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  • receptors
  • The thromboxane receptor (TP) also known as the prostanoid TP receptor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TBXA2R gene, The thromboxane receptor is one among the five classes of prostanoid receptors and was the first eicosanoid receptor cloned. (wikipedia.org)
  • The receptor binding affinity Dissociation constant Kd (i.e. ligand concentration needed to bind with 50% of available EP1 receptors) is ~20 nM and that of PGE1 ~40 for the mouse receptor and ~25 nM for PGE2 with the human receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prostaglandin E2 receptor 2 (53kDa), also known as EP2, is a prostaglandin receptor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) encoded by the human gene PTGER2: it is one of four identified EP receptors, the others being EP1, EP3, and EP4, which bind with and mediate cellular responses to PGE2 and also, but with lesser affinity and responsiveness, certain other prostanoids (see Prostaglandin receptors). (wikipedia.org)
  • Shortly thereafter, a second report found this same gene, indicated that it coded for a G protein receptor with its amino acid sequence similarities closest to purinergic receptors GPR91 and P2Y1, and named the gene and its protein GPR99 and GPR99, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptor
  • Low M.J., Grandy D.K., Rubinstein M. (2002) Analysis of Dopamine D4 Receptor Function in Gene Knockout Mice: A Role in Cortical Excitability. (springer.com)
  • The gene responsible for directing the synthesis of the thromboxane receptor, TBXA2R, is located on chromosome 19 at position p13.3, spans 15 kilobases, and contains 5 exons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since these rodents are used as animal models to define the functions of genes and their products, their failure to have two TP isoforms has limited understanding of the individual and different functions of each TP receptor isoform. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, JDP2 has been shown to directly associate with the progesterone receptor (PR) and functionally acts as a coactivator of progesterone-dependent PR-mediated gene transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prostaglandin E2 receptor 1 (EP1) is a 42kDa prostaglandin receptor encoded by the PTGER1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4) It suppresses stress-induced impulsive behavior and social dysfunction in mice by suppressing the activation of Dopamine receptor D1 and Dopamine receptor D2 signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2-Oxoglutarate receptor 1 (OXGR1), also known as cysteinyl leukotriene receptor E (CysLTE) and GPR99, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OXGR1 (also termed GPR99) gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Gene has recently been nominated as a receptor not only for 2-oxogluterate (see alpha-Ketoglutaric acid) but also for the three cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs), particularly leukotriene E4 (LTE4) and to far lesser extents LTC4 and LTE4. (wikipedia.org)
  • alleles
  • 1993). At the molecular-genetic level some alleles of the highly polymorphic human D4R gene (DRD4) have been associated with human diseases, personality traits including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, opiate and alcohol use, and novelty-seeking behavior. (springer.com)
  • novel
  • Here, we characterize HCC developed in Lkb1 (+/−) mice and demonstrate Lkb1 LOH in all of the HCC tissues examined, suggesting a novel molecular mechanism for HCC development. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 2012). Hence, novel UCP3 gene variants which associated to childhood obesity and even the effect of fatty acid oxidation prevention in triglyceride storage(C V Musa et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • He showed that 'smart' mice suffered more pain, GluN2B and AC1 are novel therapeutic targets for treating chronic pain In 2003, he moved to the University of Toronto, and identified NB001 as a selective inhibitor for AC1. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • This gene has tissue-specific transcription initiation with other transcription initiation sites upstream of SM-1 (major skeletal muscle site). (wikipedia.org)
  • EP2 also activates the a) GSK-3 pathway which regulates cell migratory responses and innate immune responses including pro-inflammatory cytokine and interleukin production and b) Beta-catenin pathway which regulates not only cell-cell adhesion but also activates the Wnt signaling pathway which, in turn, stimulates the transcription of genes responsible for regulating cell migration and proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deletion
  • Mice homozygous for this deletion also had increased duodenal iron absorption, elevated plasma iron and transferrin saturation levels, and iron overload, mainly in hepatocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • chronic
  • In this thesis interactions between dynorphin and the dopaminergic system in cocaine addiction have been addressed using preprodynorphin gene knockout mice treated with a chronic "binge" cocaine protocol. (bl.uk)
  • Discovered the gene CPA1, which causes chronic pancreatitis, in collaboration with Asian Institute of Gastroenterology. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • The CNN2 gene is located at 19p13.3 in the human chromosomal genome, encoding the protein calponin 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • hepatic
