• Spine Fractures
  • Sometimes also followed by cramping Damage to adjacent structures such as nerves or vessels, spinal cord, and nerve roots (for spine fractures), or cranial contents (for skull fractures) may cause other specific signs and symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • cartilage
  • Growth plates are areas of cartilage located near the ends of bones. (aaos.org)
  • A fracture involving a growth plate (the cartilage plate near the end of the bone of a growing child where growth occurs) can lead to disturbances in growth of the bone, even if treated properly. (nicklauschildrens.org)
  • Endochondral ossification is responsible for the initial bone development from cartilage in utero and infants and the longitudinal growth of long bones in the epiphyseal plate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depletion of chondrocytes due to apoptosis leads to less ossification and growth slows down and later stops when the entire cartilage have become replaced by bone, leaving only a thin epiphyseal scar which later disappears. (wikipedia.org)
  • A mnemonic for remembering the names of the epiphyseal plate growth zones is "Real People Have Career Options," standing for: Resting zone, Proliferative zone, Hypertrophic cartilage zone, Calcified cartilage zone, Ossification zone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is a metabolic disease of young poultry that affects the growth of bone and cartilage. (wikipedia.org)
  • While trauma has a role in the manifestation of the fracture, an intrinsic weakness in the physeal cartilage also is present. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fracture occurs at the hypertrophic zone of the physeal cartilage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Manipulation of the fracture frequently results in osteonecrosis and the acute loss of articular cartilage (chondrolysis) because of the tenuous nature of the blood supply. (wikipedia.org)
  • physeal fractures
  • This article discusses some of the important orthopedic history relative to the physes, the relevant anatomy, the most commonly used classification system, and some details of physeal fractures in specific areas of the body. (medscape.com)
  • Elbow
  • A supracondylar humerus fracture is a fracture of the distal humerus just above the elbow joint. (wikipedia.org)
  • This fracture pattern is relatively rare in adults, but is the most common type of elbow fracture in children. (wikipedia.org)
  • Supracondylar humerus fractures typically result from a fall on to an outstretched arm, usually leading to a forced hyperextension of the elbow. (wikipedia.org)
  • With mild or moderate fracture displacement, there may be deformity at the elbow. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the hand hits the ground, the elbow is hyperextended, resulting in a fracture of the distal humerus above the condyles. (wikipedia.org)
  • A flexion type fracture can result from a direct blow to the posterior aspect of the elbow when the elbow is in a flexed position. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bleeding at the fracture results in a large effusion in the elbow joint. (wikipedia.org)
  • Baumann's angle, also known as the humeral-capitellar angle, is measured on an AP radiograph of the elbow between the long axis of the humerus and the growth plate of the lateral condyle. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Instead, growth occurs at each end of the bone around the growth plate. (aaos.org)
  • Often occurs in broilers (chickens raised for meat) and other poultry which have been bred for fast growth rates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cadaver experiments from the late 1800s found that if the forearm strikes the ground at an angle between 60-90°, a fracture would occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, this late in childhood, the supply is tenuous and frequently lost after the fracture occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • This fracture occurs at the metaphyseal locations and resemble the torus or base of a pillar in architectural terms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The greenstick fracture pattern occurs as a result of bending forces. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fracture usually occurs in children and teens because their bones are flexible, unlike adults whose more brittle bones usually break. (wikipedia.org)
  • distal
  • Distal radius fractures are common. (wikipedia.org)
  • Distal radius fractures are associated with injury to the carpal interosseous ligaments (predominantly the scapholunate and lunatotriquetral ligaments), as well as the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) if there is also concurrent injury to the ulnar styloid process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the TFCC attaches to the base of the ulnar styloid, displaced fractures can result in instability of the distal radio-ulnar joint. (wikipedia.org)
  • Investigation of a potential distal radial fracture includes assessment of the angle of the joint surface on lateral X-ray (volar/dorsal tilt), the loss of length of the radius from the collapse of the fracture (radial length), and congruency of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). (wikipedia.org)
  • A corner fracture or bucket-handle fracture is fragmentation of the distal end of one or both femurs, with the loose piece appearing at the bone margins as an osseous density paralleling the metaphysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Removable splints result in better outcomes than casting in children with torus fractures of the distal radius. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lateral
  • Anteroposterior (AP), lateral, and oblique views can be used together to describe the fracture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lateral compression (LC) fractures involve transverse fractures of the pubic rami, either ipsilateral or contralateral to a posterior injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Grade I - Associated sacral compression on side of impact Grade II - Associated posterior iliac ("crescent") fracture on side of impact Grade III - Associated contralateral sacroiliac joint injury The most common force type, lateral compression (LC) forces, from side-impact automobile accidents and pedestrian injuries, can result in an internal rotation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fracture is usually transverse or oblique and above the medial and lateral condyles and epicondyles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bleeding from the fracture expands the joint capsule and is visualized on the lateral view as a darker area anteriorly and posteriorly, and is known as the sail sign. (wikipedia.org)
