Loading...
  • organisms
  • Often, biotechnology involves the creation of hybrid genes and their introduction into organisms in which some or all of the gene is not normally present. (powershow.com)
  • The Genetically Modified Organisms, in view of the fact that they have been introduced a gene from another organism, they are able to acquire properties compared with the natural plants as they have the ability to confer resistance to various biotic and abiotic factors such as resistance to various plant protection products from herbicide and pesticide as well as salinity drought conditions. (ukessays.com)
  • Against such a confused background the Government's Panel on Sustainable Development has warned that the regulatory framework governing the release of genetically modified organisms into the environment may be inadequate. (timeshighereducation.com)
  • The deliberate release of genetically modified micro-organisms (GMMs) (e.g. biofertilisers and biopesticides) is regulated to ensure that the risk of hazardous consequences is kept to a minimum. (europa.eu)
  • The report from the third workshop, on monitoring methods focused on the methodology used in applying marker and reporter genes to assess the impact of environmental conditions on specific microbes and microbial communities, the presence and abundance of organisms and the metabolic activity of these organisms. (europa.eu)
  • Several types of reporter genes are available for use in the construction of bioreporter organisms, and the signals they generate can usually be categorized as either colorimetric, fluorescent, luminescent, chemiluminescent or electrochemical. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) are the result of laboratory processes which artificially insert foreign genes into the DNA of food crops or animals. (hubpages.com)
  • Knockout organisms or simply knockouts are used to study gene function, usually by investigating the effect of gene loss. (wikipedia.org)
  • In diploid organisms, which contain two alleles for most genes, and may as well contain several related genes that collaborate in the same role, additional rounds of transformation and selection are performed until every targeted gene is knocked out. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes inside the nucleus of a cell are strung together in such a way that the sequence carries information: that information determines how living organisms inherit various features (phenotypic traits). (wikipedia.org)
  • Fungal genetics uses yeast, and filamentous fungi as model organisms for eukaryotic genetic research, including cell cycle regulation, chromatin structure and gene regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Within this review, we discuss the major differences as to how the RNAs repress toxin activity, the potential consequences for utilizing different regulatory strategies, as well as the confirmed and potential biological roles for these loci across bacterial species. (mdpi.com)
  • An early tomato was developed that contained an antifreeze gene (afa3) from the winter flounder with the aim of increasing the tomato's tolerance to frost, which became an icon in the early years of the debate over genetically modified foods, especially in relation to the perceived ethical dilemma of combining genes from different species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other genes from various species have been inserted into the tomato with the hope of increasing their resistance to various environmental factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • This method involves genetically engineering bacterial species such as Clostridium, Bifidobacteria and Salmonella by adding the genes for anti-angiogenic factors such as endostatin or IP10 chemokine and removing any harmful virulence genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heritability means the information in a given gene is not always exactly the same in every individual in that species, so the same gene in different individuals does not give exactly the same instructions. (wikipedia.org)
  • A mycobacteriophage is a member of a group of bacteriophages known to have mycobacteria as host bacterial species. (wikipedia.org)
  • While originally isolated from the bacterial species Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, more than 4,200 mycobacteriophage have since been isolated from various environmental and clinical sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • If the original host cell (the donor) was genetically different from the new host cell (the recipient), the DNA recombination enzymes of the recipient cell will insert the new genes in place of the old, thus altering its own genetic makeup. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Bioreporters contain two essential genetic elements, a promoter gene and a reporter gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • A gene knockout (abbreviation: KO) is a genetic technique in which one of an organism's genes is made inoperative ("knocked out" of the organism). (wikipedia.org)
  • Resulting animals with the genetic change in their germline cells can then often pass the gene knockout to future generations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knockouts are primarily used to understand the role of a specific gene or DNA region by comparing the knockout organism to a wildtype with a similar genetic background. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genetic code not only controls inheritance: it also controls gene expression, which occurs when a portion of the double helix is uncoiled, exposing a series of the nucleotides, which are within the interior of the DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contact or by a bridge-like connection between two cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene transfer and genetic exchange have been studied in the halophilic archaeon Halobacterium volcanii and the hyperthermophilic archaeons Sulfolobus solfataricus and Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic studies with mycobacteriophage Giles show that 45% of the genes are nonessential for lytic growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparisons of these sequences have helped to explain how frequently genetic exchanges of this type may occur in nature, as well as how phages may contribute to bacterial pathogenicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mycobacteriophage genomes have been found to contain a subset of genes undergoing more rapid genetic flux than other elements of the genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • A lytic virus is one that normally infects a host cell and redirects the resources of the host away from its own cellular replication toward viral replication and the eventual lysis, or breaking open, of the bacterial cell. