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  • populations
  • Accounting for genetic substructure within European populations has been important in reducing type 1 errors in genetic studies of complex disease. (blogspot.com)
  • As efforts to understand complex genetic disease are expanded to other continental populations an understanding of genetic substructure within these continents will be useful in design and execution of association tests. (blogspot.com)
  • In this study, population differentiation(Fst) and Principal Components Analyses(PCA) are examined using >200K genotypes from multiple populations of East Asian ancestry(total 298 subjects). (blogspot.com)
  • For PCA, the first two PCs showed a pattern of relationships that closely followed the geographic distribution of the different East Asian populations.corner groups were JPT, FIL, CAMB and MGL with the CHB forming the center group, and KOR was between CHB and JPT. (blogspot.com)
  • We included populations from India and Daghestan to provide detail between the genetic poles of Western Europe, East Asia, and sub-Sahara Africa. (blogspot.com)
  • With so many markers, principal components analyses reveal genetic differentiation between almost all identified populations in our sample. (blogspot.com)
  • Human genetic variation is the genetic differences in and among populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The differences between populations represent a small proportion of overall human genetic variation. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are at least two reasons why genetic variation exists between populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Population differences occur due to several causes, including random genetic drift, the influence of small migrant populations (the "founder effect"), and differences in selective pressures acting on human populations in different environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, founder effect and past small population size (increasing the likelihood of genetic drift) may have had an important influence in neutral differences between populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • for having found a marker on Chromosome 7 that is common to Black Africans and, among Caucasoid populations, is found only in Greeks. (wikipedia.org)
  • state: "Historical contacts-for example, under Alexander the Great or during the ancient Minoan civilization-may provide an explanation for the common ancestry of disease mutations in these ethnically diverse populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • In The History and Geography of Human Genes (Princeton, 1994), Cavalli-Sforza, Menozzi and Piazza grouped Greeks with other European and Mediterranean populations based on 120 loci (view MDS plot). (wikipedia.org)
  • In another sample of 42 Greeks, one sequence of the Siberian Tat-C haplogroup turned up, while other studies with larger sample populations have failed to detect this paternal marker in the Greek gene pool and while its frequencies are actually much higher in Scandinavian and Slavic populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is broad scientific agreement that a relatively small fraction of human genetic variation occurs between populations, continents, or clusters. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, some human populations contain far more genetic diversity than others, which is consistent with the likely African origin of modern humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, populations outside of Africa may have undergone serial founder effects that limited their genetic diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Long and Kittles' objection is also methodological: according to them the FST is based on a faulty underlying assumptions that all populations contain equally genetic diverse members and that continental groups diverged at the same time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sarich and Miele have also argued that estimates of genetic difference between individuals of different populations understate differences between groups because they fail to take into account human diploidy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple studies since 1972 have backed up the claim that, "The average proportion of genetic differences between individuals from different human populations only slightly exceeds that between unrelated individuals from a single population. (wikipedia.org)
  • Seldin's previous work found that European populations actually represent two genetically distinct Southern and Northern groups. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Not specifying the source or parental populations a priori in this way, the clustering of samples using a variety of k values can be screened and the k that gives the greatest likelihood, and/or the most distinct subpopulation clusters or the most clearly defined mosaic of ancestry affiliations can be selected as best. (blogspot.com)
  • If adequate AIMs are used, when these methods are run on samples representative for the major continental populations, they tend to identify clusters at low values of k that fall along continental lines, and clusters at higher values of k that fall along ethnic subdivisions defined by other methods such as Principle Components Analysis (Rosenberg et al. (blogspot.com)
