• analyses
  • In the present work, we studied all SNPs in this conserved mammalian region and performed genetic analyses on samples from Chinese schizophrenia patients (n = 516) and compared control subjects (n = 520). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Genetic distances are closer between Greeks and Ethiopian/sub-Saharan groups than to any other Mediterranean group and finally Greeks cluster with Ethiopians/sub-Saharans in both neighbour joining dendrograms and correspondence analyses. (historum.com)
  • These results indicate that admixture must be considered when clinical epidemiology or case control genetic analyses are studied in this population. (blogspot.com)
  • Genetic analyses suggest that the Austronesian people in South East Asia had spread over Sundaland (the land mass of Southeastern Asia before rising sea-level created the islands of South East Asia) and evolved in situ over the last 35,000 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • admixture
  • For the time being, i have decided to run ADMIXTURE and STRUCTURE analysises simultaneously on the same "LD-pruned" dataset (a subset of the whole MDL dataset with markers corrected for some genetic effects (the admixture coefficients for each participant and references can be downloaded in Excel spreadsheet ). (blogspot.com)
  • When we look at the global apportionment of ancestry coefficients in STRUCTURE program, we would expect to see similar but perhaps slightly different patterns than with the ADMIXTURE results. (blogspot.com)
  • STRUCTURE assumes admixture formed by k ancestral subpopulations, which are defined empirically based on genetic distance between samples in a study set provided by the markers used in the analysis. (blogspot.com)
  • We started the ADMIXTURE analysis from k=3, resolving Caucassian, North-West European from Asian group. (blogspot.com)
  • Genetic admixture tests arrive at these percentages by examining locations (SNPs) on the DNA where one nucleotide has "mutated" or "switched" to a different nucleotide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparing this data with our anthropometrical data at the individual level we find a strong correlation between level of admixture and stature, thus strongly supporting the existence of a genetic component in pygmy short stature. (blogspot.com)
  • Mitochondrial haplogroups indicate that 5% of the sample has indigenous ancestry while admixture estimates from autosomal markers show 4% indigenous ancestry. (blogspot.com)
  • Koreans are the descendants or an admixture of the ancient people who settled in the Korean Peninsula, historically said to be Siberian or paleo-Asian. (wikipedia.org)
  • southeast asians
  • Southeast Asians (Iban, Cambodians, and Vietnamese) have ∼10% membership in the inferred Indian cluster, and the African Hema cluster shares ∼15% membership with the inferred European cluster. (blogspot.com)
  • Genotype
  • Using samples taken from WHI participants, the researchers first determine part of each woman's genotype, or genetic fingerprint, using high through-put assays that specifically examine ancestry. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Genome-Wide
  • Interrogation of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha locus and corneal astigmatism in Australians of Northern European ancestry: results of a genome-wide association study. (nih.gov)
  • Loci
  • On a typical single locus (on some loci, such as SLC24A5 , most of the variation is between groups). (scienceblogs.com)
  • Table 3 reveals that fewer than 100 random STRPs, or about 30 highly selected loci, can distinguish the major racial groups. (scienceblogs.com)
  • As expected, differentiating Caucasians and Hispanic Americans, who are admixed but mostly of Caucasian ancestry, is more difficult and requires a few hundred random STRPs or about 50 highly selected loci. (scienceblogs.com)
  • This method studies differences in the frequencies of particular allelic traits, namely polymorphisms from proteins found within human blood (such as the ABO blood groups, Rhesus blood antigens, HLA loci, immunoglobulins, G6PD isoenzymes, among others). (wikipedia.org)
  • We also presume that these genetic loci are not affected by natural selection and that the major process responsible for changes in base pairs has been mutation (which can be calculated). (wikipedia.org)
  • ethnic group
  • The Chinese American community comprises the largest ethnic group of Asian Americans, comprising 25.9% of the Asian American population as of 2010. (wikipedia.org)
  • see names of Korea) are an East Asian ethnic group and nation native to the whole Korean Peninsula and southeastern Manchuria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies of polymorphisms in the human Y-chromosome have so far produced evidence to suggest that the Korean people have a long history as a distinct, mostly endogamous ethnic group, with successive waves of people moving to the peninsula and three major Y-chromosome haplogroups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mongoloid is the term which anthropologists applied to the ethnic group which migrated to Southeast Asia during the Holocene period and evolved into the Austronesian people (associated with the Haplogroup O1 (Y-DNA) genetic marker), a group of Malayo-Polynesian-speaking people including those from Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Malagasy, the non-Chinese Taiwan Aboriginals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hungarians, also known as Magyars (Hungarian: magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Hungarian: Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today, other than the "Gaoshan" or Taiwanese aborigines, the Gelao are the only officially-recognized ethnic group in China with Austronesian-like numerals (see Kra languages). (wikipedia.org)
