• cranial
  • Certain changes in morphology are associated with cerebral edema: the brain becomes soft and smooth and overfills the cranial vault , gyri (ridges) become flattened, sulci (grooves) become narrowed, and ventricular cavities become compressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cranium and its constituents (blood, CSF, and brain tissue) create a state of volume equilibrium, such that any increase in volume of one of the cranial constituents must be compensated by a decrease in volume of another. (wikipedia.org)
  • decompressive
  • 11 12 Doerfler et al 11 showed in an experimental study in rats that decompressive craniectomy for cerebral infarction significantly reduced mortality and improved clinical outcome in a time-dependent fashion. (ahajournals.org)
  • The aim of this study was to directly compare the benefits of reperfusion with those of decompressive craniectomy and to study the effects of a combined treatment of reperfusion and craniectomy in an animal model of hemispheric infarction. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cytotoxic
  • In cytotoxic edema, the blood-brain barrier remains intact but a disruption in cellular metabolism impairs functioning of the sodium and potassium pump in the glial cell membrane, leading to cellular retention of sodium and water. (wikipedia.org)
  • subsequent
  • This approach advocates the use of initial monotherapy to reach the desired blood pressure, and the subsequent use of additional drugs with complementary modes of action, until the target BP is achieved. (stanford.edu)
  • Coagulopathy
  • Alcohol abuse predisposes to SDH through multiple mechanisms, including accelerated cerebral atrophy, comorbid coagulopathy and thrombocytopenia, and a propensity for falls or other accidents. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • neurological
  • CBF augmentation using hypertensive agents and agents that dilute and expand the plasma volume are already used to reverse ischemic neurological deficits. (ahajournals.org)
  • vascular
  • Cancerous glial cells ( glioma ) of the brain can increase secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which weakens the junctions of the blood-brain barrier . (wikipedia.org)
  • complications
  • 1.2 million myocardial infarctions occurred last year in the U.S., and 480,000 patients died following complications of infarction. (stanford.edu)
  • Lying still for long periods can cause complications including pressure sores, pneumonia or other infections, progressive multiple organ failure, and deep venous thrombosis, which can cause pulmonary embolism. (lumenlearning.com)
  • Mechanisms
  • The body has various mechanisms by which it keeps the ICP stable, with CSF pressures varying by about 1 mmHg in normal adults through shifts in production and absorption of CSF. (wikipedia.org)
  • aneurysms
  • The exact role of high blood pressure is somewhat unclear, but since it does seem linked to the formation of aneurysms, it may be considered an indirect risk factor. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We report two patients with peripheral SCA aneurysms who presented with cerebellar ischemic events without SAH. (ajnr.org)
  • cause
  • Altered metabolism may cause brain cells to retain water , and dilution of the blood plasma may cause excess water to move into brain cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fast travel to high altitude without proper acclimatization can cause high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE) . (wikipedia.org)
  • TBI can cause prolonged or permanent effects on consciousness, such as coma, brain death, persistent vegetative state (in which patients are unable to achieve a state of alertness to interact with their surroundings), and minimally conscious state. (lumenlearning.com)
  • tissue
  • A significant increase in brain tissue oxygen persisted for 240 minutes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Patients with favorable outcome responded better to HS in terms of increased CBF, brain tissue oxygen, and pH and reduced intracranial pressure compared with those with an unfavorable outcome. (ahajournals.org)
  • Favorable outcome is associated with an improvement in brain tissue oxygen beyond 210 minutes. (ahajournals.org)
  • 6,7 Brain tissue oxygen tension (P b O 2 ) reflects the availability of oxygen for oxidative energy production and represents the balance between oxygen supply and demand. (ahajournals.org)
  • In addition to the above, if mass effect is present with resulting displacement of brain tissue, additional signs may include pupillary dilatation, abducens palsies, and the Cushing's triad. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a rule, patients with normal blood pressure retain normal alertness with ICP of 25-40 mmHg (unless tissue shifts at the same time). (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygen
  • The brain is relatively poorly supplied by oxygen as a result of mild hypoventilation during the sleeping hours, and also cerebral edema may worsen during the night due to the lying position. (wikipedia.org)
  • outcome
  • Adding to this, Combination Therapy in Hypertension will cover current control rates of blood pressure worldwide, the benefits of monotherapy and combination therapy, examine the effectiveness, risk of adverse effects, compliance, and cost of the available therapies and will also include information on relevant outcome studies. (stanford.edu)