  • However, at k= 5, the incidence of fractional affiliations dropped dramatically and for the first time in the analysis of k-value models, we can see the simplest of the clearly partitioned models, breaking the populations used in our project into five groups ( Anatolian-Balkanic Scandinavian Balto-Slavic Altaic Celto-Germanic ) that comport with specific major Eurasian metapopulation groups. (blogspot.com)
  • These results also indicate that many hundreds of markers or more would be required to accurately differentiate more closely related groups, for example populations within the same racial category. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Using 32 autosomal STR markers and the program STRUCTURE we demonstrated differentiation between Ashkenazi (AJ) (N=135) and Sephardic (SJ) (N=226) Jewish populations in the form of Northern and Southern European genetic components (AJ north 73%, south 22%, SJ north 32%, south 61%) and a significant relationship between latitude of grandparental country of origin (GCO) and percent north/south genetic component in AJ. (blogspot.com)
  • Notably, we revealed substructure among Jews (and among European Americans (EA)) using a small STR panel, only when additional samples representing major continental populations (African American, EA, Asian) were included in analyses. (blogspot.com)
  • The common occurrence of the mtDNA Haplogroups A, B, C, and D among eastern Asian and Amerindian populations has long been recognized, along with the presence of Haplogroup X. As a whole, the greatest frequency of the four Amerindian associated haplogroups occurs in the Altai-Baikal region of southern Siberia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genetic history of Europe encompasses the history of the patterns of genetic diversity among the human populations of the European continent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequently his team calculated genetic distance between populations, based on the principle that two populations that share similar frequencies of a trait are more closely related than populations that have more divergent frequencies of the trait. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic clines can be generated by adaptation to environment (natural selection), continuous gene flow between two initially different populations or a demographic expansion into a scarcely populated environment, with little initial admixture with existing populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • In time, the spread of other language groups such as Austroasiatic, Tai-Kadai, Hmong-Mien and Sino-Tibetan (such as Chinese) led to the assimilation and eventual sinicization of all (proto) Austronesian-speaking populations that remained on the mainland (a process which continues today in Taiwan). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there is evidence of admixture, the transfer of genetic material, between the two populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The analysis of anthropometrical data shows that all pygmy groups have a male mean stature under 160 cm (this was used in the definition settled by Cavalli-Sforza in1986) and that a high variability exists between various pygmy populations. (blogspot.com)
  • 2009) published a genetic analysis based on neutral microsatellites on the same populations and found that pygmies present a variable admixture proportion with nonpygmies. (blogspot.com)
  • In this study, we examine the genetic legacy of autochthonous Caribbean peoples from the Lesser Antilles in contemporary African- Caribbean populations as evidenced from mitochondrial data and novel autosomal data. (blogspot.com)
  • Among the populations of East Asia, The Italian-born American geneticist Cavalli-Sforza of Stanford University placed Koreans in a cluster of populations including the Japanese, Ryukyuans, Ainus, Tibetans, and Bhutanese, with smallest genetic distance from the Ryukyuans and the Japanese from Hokkaido. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a broader comparison of populations from every region of Asia, the aforementioned cluster is subsumed in a Northeast and East Asian cluster that also includes the Koryak, Chukchi, Reindeer Chukchi, Nganasan, Samoyed, Northern Tungus, Nentsy, N. Chinese, and Mongol samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • In everyday life, many societies classify populations into groups based on phenotypical traits and impressions of probable geographic ancestry and cultural identity-these are the groups usually called "races" in countries like the United States, Brazil, and South Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, because all populations are genetically diverse, and because there is a complex relation between ancestry, genetic makeup and phenotype, and because racial categories are based on subjective evaluations of the traits, there is no specific gene that can be used to determine a person's race. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medical practitioners also sometimes argue that racial categories can be used successfully as proxies to assess risk of those different heritable illnesses that occur with different frequencies among populations of different geographic ancestries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic variation arises from mutations, from migration between populations (gene flow) and from the reshuffling of genes through sexual reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • analyses