  • Iron-related traits of Hfe−/− mice, including increased iron absorption and hepatic iron loading, are inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • rats
  • Mice and rats express only the TPα isoform. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies in mice, rats, and guinea pigs have found EP1 Messenger RNA and protein to be expressed in the papillary collecting ducts of the kidney, in the kidney, lung, stomach, thalamus, and in the dorsal root ganglia neurons as well as several central nervous system sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Function
  • It is possible to delete part or all of a gene of interest in mice (or other experimental animals) as a means of studying function of the gene and its protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Mice lacking MAPK3 have reduced T cell development past the CD4+CD8+ stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Independently, Joe Z. Tsien has pioneered the use of Cre-loxP system for cell type- and region-specific gene manipulation in the adult brain where hundreds of distinct neuron types may exist and nearly all neurons in the adult brain are known to be post-mitotic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuroscience Research
  • NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research has created several hundreds of Cre driver mouse lines which are currently used by the worldwide neuroscience community. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, the clear demonstration of its usefulness in precisely defining the complex relationship between specific cells/circuits and behaviors for brain research, has promoted the NIH to initiate the NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research Cre-driver mouse projects in early 2000. (wikipedia.org)
  • To date, NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research Cre projects have created several hundreds of Cre driver mouse lines which are currently used by the worldwide neuroscience community. (wikipedia.org)
  • This transformative technique has led to NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research in launching several Cre-driver Mouse Resource projects. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult
  • Tsien is also the first to show that defective Alzheimer's genes (e.g. presenilin-1) impaired adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, revealing the role of adult neurogenesis in memory clearance. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • Joe Z. Tsien is a neuroscientist who pioneered Cre/lox-neurogenetics in the mid-1990s, a versatile toolbox for neuroscientists to study the complex relationships between genes, neural circuits, and behaviors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Role
  • To investigate the role of LKB1 in vivo , we have recently constructed Lkb1 gene knockout mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Western blotting and PCR analyses showed loss of Lkb1 heterozygosity in all of the HCC tissues examined, indicating a tumor suppressor role of LKB1 in the mouse liver. (aacrjournals.org)
  • mechanism
  • To determine whether the HFE gene of black rhinoceroses has undergone mutation as an adaptive mechanism to improve iron absorption from iron-poor diets, Beutler et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Two splice variants have been found for this gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • A significant level of calponin 2 is found in human and mouse platelets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although HFE was well conserved across the species, numerous nucleotide differences were found between rhinoceros and human or mouse, some of which changed deduced amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • addition
  • In addition, Tsien has developed a method capable of selectively erasing a memory of choice, such as a particular fear memory, in the mouse brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • active
  • only a relatively few of the active CYP genes code for EET-forming epoxygenases, i.e. protein enzymes with the capacity to attach atomic oxygen (see Allotropes of oxygen#Atomic oxygen) to the carbon-carbon double bonds of unsaturated long chain fatty acids such as arachidonic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • More active polymorphisms of the MAOB gene have been linked to negative emotionality, and suspected as an underlying factor in depression. (wikipedia.org)
  • OMIM
  • 2002).[supplied by OMIM] HACNS1 is located in an intron of the gene CENTG2 (also known as Human Accelerated Region 2). (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotype
  • p>Used to describe "traditional" genetic interactions such as suppressors and synthetic lethals as well as other techniques such as functional complementation, rescue experiments, or inferences about a gene drawn from the phenotype of a mutation in a different gene. (uniprot.org)
  • 290. Mitra S., Ghantasala S., Sameer Kumar GS, Lakshmi BJ, Thakur SS, Kumar S. Absence of Wdr13 gene predisposes mice to mild social isolation - chronic stress, leading to depression-like phenotype associated with differential expression of synaptic proteins. (gov.pl)