  • mtDNA
  • The optimal preservation of the remains allowed the retrieval of sufficient mtDNA for genetic analysis. (blogspot.com)
  • MtDNA and NRY DNA share some similar features, which have made them particularly useful in genetic anthropology. (wikipedia.org)
  • These properties include the direct, unaltered inheritance of mtDNA and NRY DNA from mother to offspring and father to son, respectively, without the 'scrambling' effects of genetic recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • ancestral
  • A leading method of analysis uses mathematical cluster analysis of the degree of similarity of genetic data between individuals and groups in order to infer population structures and assign individuals to hypothesized ancestral groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • An element in the ancestry of Austronesian-speaking peoples, the one which carried their ancestral language, originated on the island of Taiwan following the migration of pre-Austronesian-speaking peoples from continental Asia between approximately 10,000-6,000 BC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Africa
  • Long and Kittles had noted earlier that the Sokoto people of Africa contains virtually all of human genetic diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Austronesians, Austronesian people or Austronesian-speaking people are various distinct ethnic groups in Southeast Asia, Oceania and East Africa that speak languages of the Austronesian family. (wikipedia.org)
  • distances
  • First of all the STRUCTURE program estimated higher West_European ancestry (especially in samples the from Caucassian region) but the North_East_European and South European estimates were within 10% of one another and overall the estimates were reasonably close in the most of cases (check this spreadsheet for technical details - Fst values, genetic distances etc. (blogspot.com)
  • A strong linkage disequilibrium was found between the 35delG mutation and the DNA markers at distances of 34 kb on the centromeric and 90 kb on the telomeric side of the gene, respectively. (blogspot.com)
  • From this, he constructed phylogenetic trees that showed genetic distances diagrammatically. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our results emphasize the correlation of genetic and geographic distances and highlight other elements, including social factors that have contributed to population structure. (blogspot.com)
  • mutations
  • Even monozygotic twins (who develop from one zygote) have infrequent genetic differences due to mutations occurring during development and gene copy-number variation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second main cause of genetic variation is due to the high degree of neutrality of most mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individuals whose Y-chromosomes possess all the mutations on internal nodes of the Y-DNA tree down to and including M207 (which defines Haplogroup R) but which display neither the M173 mutation that defines haplogroup R1 nor the M479 mutation that defines Haplogroup R2 are categorized as belonging to group R* (R-M207). (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • Mean FST values for common putatively functional variants were significantly higher than FST values for nonfunctional variants.Thus, putative functional SNPs in genes in etiologic pathways for CVD show greater population differentiation than non-functional SNPs and a significant variance of FST values was noted among pairwise population comparisons for different biological processes.These results suggest a possible basis for varying susceptibility to CVD among ethnic groups. (nih.gov)
  • We investigated patterns of population differentiation (FST) of a set of genes in etiologic pathways of CVD among 3 ethnic groups: Yoruba in Nigeria (YRI), Utah residents with European ancestry (CEU), and Han Chinese (CHB) + Japanese (JPT). (nih.gov)
  • Single Nucleotide
  • Nearly all (>99.9%) of these sites are small differences, either single nucleotide polymorphisms or brief insertion-deletions in the genetic sequence, but structural variations account for a greater number of base-pairs than the SNPs and indels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, the rs7677751 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) locus was found to be associated with corneal astigmatism in people of Asian ancestry.Gene-based pathway analysis identified a significant association between the Gene Ontology 'segmentation' (GO:0035282) pathway, corrected p=0.009.Better-powered studies are required to validate the novel putative findings of our study. (nih.gov)
  • Recently, the rs7677751 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) locus was found to be associated with corneal astigmatism in people of Asian ancestry. (nih.gov)
  • has shown that non-SNP (structural) variation accounts for more human genetic variation than single nucleotide diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • geographic
  • Other small ethnic groups were also in rough geographic correlation with their putative origins. (blogspot.com)
  • Although geographic patterns are seen in the average north/south percent assignment values between groups as defined by AJ or SJ, grandparental world region of origin, or GCO, within each group there is high variability among individual assignment values. (blogspot.com)
