• rats
  • Although NGF did not affect overall sensorimotor skills during infusion in either age group, sensorimotor skills were significantly improved both 2 and 4 weeks after discontinuation of infusion in 22-month-old rats. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, published studies on the effects of NGF in aged rats have tested memory only during NGF administration, and therefore, it is unknown whether NGF-induced improvements are transient or persistent. (jneurosci.org)
  • The full relationship of GDF11 to aging-and any possible differences in the action of GDF11 in mice, rats, and humans-is unclear and continues to be researched. (wikipedia.org)
  • One limitation of the experiments is that outbred rats cannot be used because it can lead to a significant loss of pairs due to intoxication of the blood supply from a dissimilar rat. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rats were killed with ether and weighed at the conclusion of the experiment and the amount of fat in each animal was quantified. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • The effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body mass index (BMI) on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been established in epidemiological studies, but consistent estimates of effect sizes by age and sex are not available. (plos.org)
  • Although the major metabolic risk factors for these diseases have been characterized in epidemiological studies, consistent measurements of their effects by age, sex and region are not available. (plos.org)
  • 2 Consequently, effective strategies are needed to prevent age-related diseases and to improve the quality of longer lives. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 7 , 8 Capitalizing on this perspective, this study tested the contribution of adverse psychosocial experiences in childhood to 3 adult conditions that are known to predict age-related diseases: depression, inflammation, and the clustering of metabolic risk markers, hereinafter referred to as age-related-disease risks. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In later years, the free radical theory was expanded to include not only aging per se, but also age-related diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • differences
  • Still, their results concerning the effect of maternal age do not translate to humans but illustrate the kind of ways in which differences between genetically identical individuals might arise. (eurekalert.org)
  • On the other hand, the induction of ovarian tumors and lung adenomas was not affected by the age differences. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A study looking at age differences in which children can remember episodic memories (e.g. their first day of school, attending a friend's birthday party), elementary and preschool students were questioned about delay interval in past experiences and found significant differences in what children recall. (wikipedia.org)
  • Theory
  • An Experiment with Time is a book by the British soldier, aeronautical engineer and philosopher J. W. Dunne (1875-1949) on the subjects of precognitive dreams and a theory of time which he later called Serialism. (wikipedia.org)
  • That in theory cuts down on some of the forms of stochastic damage that lead to degenerative aging. (fightaging.org)
  • Rather than seeing aging as a loss of functionality as we get older, this theory defines aging as any change in an organism over time, as evidenced by the fact that if all chemical reactions in the body were stopped, no change, and thus no aging, would occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence supporting this theory comes from disease studies showing that women who reach menopause later have less heart disease and stroke, less dementia, and less osteoporosis, supporting the theory that the longer the HPG axis is in balance, the less likely one is to develop age-related diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the context, an independent variable is sometimes called a "predictor variable", "regressor", "controlled variable", "manipulated variable", "explanatory variable", "exposure variable" (see reliability theory), "risk factor" (see medical statistics), "feature" (in machine learning and pattern recognition) or "input variable. (wikipedia.org)
  • The free radical theory of aging (FRTA) states that organisms age because cells accumulate free radical damage over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Denham Harman first proposed the free radical theory of aging in the 1950s, and in the 1970s extended the idea to implicate mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The free radical theory of aging was conceived by Denham Harman in the 1950s, when prevailing scientific opinion held that free radicals were too unstable to exist in biological systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1972, Harman modified his original theory to what became known as the mitochondrial theory of aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • This mitochondrial theory has been more widely accepted that it could play a major role in contributing to the aging process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since Harman first proposed the free radical theory of aging, there have been continual modifications and extensions to his original theory. (wikipedia.org)
  • This experiment was to support the theory that damage to the hypothalamus, particularly the ventromedial hypothalamus, leads to obesity caused by the overconsumption of food. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) also known as bone morphogenetic protein 11 (BMP-11) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GDF11 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • significantly
  • Amazingly, both the median and maximum lifespan of these middle-aged mice were significantly increased by rapamycin supplementation. (natap.org)
  • Second, it was observed that the mice when 1st treated at 7 days of age developed hepatomas (females) and malignant lymphomas in a significantly lower proportion than did the mice which were first treated when newborn, but they developed Harderian gland adenomas in a higher proportion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • effects
  • The complex interactive effects of environmental and biological factors must be taken into account for studies of vector competence and epidemiology, especially when laboratory studies are used to generalize to natural transmission dynamics where the extent of variation is largely unknown. (ajtmh.org)
  • The authors are fully grateful to the anonymous users for publicly providing its data, and to Mr. Lucio Amelio, student of the Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Bologna, Italy, for the helpful discussions about the biological effects of the human factors. (springer.com)