  • However contrary to the animal model claims, human genetic data might suggest that the effect may be indirect Uteroglobin knockout mice on the inbred 129 strain appear to have healthy phenotype (no glomerulopathy development), but show physiological differences in their responses to respiratory challenges. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strangely, the mice demonstrated no overt phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transgenic Gli1-/- and Gli2-/- mice have a similar phenotype to transgenic Gli1 gain of function mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • This phenotype includes failure to thrive, early death, and a distended gut although no tumors form in transgenic Gli1-/- and Gli2-/- mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • This could suggest that overexpression of human Gli1 in the mouse may have led to a dominant negative rather than a gain-of-function phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • skeletal muscle
  • Using high-density DNA microarrays and Northern analyses, we demonstrated that the activation of a nutrient-sensing pathway, the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP), rapidly decreased the expression of a cluster of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes involved in skeletal muscle oxidative phosphorylation. (jci.org)
  • transgenic
  • However, comparing the nontransgenic (no CETP activity) with the CETP transgenic mouse plasma, no effect of CETP on the 14 C-PL distribution in mice lipoproteins was observed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2-free cholesterol and phospholipids are transferred from triglyceride rich particles to plasma lipoproteins by distinct mechanisms, and 3 - CETP also contributes to phospholipid transfer activity in human plasma but not in transgenic mice plasma, a species which has high levels of the specific phospholipid transfer protein activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gli2 has been shown to compensate for the loss of Gli1 in transgenic Gli1-/- mice which are phenotypically normal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gli2 has been shown to compensate for Gli1 ventrally and Gli3 dorsally in transgenic mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transgenic mice over-expressing the transcription factor Gli2 under the K5 promoter in cutaneous keratinocytes develop multiple skin tumours on the ears, tail, trunk and dorsal aspect of the paw, resembling those of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike Gli1 transgenic mice, Gli2 transgenic mice only developed BCC-like tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transgenic mice with N-terminal deletion of Gli2, developed the benign trichoblastomas, cylindromas and hamartomas but rarely developed BCCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins
  • We are interested in the structure of the TCR on the surface of T lymphocytes, the cytoplasmic signaling proteins that convey the signal to the nucleus and how new genes get turned on by TCR signals. (openwetware.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the bicoid subfamily of the paired (PRD) homeobox family of proteins. (genecards.org)
  • It shows no homology to other mammalian proteins but strikingly shares 30% sequence identity and 69% similarity with the ERG2 gene product of yeast, which is a C 8-C7 sterol isomerase in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Nucleoporin 85 (Nup85) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NUP85 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Uteroglobin, also known as secretoglobin family 1A member 1 (SCGB1A1), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SCGB1A1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein G is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBMX gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transformation/transcription domain-associated protein, also known asTRRAP, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRRAP gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zinc finger protein GLI2 also known as GLI family zinc finger 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GLI2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arf-GAP with GTPase, ANK repeat and PH domain-containing protein 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AGAP1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence to date shows that of the 110,000 gene enhancer sequences identified in the human genome, HACNS1 has undergone the most change during the evolution of humans following the split with the ancestors of chimpanzees. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA-dependent protein kinase, catalytic subunit, also known as DNA-PKcs, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the gene designated as PRKDC or XRCC7. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many investigators who wish to trace observations on behavior and physiology to underlying genes regard aspects of these in rats as more relevant to humans and easier to observe than in mice, giving impetus to the development of genetic research techniques applicable to rat. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • Note: UGB is itself progesterone induced gene in the endometrium in Lagomorphs) Inhibits phospholipase A2 in vitro Binds phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol Binds to fibronectin: The uteroglobulin knockout mice on the inbred C57Bl6 strain develop Goodpasture's syndrome like glomerulopathy due to fibronectin binding of IgA which might potentially be prevented by uteroglobin replacement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Defects
