hippocampus which is responsible for memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • severe
  • Because the number of preterm infants is growing and those who need to be screened for their ROP are increasing, particularly in the center hospitals, and the fundus examination may increase the stress of infants in incubators, it would be helpful to both the doctors and the infants to find predictive and indicative factors for severe ROP requiring laser treatment. (hindawi.com)
  • Such factors will help us determine which infants need to be followed closely for severe ROP who requires laser treatment and minimize unnecessary examinations for infants who are not at high risk. (hindawi.com)
  • Both maternal mortality and severe maternal mortality (SMM) are "associated with a high rate of preventability. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2017 review found that while severe health effects are associated with higher paternal age, the total increase in problems caused by paternal age is low. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomal
  • Participants 976 women from the original cohort who conceived as the result of assisted reproductive technology, had a first trimester ultrasound measurement of fetal crown-rump length, and delivered live singleton infants without evidence of chromosomal or congenital abnormalities. (bmj.com)
  • medical ailments
  • But workplace safety standards do not recognize exposure to certain vulnerable groups such as people with medical ailments, children, and infants who may be exposed to second-hand vapor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increased use of prenatal care was found to decrease the rates of birth-weight-related mortality and other preventable medical ailments such as post-partum depression and infant injuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • socioeconomic
  • Retrospective study conducted at two hospitals in Pune, 0.5-5 years, 618 children: 189-SGA from upper socioeconomic strata (USS), 217-SGA from lower socioeconomic strata (LSS), and 212 appropriate for gestational age healthy controls were randomly selected. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Birth and maternal history, socioeconomic status, length/height, and weight of children were recorded. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • African American and Hispanic women and infants living in Rochester compared to Charleston had improved vitamin D status, an effect that was no longer significant when controlling for socioeconomic factors and season. (scirp.org)
  • duration
  • Consistency and promptness of maternal response is associated with a decline in frequency and duration of crying by the end of the first year individual differences in crying reflect the history of maternal responsiveness rather than constitutional differences in infant irritability. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are basically two distinct determinants for birth weight: The duration of gestation prior to birth, that is, the gestational age at which the child is born The prenatal growth rate, generally measured in relation to what weight is expected for any gestational age. (wikipedia.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • Conclusions: There was a significant vitamin D deficiency among a cohort of women and their infants living at two diverse latitudes-Charleston, SC and Rochester, NY. (scirp.org)
  • Given the higher rate of vitamin D deficiency among African American and Hispanic women and their infants living at a lower latitude, conclusions about vitamin D status based on latitude alone may be faulty. (scirp.org)
  • During evaluations of maternal depression responses to infant crying, sleeping problems are closely associated with excessive crying and may confound the conclusions of such research. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2017
  • A 2017 review concluded that the vast majority of studies supported a relationship between paternal age and autism and schizophrenia, but that there is less convincing and also inconsistent evidence for associations with other psychiatric illnesses. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to a 2017 review, there is consistent evidence of an increase in incidence of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia with paternal age. (wikipedia.org)
  • birth weight
  • In 2010, an estimated 32·4 million infants were born SGA in low- and middle-income countries (27% of live births), of whom 10·6 million infants were born at term and low birth weight (LBW). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 2 Moreover, mothers who deliver low birth weight infants have a greater than fourfold adjusted relative risk of ischaemic heart disease. (bmj.com)
  • Both low birth weight and prematurity were directly associated with the development of wheeze or asthma in several studies, 4 - 7 whereas other studies either failed to demonstrate an association 8 - 11 or demonstrated inverse relationships. (aappublications.org)
  • Low birth weight (LBW) is defined by the World Health Organization as a birth weight of a infant of 2,499 g or less, regardless of gestational age. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adverse effects include stillbirth, placental disruption, prematurity, lower mean birth weight, physical birth defects (cleft palate etc.), decrements in lung function, increased risk of infant mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brough L., Rees G.A., Crawford M.A., Morton R.H. and Dorman E.K.(2010) 'Effect of multiple-micronutrient supplementation on maternal nutrient status and infant birth weight and gestational age at birth in a low income, multi-ethnic population. (wikipedia.org)
  • A very large birth weight is usually caused by the infant having been large for gestational age Studies have been conducted to investigate how a person's birth weight can influence aspects of their future life. (wikipedia.org)
  • diabetes
  • High paternal age has been suggested as a risk factor for type 1 diabetes, but research findings are inconsistent and a clear association has not been established. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, despite this revolution, the use of SMBG and electronic reports, although fully supported by the American Diabetes Association, never reached its potential due in part to the popularization of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as the primary basis for clinical decision-making. (wikipedia.org)
  • mother's
  • The effect of a mother's death results in vulnerable families, and their infants, if they survive childbirth, are more likely to die before reaching their second birthday. (wikipedia.org)
  • correlation
  • Conditions proposed to show correlation with paternal age include the following: Advanced paternal age may be associated with a higher risk for certain single-gene disorders caused by mutations of the FGFR2, FGFR3, and RET genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • survive
  • In more pronounced cases, an infant will survive, but with damage to the brain manifested as either mental, such as developmental delay or intellectual disability, or physical, such as spasticity. (wikipedia.org)
  • deaths
  • WHO estimates that 4 million neonatal deaths occur yearly due to birth asphyxia, representing 38% of deaths of children under 5 years of age. (wikipedia.org)
  • cohort
  • Those infants who had been on a vitamin D supplement at the time of enrollment in the study had markedly improved vitamin D status compared to those infants not on supplement, but represented a significant minority of the cohort. (scirp.org)