  • deformity
  • The treating provider needs to know which fractures are likely to remodel (usually those with angulation in the plane of joint motion) and which are unlikely to remodel (eg, fractures with rotational deformity, joint incongruity, or physeal stepoff, as well as those occurring in patients near skeletal maturity). (medscape.com)
  • When growth deformity is possible, the treating provider must predict the degree of expected remodeling, and this requires an understanding of the specific fracture. (medscape.com)
  • A classic "dinner fork" deformity may be seen in dorsally angulated fractures due to dorsal displacement of the carpus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reverse deformity may be seen in volarly angulated fractures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collagen quantity is sufficient but is not of a high enough quality Bones fracture easily, especially before puberty Short stature, spinal curvature, and barrel-shaped rib cage Bone deformity is mild to moderate Early loss of hearing Similar to Type I, Type IV can be further subclassified into types IVA and IVB characterized by absence (IVA) or presence (IVB) of dentinogenesis imperfecta. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the fracture displacement, there may be deformity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypertrophic
  • Further characterized by the "V triad" consisting of a) radio-opaque band adjacent to growth plates, b) hypertrophic calluses at fracture sites, and c) calcification of the radio-ulnar interosseous membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • ulnar
  • Similarly, ff the hand was radially deviated (i.e. bent towards the thumb), this was associated with ulnar styloid fracture. (wikipedia.org)
  • dislocations
  • Under certain circumstances, radiographic examination of the nearby joints is indicated in order to exclude dislocations and fracture-dislocations. (wikipedia.org)
  • epiphyseal
  • in adults, who have stopped growing, the plate is replaced by an epiphyseal line. (wikipedia.org)
  • In puberty increasing levels of estrogen, in both females and males, leads to increased apoptosis of chondrocytes in the epiphyseal plate. (wikipedia.org)
  • He observed bones grew at the ends and thus demonstrated the existence of the epiphyseal plates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Normal bones at GetTheDiagnosis.org, showing the development of epiphyseal plates for different ages and bones. (wikipedia.org)
  • humerus
  • When reducing paediatric supracondylar humerus fractures, a deviation of more than 5° from the contralateral side should not be accepted. (wikipedia.org)
  • external fixation
  • After the immediate trauma, there is a risk of spinal cord injury (or worsening of an already injured spine) if the fracture is unstable, that is, likely to change alignment without internal or external fixation. (wikipedia.org)
  • bones
  • The horizontal growth plate is easily seen on radiographs of most growing long bones as a horizontal radiolucent region near the end of the bone. (medscape.com)
  • But because they are still growing, a child's bones are also subject to a unique injury called a growth plate fracture. (aaos.org)
  • Because they are the last portion of a child's bones to harden (ossify), growth plates are particularly vulnerable to fracture. (aaos.org)
  • Growth plates are found in the long bones of the body-the bones that are longer than they are wide. (aaos.org)
  • Most long bones in the body have at least two growth plates, including one at each end. (aaos.org)
  • Most growth plate fractures occur in the long bones of the fingers. (aaos.org)
  • The growth plate is the weakest area of the growing skeleton, weaker than the nearby ligaments and tendons that connect bones to other bones and muscles. (arthroscopy.com)
  • As a result, their bones finish growing sooner, and growth plates are replaced by stronger, solid bone. (arthroscopy.com)
  • The long bones in feet begin to harden within the ages of 8 to 14, dancing en pointe before one's bones have hardened can lead to trauma and growth-plate fractures that create deformed feet. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, if the adolescent lands and the force is too strong, the bones and the connective tissue will not be able to support the force and will fracture. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stronger and thicker periosteum in children causes a better supply of oxygen and nutrients to the bones, and this helps in the remodeling of the fractured bones by supplying. (wikipedia.org)
  • The periosteum in children causes a more rapid union of fractured bones and an increased potential for remodeling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Growth plates are the areas in bones where the bones grow. (wikipedia.org)
  • The changes in the bones over time cause variance in the pattern and number of bone fracture injuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bones fracture easily Slight spinal curvature Loose joints Poor muscle tone Discoloration of the sclera (whites of the eyes), usually giving them a blue-gray color. (wikipedia.org)
  • spinal
  • A spinal fracture, also called a vertebral fracture or a broken back, is a fracture affecting the vertebrae of the spinal column. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most types of spinal fracture confer a significant risk of spinal cord injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vertebral fractures of the thoracic vertebrae, lumbar vertebrae or sacrum are usually associated with major trauma and can cause spinal cord injury that results in a neurological deficit. (wikipedia.org)
  • The thoracolumbar injury classification and severity score (TLICS) is a scoring system to determine the need to surgically treat a spinal fracture of thoracic or lumbar vertebrae. (wikipedia.org)
  • severe
  • A growth plate fracture usually causes persistent or severe pain. (aaos.org)
  • In young adults, this fracture is the result of moderate to severe force such as a fall from a significant height or a motor vehicle accident (due to younger patients having stronger bone). (wikipedia.org)
  • Pelvic fractures are often associated with severe hemorrhage due to the extensive blood supply to the region. (wikipedia.org)