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Typical lytic viruses use the transcription and translation mechanisms of the host cell to express viral genes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Viral genes are expressed in a specific order. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The third step involves transcription and translation of viral genes for protein components. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Finally, the virus expresses genes needed to break open the host cell, releasing hundreds of new viral particles that move on to infect new host cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In the course of its normal life cycle, the virus binds to a specific receptor on the surface of the bacterial cell, injects the viral DNA into the host cell, and begins to express viral genes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The DNA they carry is injected into the new host, but since there are no viral genes included on the injected DNA, the newly infected host cell is not killed. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This germ-line can then be crossed to another germline containing Cre-recombinase which is a viral enzyme that can recognize these sequences, recombines them and deletes the gene flanked by these sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to cheetahs' being easily susceptible to certain types of viral and bacterial diseases, cryopreservation, allows scientists to preserve the embryos and gametes of genetically strong cheetahs from the wild and inseminate captive-bred cheetahs, enhancing the allele frequency of specific genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insect
  • The two universities have applied for a patent on the potential use of these genes to genetically engineer either the bacterial parasite or the insects themselves to produce more effective methods for controlling the spread of insect-borne diseases like dengue and Zika and for reducing the ravages of agricultural pests. (eurekalert.org)
  • regulatory
  • Implementation of advanced gene regulatory circuits will require orthogonal transcriptional systems that can be simultaneously controlled and that can produce several different control states. (diva-portal.org)
  • Within the past two decades, we have entered into a new RNA regulatory era where countless examples of RNAs that function to control gene expression across all kingdoms of life have been characterized. (mdpi.com)
  • We aimed to propose standardised test-methods for risk assessment, to review and develop the use of reporter genes for monitoring gene activity in specific environments and to promote coordination of scientific efforts between academic and regulatory authorities in the handling of biosafety data and development of monitoring tools. (europa.eu)
  • Specific concerns include mixing of genetically modified and non-genetically modified products in the food supply, effects of GMOs on the environment, the rigor of the regulatory process, and consolidation of control of the food supply in companies that make and sell GMOs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The safety assessment of genetically engineered food products by regulatory bodies starts with an evaluation of whether or not the food is substantially equivalent to non-genetically engineered counterparts that are already deemed fit for human consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • In synthetic biology, riboregulators can be used to regulate bacterial responses and probe gene regulatory networks. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterium
  • Monsanto's tomato was engineered with the ACC deaminase gene from the soil bacterium Pseudomonas chlororaphis that lowered ethylene levels by breaking down ACC. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomes
  • In addition, we discuss the temporal constraints in the evolution of bacterial genomes, considering bacterial evolution from the perspective of processes of short-sighted evolution and punctual acquisition of evolutionary novelties followed by long stasis periods. (mdpi.com)
  • maize
  • The health effects of a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize (from 11% in the diet), cultivated with or without Roundup, and Roundup alone (from 0.1ppb in water), were studied 2 years in rats. (mercola.com)
  • The Government's Advisory Committee on Novel Foods and Processes, which considers minor research trials of genetically modified plants, recommended that Ciba-Geigy's maize should not be cleared for human consumption because there was a small risk that it could undermine the effectiveness of antibiotic treatments. (timeshighereducation.com)
  • Faced with these conflicting arguments, the British government decided to vote against permitting the introduction of the genetically modified maize into the EU. (timeshighereducation.com)
  • reporter
  • There are a variety of specific marker and reporter genes being developed, each with particular advantages and disadvantages. (europa.eu)
  • We have therefore chosen to monitor progress on novel approaches for monitoring GMMs in nature and their biosafety aspects and to promote information and technology exchange between laboratories having expertise with different marker genes, reporter genes and monitoring methods. (europa.eu)
  • During the course of the project, the partners met at a series of workshops to discuss and write reports on marker genes, reporter genes, monitoring methods and biosafety. (europa.eu)
  • In addition, we sponsored two international conferences on marker/reporter genes in microbial ecology. (europa.eu)