  • In the present work, we studied all SNPs in this conserved mammalian region and performed genetic analyses on samples from Chinese schizophrenia patients (n = 516) and compared control subjects (n = 520). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Genetic distances are closer between Greeks and Ethiopian/sub-Saharan groups than to any other Mediterranean group and finally Greeks cluster with Ethiopians/sub-Saharans in both neighbour joining dendrograms and correspondence analyses. (historum.com)
  • Genetic analyses suggest that the Austronesian people in South East Asia had spread over Sundaland (the land mass of Southeastern Asia before rising sea-level created the islands of South East Asia) and evolved in situ over the last 35,000 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • lineages
  • The studies suggest that only a small fraction of the Taiwan genetic lineages are found among the people of South East Asia, and it is argued that these movements of people from Taiwan, while smaller in scale, had a strong impact on culture and language the people. (wikipedia.org)
  • These small groups of founders must have included men from the Q-M346, Q-L54, Q-Z780, and Q-M3 lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is due to endogamy within kin groups and lineages or national, cultural or linguistic boundaries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Loci
  • On a typical single locus (on some loci, such as SLC24A5 , most of the variation is between groups). (scienceblogs.com)
  • Table 3 reveals that fewer than 100 random STRPs, or about 30 highly selected loci, can distinguish the major racial groups. (scienceblogs.com)
  • As expected, differentiating Caucasians and Hispanic Americans, who are admixed but mostly of Caucasian ancestry, is more difficult and requires a few hundred random STRPs or about 50 highly selected loci. (scienceblogs.com)
  • This method studies differences in the frequencies of particular allelic traits, namely polymorphisms from proteins found within human blood (such as the ABO blood groups, Rhesus blood antigens, HLA loci, immunoglobulins, G6PD isoenzymes, among others). (wikipedia.org)
  • We also presume that these genetic loci are not affected by natural selection and that the major process responsible for changes in base pairs has been mutation (which can be calculated). (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • Individuals whose Y-chromosomes possess all the mutations on internal nodes of the Y-DNA tree down to and including M207 (which defines Haplogroup R) but which display neither the M173 mutation that defines haplogroup R1 nor the M479 mutation that defines Haplogroup R2 are categorized as belonging to group R* (R-M207). (wikipedia.org)
  • Single Nucleotide
  • Nearly all (>99.9%) of these sites are small differences, either single nucleotide polymorphisms or brief insertion-deletions in the genetic sequence, but structural variations account for a greater number of base-pairs than the SNPs and indels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, the rs7677751 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) locus was found to be associated with corneal astigmatism in people of Asian ancestry.Gene-based pathway analysis identified a significant association between the Gene Ontology 'segmentation' (GO:0035282) pathway, corrected p=0.009.Better-powered studies are required to validate the novel putative findings of our study. (nih.gov)
  • Recently, the rs7677751 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) locus was found to be associated with corneal astigmatism in people of Asian ancestry. (nih.gov)
  • European
  • We investigated patterns of population differentiation (FST) of a set of genes in etiologic pathways of CVD among 3 ethnic groups: Yoruba in Nigeria (YRI), Utah residents with European ancestry (CEU), and Han Chinese (CHB) + Japanese (JPT). (nih.gov)
  • The HapMap CEU samples and our northern European ancestry samples were both collected from Utah. (blogspot.com)
  • In the present study, we sought to replicate this finding and identify other genetic markers of corneal astigmatism in an Australian population of Northern European ancestry. (nih.gov)
  • Our data suggest that the PDGFRA locus does not transfer a major risk of corneal astigmatism in people of Northern European ancestry. (nih.gov)
  • Since individuals in these groups are often of mixed ancestry, Seldin and his colleagues need to determine their continental ancestry - the percent of their genetic make-up that can be attributed to African, European or East Asian ancestry. (ucdavis.edu)
  • The researchers also compare women of African-American or European ancestry to pinpoint the location of genes associated with decreased bone mineral density, a measure of osteoporosis. (ucdavis.edu)
  • First of all the STRUCTURE program estimated higher West_European ancestry (especially in samples the from Caucassian region) but the North_East_European and South European estimates were within 10% of one another and overall the estimates were reasonably close in the most of cases (check this spreadsheet for technical details - Fst values, genetic distances etc. (blogspot.com)