  • European
  • The HapMap CEU samples and our northern European ancestry samples were both collected from Utah. (blogspot.com)
  • In the present study, we sought to replicate this finding and identify other genetic markers of corneal astigmatism in an Australian population of Northern European ancestry. (nih.gov)
  • Our data suggest that the PDGFRA locus does not transfer a major risk of corneal astigmatism in people of Northern European ancestry. (nih.gov)
  • Since individuals in these groups are often of mixed ancestry, Seldin and his colleagues need to determine their continental ancestry - the percent of their genetic make-up that can be attributed to African, European or East Asian ancestry. (ucdavis.edu)
  • The researchers also compare women of African-American or European ancestry to pinpoint the location of genes associated with decreased bone mineral density, a measure of osteoporosis. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Moving to a more complex K=4 and k=5-population model, the Scandinavian component and the Baltic-North Sea components emerged, resolving from the Altaic and the Anatolia-Balkanic component to form a North-West European out group,while both the Altaic and Anatolia-Balkanic groups show little intergroup affinity. (blogspot.com)
  • Although the k=4 model may seem useful since it neatly provide the most obvious anthropological partitions, the affinity between the Balkanic and two North_European components at least with these markers suggests that this k=4 population model is not what we are looking for either. (blogspot.com)
  • African slaves brought to the United States and their descendants have had a history of cultural exchange and intermarriage with Native Americans, as well as with other enslaved people who possessed Native American and European ancestry. (wikipedia.org)
  • The African, East/Southeast Asian, European, and Indian individuals are correctly assigned to their self-identified continental groups without exception. (blogspot.com)
  • The first large group of Jews to settle in Puerto Rico were European refugees fleeing German-occupied Europe in the 1930s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amerindian
  • Linguists and biologists have reached a similar conclusion based on analysis of Amerindian language groups and ABO blood group system distributions. (wikipedia.org)
  • indigenous
  • Many Indigenous peoples of the Eastern Woodlands, such as the Narragansett, Pequot, Lumbee and Cherokee, have a significant degree of African ancestry. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genetic history of indigenous peoples of the Americas primarily focuses on Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups and Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroups. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of haplogroup R1 among Indigenous Americans groups is a matter of controversy. (wikipedia.org)
  • differences
  • Differences between individuals, even closely related individuals, are the key to techniques such as genetic fingerprinting. (wikipedia.org)
  • While tests have broadly shown differences in average scores based on self-identified race or ethnicity, there is considerable debate as to whether and to what extent those differences reflect environmental factors as opposed to genetic ones, as well as to the definitions of what "race" and "intelligence" are, and whether they can be objectively defined at all. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, there is no non-circumstantial evidence that these differences in test scores have a genetic component, although some researchers believe that the existing circumstantial evidence makes it at least plausible that hard evidence for a genetic component will eventually be found. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first test showing differences in IQ test results between different population groups in the US was the tests of United States Army recruits in World War I. In the 1920s groups of eugenics lobbyists argued that this demonstrated that African-Americans and certain immigrant groups were of inferior intellect to Anglo-Saxon whites due to innate biological differences, using this as an argument for policies of racial segregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002) to investigate the extent of genetic differences between individuals within continental groups relative to genetic differences between individuals between continental groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus we may conclude that the estimates from the two programs are staistically correlated, while the differences are explained by the different approach to estimating the co-ancestry coefficients. (blogspot.com)
  • on the order of 100 for continental level differences. (scienceblogs.com)
  • SNPs
  • we can estimate that about 120 unselected SNPs or 20 highly selected SNPs can distinguish group CA from NA, AA from AS and AA from NA. (scienceblogs.com)
  • lineages
  • The studies suggest that only a small fraction of the Taiwan genetic lineages are found among the people of South East Asia, and it is argued that these movements of people from Taiwan, while smaller in scale, had a strong impact on culture and language the people. (wikipedia.org)
  • These small groups of founders must have included men from the Q-M346, Q-L54, Q-Z780, and Q-M3 lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is due to endogamy within kin groups and lineages or national, cultural or linguistic boundaries. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • The main cause is genetic drift, this is the effect of random changes in the gene pool. (wikipedia.org)