  • The second workshop, on 'Reporter Genes', resulted in a report that included factors to consider when choosing a reporter gene, in addition to practical aspects such as choice of host and finding environmentally inducible promoters in host cells. (europa.eu)
  • Two main issues were defined with respect to the biosafety of marker and reporter genes: 1) the safety of the marker/reporter genes themselves and 2) how marker/reporter genes can be used for biosafety assessment of GMMs. (europa.eu)
  • In the case of a bioreporter, these genes, or portions thereof, have been removed and replaced with a reporter gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequently, turning on the promoter gene now causes the reporter gene to be turned on. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their versatility stems from the fact that there exist a large number of reporter gene systems that are capable of generating a variety of signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following sections outline in brief some of the reporter gene systems available and their existing applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inspired by the research of the aforementioned pioneers, the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus was genetically transformed with a luciferase reporter that allowed rhythmic gene expression to be assayed non-invasively as rhythmically "glowing" cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • blight
  • oryzae causes bacterial blight (BB) of rice which is one of the most important diseases of rice in most of the rice growing countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial blight of rice has high epidemic potential and is destructive to high-yielding cultivars in both temperate and tropical regions especially in Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research on bacterial blight of rice was commenced in Japan as early as in 1901, and the efforts were focused mainly on ecological studies and chemical control. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • The colonies are grown on the same agar plate and the different bacterial strains are distinguished on the basis of the color of light emitted by the respective luciferase enzymes. (europa.eu)
  • The first workshop on Marker Genes resulted in a report that described the characteristics of available marker systems, assessed approaches used in the construction of marked strains and analysed their use in a hypothetical test case release experiment. (europa.eu)
  • Historically, mycobacteriophage have been used to "type" (i.e. "diagnose") mycobacteria, as each phage infects only one or a few bacterial strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • microbial
  • Bioreporters are intact, living microbial cells that have been genetically engineered to produce a measurable signal in response to a specific chemical or physical agent in their environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • Light of different wavelengths can serve as a transient, noninvasive means of regulating gene expression for biotechnological purposes. (diva-portal.org)
  • Furthermore, we discuss advances in multiplexing different light sensors for achieving multichromatic control of gene expression and indicate developments that could facilitate the construction of efficient systems for light-regulated, multistate control of gene expression. (diva-portal.org)
  • This makes it possible to create a wide variety of different gene fragments. (powershow.com)
  • Depending on the combination of these genes used, several different types of bioluminescent bioreporters can be constructed. (wikipedia.org)
  • while a different allele of the same gene in a different individual could give garbled instructions that would result in a failure to produce any pigment, giving white hair and no pigmented skin: albinism. (wikipedia.org)
  • FLS2 and FLS1 are different genes with different responsibilities, but are related genetically. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNAs
  • Genes are pieces of DNA that contain information for synthesis of ribonucleic acids (RNAs) or polypeptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • plant genome
  • They also found a way to make plant cells resistant to the antibiotic kanamycin by transferring a bacterial neomycin phosphotransferase gene into the plant genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Therefore, studies on bacterial evolution are of increasing interest to understand the basic mechanisms of evolution. (mdpi.com)
  • Biotechnology
  • The biotechnology industry had promised the public that consumers would be given information enabling them to make a choice about whether or not to buy genetically modified foods. (timeshighereducation.com)
  • But the European biotechnology industry is exasperated with Monsanto because it considers that it has undermined the confidence-building exercise it had embarked on to persuade consumers of the advantages of genetically altering food. (timeshighereducation.com)
  • Surveys indicate public concerns that eating genetically modified food is harmful, that biotechnology is risky, that more information is needed and that consumers need control over whether to take such risks. (wikipedia.org)
  • non-primary source needed] Food writer Michael Pollan does not oppose eating genetically modified foods, but expressed concerns about biotechnology companies holding the intellectual property of the foods people depend on, and about the effects of the growing corporatization of large-scale agriculture. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • Originally, naturally occurring mutations were identified and then gene loss or inactivation had to be established by DNA sequencing or other methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in the FLS2 gene can cause bacterial infection by lack of response to flg22. (wikipedia.org)
  • foods
  • The first-ever lifetime feeding study 1 evaluating the health risks of genetically engineered foods was published online on September 19, and the results are troubling, to say the least. (mercola.com)
  • This new study joins a list of over 30 other animal studies showing toxic or allergenic problems with genetically engineered foods. (mercola.com)