  • We pooled all data to estimate relative risks (RRs) for each risk factor and examined effect modification by age or other factors, using random effects models. (plos.org)
  • For all risk factors, proportional effects declined with age, were generally consistent by sex, and differed by region in only a few age groups for certain risk factor-disease pairs. (plos.org)
  • Our results provide robust, comparable and precise estimates of the effects of major metabolic risk factors on CVD and diabetes by age group. (plos.org)
  • Understanding the effects of metabolic risk factors on CVD mortality and burden of disease are important inputs for policy and priority setting related to disease prevention. (plos.org)
  • The effects of adverse childhood experiences on age-related-disease risks in adulthood were nonredundant, cumulative, and independent of the influence of established developmental and concurrent risk factors. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Adverse effects depend on two main factors: i) routes of exposure (oral, inhalation, or dermal) and ii) dose (duration and concentration of exposure). (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the randomized controlled design, the study was able to isolate the effects of insurance from confounding factors such as the initial health status of participants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Models and experiments test or determine the effects that the independent variables have on the dependent variables. (wikipedia.org)
  • These effects suggest an "anti-hypertrophic effect", aiding in the reversal process of age-related hypertrophy, on the cardiomyocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • These previous findings have been disputed since another publication has demonstrated the contrary, concluding that GDF11 increases with age and has deleterious effects on skeletal muscle regeneration, being a pro-aging factor, with very high levels in some aged individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects are mediated by the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system, which is upregulated in response to BST or rBST administration in well-fed cows. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later studies linked the effects of the previous parabiotic experiments about metabolism to the discovery of leptin. (wikipedia.org)
  • dysfunction
  • When the HPG axis becomes unbalanced, cellular growth and development is dysregulated, and cell death and dysfunction can occur, both of which can initiate senescence, the accumulated damage to cells, tissues, and organs that occurs with the passage of time and that is associated with functional loss during aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2014, peripheral supplementation of GDF11 protein (in mice) was shown to ameliorate the age-related dysfunction of skeletal muscle by rescuing the function of aged muscle stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • Complex interactions between environmental and biological factors influence the susceptibility of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus to St. Louis encephalitis virus and could affect the epidemiology of virus transmission. (ajtmh.org)
  • To understand why children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences are at elevated risk for age-related disease, such as cardiovascular disease, by testing whether adverse childhood experiences predict enduring abnormalities in stress-sensitive biological systems, namely, the nervous, immune, and endocrine/metabolic systems. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Enrico Ferri, a student of Lombroso, believed social as well as biological factors played a role, and believed criminals should not be held responsible when factors causing their criminality were beyond their control. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • The objective of the present investigation was to determine whether various organs of mice possess the same carcinogenic response when treated repeatedly with urethan during only the infant period of life (7 days and older) or during the neonatal period (1st week of life) as well, and, if not, whether the susceptibility of older infants may be modified by priming with urethan during the newborn age period. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the 1st part of the experiment, C57BL × C3H F 1 mice were given urethan 6 times at 3-day intervals. (aacrjournals.org)
  • GDF11 has been identified as a blood circulating factor that has the ability to reverse age-related cardiac hypertrophy in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • examine
  • We conducted an experiment to examine four such factors in combination: mosquito age, extrinsic incubation temperature (EIT), virus dose, and colony. (ajtmh.org)
  • For the time being, in examining cloning issues, we have to examine the hybrid of the ethics of a science so new that its ink is still wet on the page, with public perceptions in the age of the Internet, and sound byte ethical judgments motivated primarily by the demands of sub-editors for catchy headlines. (vt.edu)
  • Generally, different sets of experiments are conducted to determine whether a substance causes cancer and to examine other forms of toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • decreases
  • The volume of white matter starts its linear increase from age four to 20, but cortical gray matter is decreases in the parietal, occipital and temporal regions starting from age four, continually changing until after age 12. (wikipedia.org)
  • increases
  • Research in the Journal of Law and Human Behaviour found that the ability for child eyewitnesses to accurately recall details of events increases with age, as did the ability to answer specific questions, identify the confederate and resist suggestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • In both species, mutations in targets of TOR, such as ribosomal S6 kinase (an enzyme involved in protein translation), several translation-initiation factors and multiple ribosomal proteins, increase lifespan8. (natap.org)
  • Factors that influence chemical toxicity include the dosage (and whether it is acute or chronic), route of exposure, species, age, sex, and environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult
  • The effect of larval rearing conditions and adult age on the susceptibility of Culex tritaeniorhynchus to infection with West Nile virus. (ajtmh.org)
  • Science shows that with age we lose synaptic connections, but the adult brain also continues to create neurons in the regions dedicated to learning. (conversationagent.com)
