• protein
  • Any person with a single functional copy of this gene can make the protein and is sensitive to PTC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2) functions in the early steps of protein synthesis by forming a ternary complex with GTP and initiator tRNA and binding to a 40S ribosomal subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • eIF2 is composed of three subunits, alpha (α), beta (β), and gamma (γ, this article), with the protein encoded by this gene representing the gamma subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, rs9939609's association with FTO is controversial, and may actually affect another gene, called iroquious homeobox protein 3 (IRX3). (wikipedia.org)
  • In molecular biology, Xol-1 is a protein domain, also named the Switch protein, is essentially a sex-determining protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein is encoded by the NR5A1 gene, a member of the nuclear receptor subfamily, located on the long arm of chromosome 9 at position 33.3. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Subsequently, the identification of disorders has been informed by phenotypes associated with gene disruption in animal models or by genetic linkage studies. (jci.org)
  • Twins are a valuable source for observation because they allow the study of environmental influence and varying genetic makeup: "identical" or monozygotic (MZ) twins share nearly 100% of their genes, which means that most differences between the twins (such as height, susceptibility to boredom, intelligence, depression, etc.) are due to experiences that one twin has but not the other twin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern twin studies have shown that almost all traits are in part influenced by genetic differences, with some characteristics showing a stronger influence (e.g. height), others an intermediate level (e.g. personality traits) and some more complex heritabilities, with evidence for different genes affecting different aspects of the trait - as in the case of autism. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the discovery of the testis-determining gene SRY, many scientists shifted to the theory that the genetic mechanism that causes a fetus to develop into a male form was initiated by the SRY gene, which was thought to be responsible for the production of testosterone and its overall effects on body and brain development. (wikipedia.org)
  • TFs work alone or with other proteins in a complex, by promoting (as an activator), or blocking (as a repressor) the recruitment of RNA polymerase (the enzyme that performs the transcription of genetic information from DNA to RNA) to specific genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • organs
  • In some cases, external sex organs associated with pseudohermaphroditism look intermediate between a typical clitoris and penis . (wikipedia.org)
  • In other cases, the external sex organs have an appearance that would be expected to be seen with the "opposite" gonadal tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The external and visible organs, in males and females, are the primary sex organs known as the genitals or genitalia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The internal organs are known as the secondary sex organs[not in citation given] and are sometimes referred to as the internal genitalia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The flowers of flowering plants produce pollen and egg cells, but the sex organs themselves are inside the gametophytes within the pollen and the ovule. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other, hidden sex organs are referred to as the secondary sex organs or internal genitalia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gonads are the true sex organs, generating reproductive gametes containing inheritable DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • autosomal
  • By assuming that PTC tasting is determined by a dominant allele at a single autosomal gene, and that the class is an unbiased sample from a population in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, students then estimate allele and genotype frequencies within the larger population. (wikipedia.org)
  • target genes
  • Following binding, trans-activation of target genes depends on recruitment of co-activators such as SRC-1, GRIP1, PNRC, or GCN5. (wikipedia.org)
  • abnormal
  • Health experts agree that it develops as something damages or alters certain genes in the cell which turn it abnormal. (onlymyhealth.com)
  • Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the odds of abnormal semen parameters [as defined by World Health Organization (WHO)] as a function of sperm sex chromosome disomy. (cdc.gov)
  • The AMH gene (AMH) or the gene for its receptor (AMH-RII) are usually abnormal. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • A single-nucleotide polymorphism (C/A) located within an E-box at the −20 position of the human angiotensinogen (AGT) promoter may regulate transcriptional activation through differential recruitment of the transcription factors upstream stimulatory factor (USF) 1 and 2. (ahajournals.org)
  • AMH has been shown to regulate production of sex hormones, and changing AMH levels (rising in females, falling in males) may be involved in the onset of puberty in both sexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can form a transcriptional complex with TDF to up-regulate transcription of the Sox9 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The function of TFs is to regulate - turn on and off - genes in order to make sure that they are expressed in the right cell at the right time and in the right amount throughout the life of the cell and the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • A defining feature of TFs is that they contain at least one DNA-binding domain (DBD), which attaches to a specific sequence of DNA adjacent to the genes that they regulate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription factors bind to either enhancer or promoter regions of DNA adjacent to the genes that they regulate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other transcription factors differentially regulate the expression of various genes by binding to enhancer regions of DNA adjacent to regulated genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • secondary
  • Pseudohermaphroditism , or pseudo-hermaphroditism , is an old clinical term for an organism that is born with primary sex characteristics of one sex but develops the secondary sex characteristics that are different from what would be expected on the basis of the gonadal tissue ( ovary or testis ). (wikipedia.org)
