• cartilage
  • Growth plates are areas of cartilage located near the ends of bones. (aaos.org)
  • A mnemonic for remembering the names of the epiphyseal plate growth zones is "Real People Have Career Options," standing for: Resting zone, Proliferative zone, Hypertrophic cartilage zone, Calcified cartilage zone, Ossification zone. (wikipedia.org)
  • While trauma has a role in the manifestation of the fracture, an intrinsic weakness in the physeal cartilage also is present. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fracture occurs at the hypertrophic zone of the physeal cartilage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Manipulation of the fracture frequently results in osteonecrosis and the acute loss of articular cartilage (chondrolysis) because of the tenuous nature of the blood supply. (wikipedia.org)
  • physeal fractures
  • This article discusses some of the important orthopedic history relative to the physes, the relevant anatomy, the most commonly used classification system, and some details of physeal fractures in specific areas of the body. (medscape.com)
  • lateral
  • Anteroposterior (AP), lateral, and oblique views can be used together to describe the fracture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Investigation of a potential distal radial fracture includes assessment of the angle of the joint surface on lateral X-ray (volar/dorsal tilt), the loss of length of the radius from the collapse of the fracture (radial length), and congruency of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Lateral compression (LC) fractures involve transverse fractures of the pubic rami, either ipsilateral or contralateral to a posterior injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Grade I - Associated sacral compression on side of impact Grade II - Associated posterior iliac ("crescent") fracture on side of impact Grade III - Associated contralateral sacroiliac joint injury The most common force type, lateral compression (LC) forces, from side-impact automobile accidents and pedestrian injuries, can result in an internal rotation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fracture is usually transverse or oblique and above the medial and lateral condyles and epicondyles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bleeding from the fracture expands the joint capsule and is visualized on the lateral view as a darker area anteriorly and posteriorly, and is known as the sail sign. (wikipedia.org)
  • Baumann's angle, also known as the humeral-capitellar angle, is measured on an AP radiograph of the elbow between the long axis of the humerus and the growth plate of the lateral condyle. (wikipedia.org)
  • vertebral
  • A spinal fracture, also called a vertebral fracture or a broken back, is a fracture affecting the vertebrae of the spinal column. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vertebral fractures of the thoracic vertebrae, lumbar vertebrae or sacrum are usually associated with major trauma and can cause spinal cord injury that results in a neurological deficit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common causes of vertebral fractures include trauma from a direct blow, a compression force resulting in improper or excessive axial loading, and hyper-flexion or hyper-extension. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vertebral fractures in children or elderly individuals can be related to the development or health of their spine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common vertebral fracture in children is spondylolysis which can progress to spondylolisthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vertebral fractures in elderly individuals are exacerbated by weakening of the skeleton associated with osteoporosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • X-rays are often used to visualize pathology of bones and can be ordered when a vertebral fracture is suspected. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Often occurs in broilers (chickens raised for meat) and other poultry which have been bred for fast growth rates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cadaver experiments from the late 1800s found that if the forearm strikes the ground at an angle between 60-90°, a fracture would occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, this late in childhood, the supply is tenuous and frequently lost after the fracture occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The greenstick fracture pattern occurs as a result of bending forces. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fracture usually occurs in children and teens because their bones are flexible, unlike adults whose more brittle bones usually break. (wikipedia.org)
  • This fracture occurs at the metaphyseal locations and resemble the torus or base of a pillar in architectural terms. (wikipedia.org)
  • epiphyseal plate
  • In puberty increasing levels of estrogen, in both females and males, leads to increased apoptosis of chondrocytes in the epiphyseal plate. (wikipedia.org)
  • deformity
  • The treating provider needs to know which fractures are likely to remodel (usually those with angulation in the plane of joint motion) and which are unlikely to remodel (eg, fractures with rotational deformity, joint incongruity, or physeal stepoff, as well as those occurring in patients near skeletal maturity). (medscape.com)
  • When growth deformity is possible, the treating provider must predict the degree of expected remodeling, and this requires an understanding of the specific fracture. (medscape.com)
  • A classic "dinner fork" deformity may be seen in dorsally angulated fractures due to dorsal displacement of the carpus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reverse deformity may be seen in volarly angulated fractures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the fracture displacement, there may be deformity. (wikipedia.org)
  • classification
  • Several classification systems have been developed that categorize the different types of growth plate fractures. (aaos.org)
  • Suitable as an on-the-spot reference for residents and practitioners seeking fast facts on fracture management and classification, this title includes chapters organized by anatomic site that provide key information on fractures in adults and in children, including epidemiology, anatomy, mechanism of injury, clinical evaluation, and treatment. (logobook.ru)
  • The thoracolumbar injury classification and severity score (TLICS) is a scoring system to determine the need to surgically treat a spinal fracture of thoracic or lumbar vertebrae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Salter-Harris classification is the most used to describe these fractures. (wikipedia.org)
  • trauma
  • Links to abstracts and references on the Internet enable the user to fully utilize the wealth of information provided in this multimedia resource.AO Principles of Fracture Management is an essential resource for orthopaedists, trauma surgeons, and residents in these specialties. (logobook.ru)
  • After the immediate trauma, there is a risk of spinal cord injury (or worsening of an already injured spine) if the fracture is unstable, that is, likely to change alignment without internal or external fixation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The long bones in feet begin to harden within the ages of 8 to 14, dancing en pointe before one's bones have hardened can lead to trauma and growth-plate fractures that create deformed feet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetabulum
  • Completely updated for its Third Edition, Fractures, the acclaimed Master Techniques in Orthopaedic Surgery volume presents the most advanced, successful surgical techniques for fractures of the upper extremity, lower extremity, pelvis, and acetabulum. (logobook.ru)
  • Pelvis
  • When it comes to the stability and the structure of the pelvis, or pelvic girdle, understanding its function as support for the trunk and legs helps to recognize the effect a pelvic fracture has on someone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The different forces on the pelvis result in different fractures. (wikipedia.org)
  • ulnar
  • Similarly, ff the hand was radially deviated (i.e. bent towards the thumb), this was associated with ulnar styloid fracture. (wikipedia.org)
  • humerus
  • When reducing paediatric supracondylar humerus fractures, a deviation of more than 5° from the contralateral side should not be accepted. (wikipedia.org)
  • pediatric
  • Injuries to the physes are more likely to occur in an active pediatric population than sprains or ligament injuries are, in part because the ligaments and joint capsules have greater structural strength and integrity than the growth plates do. (medscape.com)
  • As these fractures are specifically a pediatric problem, an older child will be protective of the fractured part and babies may cry inconsolably. (wikipedia.org)