  • Defects in this gene are a cause of congenital stationary night blindness. (genecards.org)
  • Gli2 null mice embryos develop neural tube defects which, can be rescued by overexpression of Gli1 (Jacob and Briscoe, 2003). (wikipedia.org)
  • Reductions in expression of DNA repair genes (usually caused by epigenetic alterations) are very common in cancers, and are ordinarily even more frequent than mutational defects in DNA repair genes in cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1999
  • Genetic cloning of encoding gene (CYP46A1) was first accomplished in 1999 and an extensive Escherichia coli expression and purification system was later developed in 2003. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • Two novel human glycoprotein hormonelike genes, α2 (A2) and β5 (B5), recently have been identified. (jci.org)
  • human
  • In this study we have examined the influence of plasma lipases and lipid transfer protein activities on the transfer of free cholesterol (FC) and phospholipids (PL) from lipid emulsion to human, rat and mouse lipoproteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The gene has numerous single nucleotide variants as well as other variations, some of which have been associated with human disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the N-terminal part of human Gli2 is much smaller than its mouse or frog homologs, suggesting that it may lack repressor function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations of the GLI2 gene are associated with several phenotypes including Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome, Pallister-Hall syndrome, preaxial polydactyly type IV, postaxial polydactyly types A1 and B. In human keratinocytes Gli2 activation upregulates a number of genes involved in cell cycle progression including E2F1, CCND1, CDC2 and CDC45L. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human AGAP1 genome location and AGAP1 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Our study uncovered that alterations in the innate immune pathways could induce behaviors resembling obsessive-compulsive disorder in progranulin-deficient mouse models of FTD," said Gan, who is also a senior investigator at Gladstone and a professor of neurology at the University of California, San Francisco. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • This location is close to several immune modulating genes including interleukins 3, 5, and 9 and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations
  • Mutations that cause loss of progranulin result in obsessive-compulsive behaviors in a mouse model of FTD and also early on in FTD patients. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • expression
  • Conversely, the expression of uncoupling protein-1 and of the same mitochondrial genes was increased in brown adipose tissue. (jci.org)
  • This previously unidentified progenitor occurs as a temporally discrete population during ES cell differentiation, and differs from the preceding and succeeding populations in gene expression and differentiation potential, with the unique ability to form surface ectoderm in response to BMP4 signalling. (biologists.org)
  • Re-programming by new gene expression is important for the development of the thymocyte precursors of T cells in the thymus and for the response of T lymphocytes in peripheral lymphoid organs. (openwetware.org)
  • Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Structure and Expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene expression studies have suggested that Dock11 may have a role in the development of pituitary and testicular tumours. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult
  • 281. Filipkowski RK, Kaczmarek L. Severely impaired adult brain neurogenesis in cyclin D2 knock-out mice produces very limited phenotypic changes. (gov.pl)
  • genome
  • As indicated in the article Genome instability, such genome instability may be due to deficiencies in other DNA repair genes present in the cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inbred strains are also available but are not as commonly used as inbred mice Much of the genome of Rattus norvegicus has been sequenced. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • They began their study by using genetic methods to delete the gene for TNF in mice that lacked progranulin. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • This was the first in a series of development that have begun to make rats tractable as genetic research subjects, although they still lag behind mice, which lend themselves better to the embryonic stem cell techniques typically used for genetic manipulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Function
  • It has been shown in mouse models that Gli1 can compensate for knocked out Gli2 function when expressed from the Gli2 locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Using a previously established mouse ES-cell-based system that recapitulates the development of the ectoderm lineage we have identified a transient population that is consistent with definitive ectoderm. (biologists.org)
  • TCR binding to its ligand causes signaling that re-programs the cell by turning on new genes. (openwetware.org)