  • reproductive
  • To analyze this facet of the reproductive function, the 5′ regulatory sequences of the gene encoding the GnRHR have been isolated and characterized through in vitro and in vivo approaches. (frontiersin.org)
  • A sex organ (also called a reproductive organ, primary sex organ or primary sexual characteristic) is any anatomical part of the body in a complex organism that is involved in sexual reproduction and together constitute the reproductive system. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulates
  • Analysis of mouse SF-1 cDNA revealed sequence similarities with Drosophila fushi tarazu factor I (FTZ-F1) which regulates the fushi tarazu homeobox gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • gonadal
  • In toto, there is substantial evidence indicating that at least some of oxytocin's effects are correlated with an individual's sex, in part via the influence of gonadal hormones. (frontiersin.org)
  • Its targets include genes at every level of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, as well as many genes involved in gonadal and adrenal steroidogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gonads
  • Sexually dimorphic development of embryonic gonads into testes or ovaries is activated by the SRY gene product. (wikipedia.org)
  • steroids
  • and the histological structure for OT neurons is sexually dimorphic, suggesting that sex steroids play a role in early morphogenesis of this system ( de Vries, 2008 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • person's
  • Some of these factors, like biological sex or genes inherited from a person's family, cannot be changed, but many others can. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Importantly, research suggests that a variety of individual factors may influence a person's response to OT. (frontiersin.org)
  • Aside from a wide range of drug-specific factors (discussed in MacDonald and Feifel in this special edition), several individual factors may influence a person's response to oxytocin. (frontiersin.org)
  • genetics
  • The length of the pupal stage is determined by environmental factors such as temperature, number of hours of light, and larval nutrition, in addition to genetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • We will not cover the role of somatic NR variations or fusion genes in cancer, nor associations found in GWAS. (jci.org)
  • If identical twins are considerably more similar than fraternal twins (which is found for most traits), this implicates that genes play an important role in these traits. (wikipedia.org)
  • The FTO gene expression was also found to be significantly upregulated in the hypothalamus of rats after food deprivation and strongly negatively correlated with the expression of orexigenic galanin-like peptide which is involved in the stimulation of food intake. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription factors are essential for the regulation of gene expression and are, as a consequence, found in all living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The number of transcription factors found within an organism increases with genome size, and larger genomes tend to have more transcription factors per gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Variation
  • Variation of the CAG repeat in exon 1 of the AR gene has also been studied for its possible direct role in prostate cancer causation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Much of the variation in tasting of PTC is associated with polymorphism at the TAS2R38 taste receptor gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • NUBP2 is a member of the NUBP/MRP gene subfamily of ATP-binding proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other proteins such as coactivators, chromatin remodelers, histone acetyltransferases, histone deacetylases, kinases, and methylases are also essential to gene regulation, but lack DNA-binding domains, and therefore are not TFs. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are approximately 2600 proteins in the human genome that contain DNA-binding domains, and most of these are presumed to function as transcription factors, though other studies indicate it to be a smaller number. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, approximately 10% of genes in the genome code for transcription factors, which makes this family the single largest family of human proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • disorders
  • The underlying causative factors in the male infertility can be attributed to environmental toxins, systemic disorders such as, hypothalamic-pituitary disease, testicular cancers and germ-cell aplasia. (wikipedia.org)
  • alleles
  • These associations between short AR CAG alleles and prostate cancer may be a consequence of enhanced transactivation function (7 , 8) or increased mRNA levels (9) observed in in vitro experiments using AR genes with fewer CAG repeats. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We set out to determine whether prostate cancer was linked to the AR gene and whether we could measure an effect of short AR CAG alleles on the occurrence, age of diagnosis, and/or histological grade of prostate cancer in our families. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Allele specific expression (ASE) refers to unequal expression of multiple alleles of a gene in a given organism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Also, there are several alleles segregating at the major gene determining the taste of PTC, particularly in African populations, and the common "taster" allele is incompletely dominant (homozygotes for this allele are more sensitive to PTC than are heterozygotes). (wikipedia.org)
  • SNPs
  • Utilizing recently published ENCODE data, we also find that ASE genes show significant bias for SNPs prevalence in DNase I hypersensitive sites that is ASE direction specific. (biomedcentral.com)
  • male
  • A type of internal male pseudohermaphroditism is Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome, which is developed through synthesis of Müllerian-inhibiting factor defects. (wikipedia.org)
  • With regard to gender, a woman may also be a person whose sex assignment does not align with their gender identity, or those who have sexual characteristics that do not fit typical notions of male or female (intersex). (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of Y chromosome genes is required for normal male development. (wikipedia.org)