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  • genetic
  • Although the transfer of a number of genes from these organelles to the nucleus prevents them from living independently, each still possesses genetic material in the form of double stranded DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Trinucleotide repeat disorders generally show genetic anticipation, where their severity increases with each successive generation that inherits them. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, they are extremely useful in such fields as forensic DNA profiling and genetic linkage analysis, which can be used to search for genes involved in a wide range of disorders. (bmj.com)
  • However, when used to refer to the number of repeating units of genetic information that are sufficient to encode the blueprint for something as complex as a human being, it never ceases to amaze me that this number is big enough! (bmj.com)
  • They are also used in genetic linkage analysis to locate a gene or a mutation responsible for a given trait or disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The increasing availability of DNA amplification by PCR at the beginning of the 1990s triggered a large number of studies using the amplification of microsatellites as genetic markers for forensic medicine, for paternity testing, and for positional cloning to find the gene underlying a trait or disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4 , 5 So far, many genes have been attributed to cause this disease, thereby revealing its genetic complexity. (arvojournals.org)
  • polyglutamine
  • Indeed, networks of proteins containing polyglutamine, polyglutamate, polyproline, and other AARs show significantly increased levels of connectivity, whereas networks containing polyleucine and other hydrophobic repeats show lower degrees of connectivity. (frontiersin.org)
  • tandemly
  • 1992). A microsatellite is a tract of tandemly repeated (i.e. adjacent) DNA motifs that range in length from one to six or up to ten nucleotides (the exact definition and delineation to the longer minisatellites varies from author to author), and are typically repeated 5-50 times. (wikipedia.org)
  • codons
  • Due to the triplet nature of gene expression by codons, the insertion or deletion can change the reading frame (the grouping of the codons), resulting in a completely different translation from the original. (wikipedia.org)
  • loci
  • In summary, I identified novel QTLs underlying NPC proliferation and these loci serve as starting points to identify genes (e.g. (ubc.ca)
  • harbor
  • Thirty-four percent of FECD subjects and 5% of control individuals harbor more than 50 trinucleotide repeats, which was considered as the disease threshold. (arvojournals.org)
  • These QTLs are hypothesized to harbor genes important for NPC proliferation and downstream experimentation is required to validate the function of these genes. (ubc.ca)
  • recombination
  • Gene conversion arises during DNA repair via DNA recombination, by which a piece of DNA sequence information is transferred from one DNA helix (which remains unchanged) to another DNA helix, whose sequence is altered. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Nevertheless, even focusing as intended upon microsatellites and their relevance to humans, it should become clear that most of these questions remain ones that will require consideration, even if only in passing. (bmj.com)
  • How many genes do humans have? (brainscape.com)
  • successive generations
  • This underlies the phenomenon of anticipation, whereby the disease becomes progressively earlier in onset in successive generations due to expansion of the repeat. (genetics.org)
  • The increase in the number of repeats over time leads to earlier development and increased severity of symptoms in affected individuals in successive generations. (lidsen.com)
  • Thus
  • Thus, the phenotype of traits linked to genes found in either chloroplasts or mitochondria are determined exclusively by the maternal parent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several studies have now explored the functional consequences of the appearance and variation in length of AARs in transcription factors and in other proteins in which they are particularly enriched, showing how these repeats can alter the function of proteins, thus ultimately modulating developmental and post-developmental processes (e.g. (frontiersin.org)
  • toxicity
  • citation needed] Recent results suggest that the CAG repeats need not always be translated in order to cause toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • We record that repeats possess the to hinder the binding of transcription elements with their consensus series by changed DNA inhaling and exhaling dynamics in closeness from the binding sites. (cancer-basics.com)
  • Transcription factor 4 ( TCF4 ), that encodes for E2-2 protein, a group of E protein transcription factors known for cellular growth and differentiation, is one such gene that has been associated with this disease. (arvojournals.org)
  • known
  • Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania demonstrated that in fruit flies, a protein previously known to bind CUG repeats (muscleblind, or mbl) is also capable of binding CAG repeats. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several families of interspersed repetitive DNA, although the two largest are known as short and long interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs and LINEs, respectively), 1 and it is to the SINE family that the frequently mentioned Alu repeat belongs. (bmj.com)
  • proteins
  • We first identified the sets of proteins that contain repeats of any one of the 20 amino acids, as well as control sets of proteins chosen at random in the proteome. (frontiersin.org)
  • repetitive
  • The residual fifth is moderately to highly repetitive, and can be divided into two types, depending on whether the individual repeat units are dispersed singularly (interspersed repetitive DNA) or clustered together (satellite DNA). (bmj.com)
  • Experimental
  • Most (though probably not all) genes have been identified by a combination of high throughput experimental and bioinformatics approaches, yet much work still needs to be done to further elucidate the biological functions of their protein and RNA products. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • A growing body of evidence is changing these views by showing how at least some of these repeats have defined structural propensities and functional properties. (frontiersin.org)
  • slipped stra
  • During lagging-strand synthesis, unusual structures such as slipped strands may form, which may result in expansions or contractions in the next replication round. (genetics.org)
  • cause
  • If the repeat is present in an intron it can cause toxic effects by forming spherical clusters called RNA foci in cell nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • Prominent early applications include the identifications by microsatellite genotyping of the 8-year-old skeletal remains of a British murder victim (Hagelberg et al. (wikipedia.org)