  • Moving to a more complex K=4 and k=5-population model, the Scandinavian component and the Baltic-North Sea components emerged, resolving from the Altaic and the Anatolia-Balkanic component to form a North-West European out group,while both the Altaic and Anatolia-Balkanic groups show little intergroup affinity. (blogspot.com)
  • Although the k=4 model may seem useful since it neatly provide the most obvious anthropological partitions, the affinity between the Balkanic and two North_European components at least with these markers suggests that this k=4 population model is not what we are looking for either. (blogspot.com)
  • African slaves brought to the United States and their descendants have had a history of cultural exchange and intermarriage with Native Americans, as well as with other enslaved people who possessed Native American and European ancestry. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first large group of Jews to settle in Puerto Rico were European refugees fleeing German-occupied Europe in the 1930s. (wikipedia.org)
  • indigenous
  • Many Indigenous peoples of the Eastern Woodlands, such as the Narragansett, Pequot, Lumbee and Cherokee, have a significant degree of African ancestry. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genetic history of indigenous peoples of the Americas primarily focuses on Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups and Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroups. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of haplogroup R1 among Indigenous Americans groups is a matter of controversy. (wikipedia.org)
  • differences
  • Differences between individuals, even closely related individuals, are the key to techniques such as genetic fingerprinting. (wikipedia.org)
  • While tests have broadly shown differences in average scores based on self-identified race or ethnicity, there is considerable debate as to whether and to what extent those differences reflect environmental factors as opposed to genetic ones, as well as to the definitions of what "race" and "intelligence" are, and whether they can be objectively defined at all. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, there is no non-circumstantial evidence that these differences in test scores have a genetic component, although some researchers believe that the existing circumstantial evidence makes it at least plausible that hard evidence for a genetic component will eventually be found. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first test showing differences in IQ test results between different population groups in the US was the tests of United States Army recruits in World War I. In the 1920s groups of eugenics lobbyists argued that this demonstrated that African-Americans and certain immigrant groups were of inferior intellect to Anglo-Saxon whites due to innate biological differences, using this as an argument for policies of racial segregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002) to investigate the extent of genetic differences between individuals within continental groups relative to genetic differences between individuals between continental groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus we may conclude that the estimates from the two programs are staistically correlated, while the differences are explained by the different approach to estimating the co-ancestry coefficients. (blogspot.com)
  • on the order of 100 for continental level differences. (scienceblogs.com)
  • SNPs
  • Mean FST values for common putatively functional variants were significantly higher than FST values for nonfunctional variants.Thus, putative functional SNPs in genes in etiologic pathways for CVD show greater population differentiation than non-functional SNPs and a significant variance of FST values was noted among pairwise population comparisons for different biological processes.These results suggest a possible basis for varying susceptibility to CVD among ethnic groups. (nih.gov)
  • we can estimate that about 120 unselected SNPs or 20 highly selected SNPs can distinguish group CA from NA, AA from AS and AA from NA. (scienceblogs.com)
  • clusters
  • One of the underlying questions regarding the distribution of human genetic diversity is related to the degree to which genes are shared between the observed clusters. (wikipedia.org)
  • geographic
  • Other small ethnic groups were also in rough geographic correlation with their putative origins. (blogspot.com)
  • Although geographic patterns are seen in the average north/south percent assignment values between groups as defined by AJ or SJ, grandparental world region of origin, or GCO, within each group there is high variability among individual assignment values. (blogspot.com)
  • maternal
  • No sub-Saharan African genes were observed in this population, therefore, non-Caucasoid maternal ancestry in Greece is very low, as elsewhere in Europe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Native American
  • Although she had assumed she was Hispanic, the reports of her DNA testing showed she is part Irish, part Scandinavian and part African, with some Native American ancestry as well. (csa.us)
  • Analysis
  • Analysis of this genetic information can help determine whether you share a common paternal ancestor with another person alive today. (csa.us)
  • For my qualifying exam I went with Introduction to Genetic Analysis . (gnxp.com)
  • Genetic analysis of the skeletal remains attributed to Francesco Petrarca. (blogspot.com)