  • But chances are, if you eat processed foods, your diet is chock full of genetically engineered ingredients you didn't even know about. (mercola.com)
  • As the list of genetically modified foods expands, so the level of consumer anxiety burgeons. (timeshighereducation.com)
  • The EU Commission is now presenting new proposals on how genetically manipulated soya - and soya goes into 60 per cent of all processed foods - should be labelled. (timeshighereducation.com)
  • Research into the safety of genetically modified foods - when it is done at all - is provided by biotech corporations themselves, the parameters and methods of which vary widely, says Clark. (intekom.com)
  • You may not want to eat genetically engineered foods. (hubpages.com)
  • There is already ample scientific justification for an immediate ban on genetically modified foods in order to safeguard our health. (hubpages.com)
  • produce
  • The researchers have identified a single pair of Wolbachia genes that produce this effect only when working together. (eurekalert.org)
  • Particularly relevant in this respect are the studies on the evolution of bacterial pathogens that produce long-lasting chronic infections. (mdpi.com)
  • Did you know that the majority of the produce we consume, if not organic, is genetically modified? (hubpages.com)
  • Artificial insemination is important for researchers to be able to produce strong offspring from genetically valuable cheetahs. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Screening bacterial cells to learn which contain the human insulin gene is the hard part. (powershow.com)
  • A layer of gfp -tagged green fluorescent bacterial cells is seen underneath the barley seed coat. (europa.eu)
  • Plant cells are then re-grown with the new genes through tissue transfer. (hubpages.com)
  • Individual cells are genetically transfected with the DNA construct. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a zygote, a nucleic acid double helix divides, with each single helix occupying one of the daughter cells, resulting in half the normal number of genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural transformation is a bacterial adaptation for DNA transfer between two cells through the intervening medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • copies
  • Genes are inherited as units, with two parents dividing out copies of their genes to their offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans have two copies of each of their genes, and make copies that are found in eggs or sperm-but they only include one copy of each type of gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell's
  • The promoter gene is turned on (transcribed) when the target agent is present in the cell's environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • grown
  • In 1994, the Flavr Savr became the first commercially grown genetically engineered food to be granted a license for human consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • control gene expression
  • Fully genetically encoded light sensors take advantage of the favorable characteristics of light, do not need the supplementation of any chemical inducers or co-factors, and have been demonstrated to control gene expression in Escherichia coli. (diva-portal.org)
  • specific
  • Biologists have known that Wolbachia have had this power for more than 40 years but only now have teams of biologists from Vanderbilt and Yale Universities identified the specific genes that confer this remarkable capability. (eurekalert.org)
  • Specific genes can be used as markers for monitoring of bacterial survival or as reporters for monitoring gene expression. (europa.eu)
  • Traits determined by genes can be modified by the animal's surroundings (environment): for example, the general design of a tiger's stripes is inherited, but the specific stripe pattern is determined by the tiger's surroundings. (wikipedia.org)
  • FLS1 was the original gene discovered shown to correspond with a specific ecotype within Arabidopsis thaliana. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli
  • Agritope introduced an S-adenosylmethionine hydrolase (SAMase) encoding gene derived from the E. coli bacteriophage T3, which reduced the levels of S-adenosylmethionine, a precursor to ACC. (wikipedia.org)
  • The only known pH riboregulator upregulates the alx gene in E. coli when in alkaline conditions, particularly above pH 8. (wikipedia.org)
  • characteristics
  • Bacterial circadian rhythms, like other circadian rhythms, are endogenous "biological clocks" that have the following three characteristics: (a) in constant conditions (i.e. constant temperature and either constant light {LL} or constant darkness {DD}) they oscillate with a period that is close to, but not exactly, 24 hours in duration, (b) this "free-running" rhythm is temperature compensated, and (c) the rhythm will entrain to an appropriate environmental cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • Behavioral analysis of Drosophila transformants expressing human taste receptor genes in the gustatory receptor neurons. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • expression
  • Originally developed for fundamental analysis of factors affecting gene expression, bioreporters were early on applied for the detection of environmental contaminants and have since evolved into fields as diverse as medical diagnostics, precision agriculture, food safety assurance, process monitoring and control, and bio-microelectronic computing. (wikipedia.org)
  • One experiment performed to show involvement of FLS2 in flagellin perception was an ectopic expression of FLS2 using the CaMV 35S gene promotor in one wild type Arabidopsis thaliana plant and two supposed mutant Arabidopsis thaliana plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • As discovered by the ectopic expression of FLS2 study , FLS2 is directed related to flagellin perception, so by discovery and by natural way of the plant, FLS2 is the gene responsible for perception of flagellin which signals a plant defense response. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence or absence of a target molecule determines whether the siRNA downregulates gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • pH riboregulators regulate gene expression in response to pH changes. (wikipedia.org)