  • However they used the same methodology (same gene markers) and same data samples like Arnaiz-Villena et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • We developed a candidate-gene approach to search for such genetic factor and will present current results on various genes located in the GH-IGF1 axis. (blogspot.com)
  • population
  • It can help scientists understand ancient human population migrations as well as how human groups are biologically related to one another. (wikipedia.org)
  • No sub-Saharan African genes were observed in this population, therefore, non-Caucasoid maternal ancestry in Greece is very low, as elsewhere in Europe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Detection of population substructure among Jews and a north/south gradient within Ashkenazi Jews using 32 STR markers. (blogspot.com)
  • Thus, even based on data from a small marker set, AJ is not a homogeneous population. (blogspot.com)
  • note too the founder effect, when a small number of initial founders establish a population which hence starts with a correspondingly small degree of genetic variation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic research reveals that those migrations form part of a complex genetic puzzle on the origin and spread of the various components of the Indian population. (wikipedia.org)
  • linguistic
  • Antonio Arnaiz-Villena is a Spanish immunologist noted for his controversial research into the genetic history of ethnic groups and fringe linguistic hypotheses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The predominating view in China is to group the Tai peoples with the Sino-Tibetan peoples due to cultural and linguistic similarities, while the Austronesians are considered to be a separate group unrelated to the Sino-Tibetans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Austronesian
  • On top of that, Austronesian diaspora also can be found in the United States of America, the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Hong Kong, as well as West Asian countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a recent treatment, all Austronesian languages were classified into 10 subfamilies, with all the extra-Formosan languages grouped in one subfamily and with representatives of the remaining nine known only in Taiwan. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Austronesian peoples are usually placed into a separate group, and have sometimes been linked with the Austro-Asiatic peoples. (wikipedia.org)
  • evidence
  • Consequently, biocultural evidence strongly supports the hypothesis that a group linked to the Huns was installed at the city and was assimilated into this Early Byzantine society. (blogspot.com)
  • Some individuals show evidence of membership in multiple groups. (blogspot.com)
  • founder
  • Our study supports the hypothesis of a founder effect and we further propose that ethnic groups of Greek ancestry could have propagated the 35delG mutation, as evidenced by historical data beginning from the 15th century BC. (blogspot.com)
  • diversity
  • Dienekes Jumps on these topics whenever interpretation tilts to Europe and keeps absolutely silent selectively when he publishes diversity proof of India. (blogspot.com)
  • Analysis
  • For my qualifying exam I went with Introduction to Genetic Analysis . (gnxp.com)
  • Genetic analysis of the skeletal remains attributed to Francesco Petrarca. (blogspot.com)
  • Nevertheless, in 2016, DNA analysis carried out found that one of the genetic markers used in the study but not the others supports a small-scale "out-of-Taiwan" hypothesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • To shed further light on this issue, we performed a meta-analysis of the association between rs13266634 and T2D in different ethnic groups and assessed the relationships between SLC30A8 genotypes and some properties of isolated human islets. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Africans
  • The debate reemerged again in 1969, when Arthur Jensen championed the view that for genetic reasons Africans were less intelligent than whites and that compensatory education for African-American children was therefore doomed to be ineffective. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some groups were more accepting of Africans than others and welcomed them as full members of their respective cultures and communities. (wikipedia.org)
  • lower caste
  • In particular, upper-caste individuals from Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh form one defined group, lower-caste individuals from these two states form another, and the tribal Irula samples form a third. (blogspot.com)
  • ethnolinguistic
  • Filipinos come from various ethnolinguistic groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indo-Aryan migration models discuss scenarios around the theory of an origin from outside South Asia of Indo-Aryan peoples, an ascribed ethnolinguistic group that spoke Indo-Aryan languages, the predominant languages of North India. (wikipedia.org)
  • statistically
  • Although individual samples cannot be reliably classified into their collection of origin, the groups are statistically distinguishable despite their high similarity (FST = 0.0005, n.s. (blogspot.com)
  • Jews
  • Arnaiz-Villena's research was internationally reported following the publication of a paper on the genetic history of Jews and Palestinians, which he co-authored in the journal Human Immunology in 2001. (wikipedia.org)