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  • Stroke
  • During an ischemic stroke , a lack of oxygen and glucose leads to a breakdown of the sodium-calcium pumps on brain cell membranes, which in turn results in a massive buildup of sodium and calcium intracellularly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brain edema is the major cause of increased ICP, secondary deterioration, and death in patients after stroke. (ahajournals.org)
  • cranial vault
  • Certain changes in morphology are associated with cerebral edema: the brain becomes soft and smooth and overfills the cranial vault , gyri (ridges) become flattened, sulci (grooves) become narrowed, and ventricular cavities become compressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytotoxic
  • In cytotoxic edema, the blood-brain barrier remains intact but a disruption in cellular metabolism impairs functioning of the sodium and potassium pump in the glial cell membrane, leading to cellular retention of sodium and water. (wikipedia.org)
  • subdural
  • Generally, acute subdural hematomas are less than 72 hours old and are hyperdense compared with the brain on computed tomography scans. (medscape.com)
  • Chronic subdural hematomas develop over the course of weeks and are hypodense compared with the brain. (medscape.com)
  • vasoconstriction
  • 1 Over the past few years, the use of previously recommended therapies such as barbiturates or hyperventilation has been increasingly questioned since it was recognized that they may critically reduce the CPP through negative effects on the systemic blood pressure or excessive cerebral vasoconstriction with secondary ischemic damage. (ahajournals.org)
  • vascular
  • Cancerous glial cells ( glioma ) of the brain can increase secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which weakens the junctions of the blood-brain barrier . (wikipedia.org)
  • outcome
  • Adding to this, Combination Therapy in Hypertension will cover current control rates of blood pressure worldwide, the benefits of monotherapy and combination therapy, examine the effectiveness, risk of adverse effects, compliance, and cost of the available therapies and will also include information on relevant outcome studies. (stanford.edu)
  • Patients with favorable outcome responded better to HS in terms of increased CBF, brain tissue oxygen, and pH and reduced intracranial pressure compared with those with an unfavorable outcome. (ahajournals.org)
  • Favorable outcome is associated with an improvement in brain tissue oxygen beyond 210 minutes. (ahajournals.org)
  • subsequent
  • This approach advocates the use of initial monotherapy to reach the desired blood pressure, and the subsequent use of additional drugs with complementary modes of action, until the target BP is achieved. (stanford.edu)
  • Injuries
  • Blast-related brain injuries can be provocatively described as "a silent epidemic of an invisible wound. (frontiersin.org)
  • We conducted a retrospective review of 830 patients with traumatic brain injuries, who underwent treatment between February 2003 and August 2005 at our hospital. (spotidoc.com)
  • fatal
  • Very high intracranial pressures are usually fatal if prolonged, but children can tolerate higher pressures for longer periods. (wikipedia.org)
  • For determination of clinical and radiographic parameters that may aid in identification of PTCI patients who are at high risk for fatal brain swelling, we conducted an evaluation of early clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics associated with PTCI including malignant PTCI in consecutive PTCI patients admitted to our institution. (spotidoc.com)
  • causes
  • A further consequence of this process is neurogenic pulmonary edema where a process of increased pressure within the pulmonary circulation causes leaking of fluid from the pulmonary capillaries into the air spaces, the alveoli, of the lung. (wikipedia.org)
  • deficits
  • CBF augmentation using hypertensive agents and agents that dilute and expand the plasma volume are already used to reverse ischemic neurological deficits. (ahajournals.org)
  • constituents
  • The cranium and its constituents (blood, CSF, and brain tissue) create a state of volume equilibrium, such that any increase in volume of one of the cranial constituents must be compensated by a decrease in volume of another. (wikipedia.org)
  • These buffers respond to increases in volume of the remaining intracranial constituents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signs
  • In addition to the above, if mass effect is present with resulting displacement of brain tissue, additional signs may include pupillary dilatation, abducens palsies, and the Cushing's triad. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • A significant increase in brain tissue oxygen persisted for 240 minutes. (ahajournals.org)
  • 6,7 Brain tissue oxygen tension (P b O 2 ) reflects the availability of oxygen for oxidative energy production and represents the balance between oxygen supply and demand. (ahajournals.org)
  • As a rule, patients with normal blood pressure retain normal alertness with ICP of 25-40 mmHg (unless tissue shifts at the same time). (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygen
  • The brain is relatively poorly supplied by oxygen as a result of mild hypoventilation during the sleeping hours, and also cerebral edema may worsen during the night due to the lying position. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral
  • We report two patients with peripheral SCA aneurysms who presented with cerebellar ischemic events without SAH. (ajnr.org)