  • nicotine
  • Aside from toxicity exposure in normal use, there are also risks from misuse or accidents such as nicotine poisoning (especially among infants and children), contact with liquid nicotine, fires caused by vaporizer malfunction, and explosions resulting from extended charging, unsuitable chargers, or design flaws. (wikipedia.org)
  • postpartum
  • The primary outcome was maternal and infant total circulating 25(OH)D at baseline by center/latitude, and the secondary outcome was the percent of women and infants who had achieved a baseline concentration of at least 20 ng/mL, meeting the Institute of Medicine's definition of sufficiency at 4 to 6 weeks postpartum. (scirp.org)
  • odds ratio
  • Compared with a paternal age of 25-28 years as a reference group, the odds ratio for low birthweight was approximately 1.1 at a paternal age of 20 and approximately 1.2 at a paternal age of 50. (wikipedia.org)
  • caesarean
  • Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the associations between 25(OH)D concentrations and caesarean section. (medsci.org)
  • However, there was tentative evidence that children who were born by caesarean had more health problems at age two. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cesarean delivery on maternal request (CDMR) is a caesarean section birth requested by the pregnant woman without a medical reason. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concept of "caesarean delivery on maternal request" is not well-recognized in health care, and consequently, when it occurs there are not mechanisms in place for reporting it for research or distinguishing it in medical billing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increasingly, caesarean sections are performed in the absence of obstetrical or medical necessity at the patient's request, and the term Caesarean delivery on maternal request has been used. (wikipedia.org)
  • prognosis
  • To improve their prognosis, we sought to identify infants who would require laser treatment and to apply the treatment at the optimal time. (hindawi.com)
  • mothers
  • Overall, there was a significant vitamin D deficiency at baseline in lactating mothers, and a far greater deficiency in their infants. (scirp.org)
  • Crying in infants is associated with high stress levels and depression in mothers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The burden of care of the mother, that is, mothers without assistance in caring for the infant, are more prone to physical aggression and angry speaking. (wikipedia.org)
  • Review on the effects of passive maternal smoking, also called environmental tobacco exposure (ETS), demonstrated that increased risks of infants with LBW were more likely to be expected in ETS-exposed mothers. (wikipedia.org)
  • health
  • The main function of active vitamin D is to increase the intestinal absorption of calcium, regulate the function of bone cells, affect bone metabolism, and to maintain bone health at all ages [ 2 , 3 ]. (medsci.org)
  • In 2010 the U.S. Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations described maternal mortality as a "sentinel event", and uses it to assess the quality of a health care system. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study conducted in Kenya observed that common maternal health problems in poverty-stricken areas include hemorrhaging, anemia, hypertension, malaria, placenta retention, premature labor, prolonged/complicated labor, and pre-eclampsia. (wikipedia.org)
  • While paternal age has increased since 1960-1970 this is not seen as a major public health concern. (wikipedia.org)
  • childhood
  • Evaluation of the association between maternal smoking, childhood obesity, and metabolic disorders: a national toxicology program workshop review. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It is estimated that genes contribute about 20-40% of the variance in intelligence in childhood and about 80% in old age. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the critical period for the visual cortex ends in early childhood, other cortical areas and abilities have a critical period that lasts up through maturity (age 16), the same time frame for the development of fluid intelligence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results for associations with other childhood cancers are more mixed (e.g. retinoblastoma) or generally negative. (wikipedia.org)
  • risk
  • The association between candidate risk factors and development or progression of ROP was assessed. (hindawi.com)
  • These preterm infants, however, are a vulnerable population, at high risk for developmental disorders in multiple organs. (hindawi.com)
  • DISCUSSION: Current epidemiological data support a positive association between maternal smoking and increased risk of obesity or overweight in offspring. (biomedsearch.com)
  • SGA infants have multi-fold increased risk of growth failure and adulthood disorders. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • While higher latitude has been shown to be an independent risk factor for vitamin D deficiency [1- with changes in lifestyle, it is unclear if this association persists in the 21st century in urban settings. (scirp.org)
  • Paternal age may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, but the association is weak and there are confounding effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been revealed that adverse reproductive effects (e.g., risk for LBW) were correlated with maternal exposure to air pollution combustion emissions in Eastern Europe and North America. (wikipedia.org)
  • Children
  • Stunting begins antenatally and peaks at 18-24 months of postnatal life, when mean length-for-age Z-score (LAZ) is about -2.0 among children living in Africa and Asia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • One typical immune reaction in infants and children is PANDAS, or Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • Appropriately timed laser treatment is the main therapeutic approach for preventing blindness in these infants, although clinical trials also support the use of anti-VEGF drugs to regress ROP [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • injuries
  • The potential role for arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids in protection against some central nervous system injuries in preterm infants' M. A. Crawford, I. Golfetto, K. Ghebremeskel, Y. Min, T. Moodley, L. Poston, A. Phylactos, S. Cunnane and W. Schmidt. (wikipedia.org)
  • factors
  • Despite the fact that intelligence stabilizes in early adulthood it is thought that genetic factors come to play more of a role in our intelligence during middle and old age and that the importance of the environment dissipates. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many of these, the statistical evidence of association is weak, and the association may be related by confounding factors, or behavioural differences. (wikipedia.org)
  • From a practical point a number of factors have been identified that are associated with preterm birth, however, an association does not establish causality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Factors that increase maternal death can be direct or indirect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conclusion
  • Background: The effect of latitude on maternal and infant vitamin D status during lactation is presumed to be strongly associated with higher rates of deficiency in those living at higher latitudes, yet with lifestyle changes, this conclusion may no longer be correct. (scirp.org)