  • Nevertheless, in 2016, DNA analysis carried out found that one of the genetic markers used in the study but not the others supports a small-scale "out-of-Taiwan" hypothesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • population
  • It can help scientists understand ancient human population migrations as well as how human groups are biologically related to one another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Detection of population substructure among Jews and a north/south gradient within Ashkenazi Jews using 32 STR markers. (blogspot.com)
  • Thus, even based on data from a small marker set, AJ is not a homogeneous population. (blogspot.com)
  • The Chinese American community comprises the largest ethnic group of Asian Americans, comprising 25.9% of the Asian American population as of 2010. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic research reveals that those migrations form part of a complex genetic puzzle on the origin and spread of the various components of the Indian population. (wikipedia.org)
  • racial
  • On the other hand, many scientists reacted to eugenicist claims linking abilities and moral character to racial or genetic ancestry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ryan Brown and George Armelagos described this as "a host of studies [that have] concluded that racial classification schemes can account for only a negligible proportion of human genetic diversity," including the studies listed in the table below. (wikipedia.org)
  • founder
  • Our study supports the hypothesis of a founder effect and we further propose that ethnic groups of Greek ancestry could have propagated the 35delG mutation, as evidenced by historical data beginning from the 15th century BC. (blogspot.com)
  • Africans
  • The debate reemerged again in 1969, when Arthur Jensen championed the view that for genetic reasons Africans were less intelligent than whites and that compensatory education for African-American children was therefore doomed to be ineffective. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some groups were more accepting of Africans than others and welcomed them as full members of their respective cultures and communities. (wikipedia.org)
  • ethnolinguistic
  • Indo-Aryan migration models discuss scenarios around the theory of an origin from outside South Asia of Indo-Aryan peoples, an ascribed ethnolinguistic group that spoke Indo-Aryan languages, the predominant languages of North India. (wikipedia.org)
  • Filipinos come from various ethnolinguistic groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • statistically
  • Although individual samples cannot be reliably classified into their collection of origin, the groups are statistically distinguishable despite their high similarity (FST = 0.0005, n.s. (blogspot.com)
  • Chromosome
  • Studies of polymorphisms in the human Y-chromosome have so far produced evidence to suggest that the Korean people have a long history as a distinct, mostly endogamous ethnic group, with successive waves of people moving to the peninsula and three major Y-chromosome haplogroups. (wikipedia.org)
  • The table below shows the human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups, based on relevant studies, for various ethnic and other notable groups from Europe. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • We developed a candidate-gene approach to search for such genetic factor and will present current results on various genes located in the GH-IGF1 axis. (blogspot.com)
  • Jews
  • Arnaiz-Villena's research was internationally reported following the publication of a paper on the genetic history of Jews and Palestinians, which he co-authored in the journal Human Immunology in 2001. (wikipedia.org)
  • evidence
  • Consequently, biocultural evidence strongly supports the hypothesis that a group linked to the Huns was installed at the city and was assimilated into this Early Byzantine society. (blogspot.com)
  • ethnic group native
  • Hungarians, also known as Magyars (Hungarian: magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Hungarian: Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Kyrgyz people (also spelled Kyrghyz and Kirghiz) are a Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily Kyrgyzstan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Austronesian
  • Austronesians, Austronesian people or Austronesian-speaking people are various distinct ethnic groups in Southeast Asia, Oceania and East Africa that speak languages of the Austronesian family. (wikipedia.org)
  • On top of that, Austronesian diaspora also can be found in the United States of America, the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Hong Kong, as well as West Asian countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a recent treatment, all Austronesian languages were classified into 10 subfamilies, with all the extra-Formosan languages grouped in one subfamily and with representatives of the remaining nine known only in Taiwan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mongoloid is the term which anthropologists applied to the ethnic group which migrated to Southeast Asia during the Holocene period and evolved into the Austronesian people (associated with the Haplogroup O1 (Y-DNA) genetic marker), a group of Malayo-Polynesian-speaking people including those from Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Malagasy, the non-Chinese Taiwan Aboriginals. (wikipedia.org)