  • Seven in 10 girls ages 13 to 16 (71 percent), for instance, watch what we called in this survey 'adult dramas' - shows such as 'CSI' and 'Law and Order' - compared with just 57 percent of boys in that age group. (washingtontimes.com)
  • The size of a newborn brain is approximately 400g and continues to grow to 1100g at the age of three, which is close to the size of an adult brain (1300-1400g). (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • Collected data including demographic factors and response time is subjected to association rule mining, using the FP-Growth algorithm for extracting the association rules. (springer.com)
  • Since the most important change in an organism through time is the chemical reactions that result in a single cell developing into a multicellular organism, whatever controls these chemical reactions that regulate cell growth, development, and death, is believed to control aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • GDF11 belongs to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily that controls anterior-posterior patterning by regulating the expression of Hox genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • But over the long haul all that really matters is progress in medicine: building new classes of therapy to repair and reverse the known root causes of aging. (fightaging.org)
  • neuronal
  • implicates this neuronal population in age-associated memory decline and provides a target for pharmacological treatment of memory loss. (jneurosci.org)
  • In particular, these studies indicate the importance of circulating factors in regulating the maintenance of neuronal (Villeda et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • environmental factors
  • Here, we connect leaf-level full range spectral data (400-2400 nm) of leaves to the hierarchical organization of plant diversity within the oak genus ( Quercus ) using field and greenhouse experiments in which environmental factors and plant age are controlled. (mdpi.com)
  • Culture and environmental factors may discourage or prevent much of it, but we're wired to keep learning. (conversationagent.com)
  • Reliability
  • This method ages all IC's building blocks to allow relevant failure modes to be triggered and implemented in a short reliability experiment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reliability engineers must understand the power distribution on the chip and align the aging so that it is similar for all elements of an IC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reliability engineering aims to age all I/Os in the same way as the other IC elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • influence
  • Experiments comparing the proposed method with the earlier studies of the CAPTCHA usability show the novelty of the method for the understanding of usability of CAPTCHA interfaces, which is based on the cognitive factors that influence the response time. (springer.com)
  • Factors that influence chemical toxicity: Dosage Both large single exposures (acute) and continuous small exposures (chronic) are studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • effect
  • Effect estimates in prior global comparative risk assessment (CRA) analyses of metabolic risk factors including systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body mass index (BMI) were based on the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration (APCSC) and selected other cohort pooling studies - . (plos.org)
  • studies
  • After our literature search methodology, we discuss the main theoretical standpoints of the studies and the methods used, before summarizing the work across 16 categories of proposed causative factors. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • study
  • The aim is to study the cognitive factors influencing the Internet users in finding a solution to these four CAPTCHA types. (springer.com)
  • Adolphe Quetelet used data and statistical analysis to study the relationship between crime and sociological factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The control and study groups were statistically similar in many dimensions such as age and ethnicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • control
  • The first Experiment was the control experiment, the procedures are, One: Fold a piece of filter paper in half, then in half again, and open it to form a cone (Couch and Burger 2004). (freeonlineresearchpapers.com)
  • Thus, a situation allowing for a randomized experiment occurred, with a control group of individuals not selected by the lottery and a treatment group of individuals selected by the lottery and thus eligible to apply for Medicaid. (wikipedia.org)
  • results
  • First, the results of the experiment further documented the multicarcinogenicity of urethan as evidenced by the development of two types of ovarian tumors, Harderian gland adenomas, hepatomas, lung adenomas, and stem-cell malignant lymphomas (30, 31) in the treated animals. (aacrjournals.org)
  • test
  • Experiment two was a dialysis test showing positive and negative reactions for specific substances. (freeonlineresearchpapers.com)
  • Experiment two was a dialysis test, procedures are the following, One: Tie off one end of a piece of dialysis tubing that has been soaking in distilled water (Couch and Burger 2004). (freeonlineresearchpapers.com)
  • The digital toggling factor (DTF) represents the number of transistors that change their state during the stress test, relative to the total number of gates in the digital portion of the IC. (wikipedia.org)
  • individuals
  • Across all risk factors, an average of 123 cohorts provided data on 1.4 million individuals and 52,000 CVD events. (plos.org)
  • levels
  • Sociological positivism suggests societal factors such as poverty, membership of subcultures, or low levels of education predispose people to crime. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • There is, however, no systematic evaluation and comparison of these sources for new global and national risk assessments, including potential heterogeneity by age, sex, or region. (plos.org)
  • Although our ancestors revered the wisdom that came with age, an open question in modern times is how we can keep our intellectual engine going well past our prime, however we define it. (conversationagent.com)
  • However, external factors are important to consider when deciding on which type of team to compose for completing any certain objective. (wikipedia.org)
  • years
  • The main aim of the HTOL is to age the device such that a short experiment will allow the lifetime of the IC to be predicted (e.g. 1,000 HTOL hours shall predict a minimum of "X" years of operation). (wikipedia.org)
  • gender
  • Furthermore, homogeneous organizational teams in terms of age, race and gender are hypothesized to report less conflict as compared to heterogeneous organizational teams. (wikipedia.org)
  • causes
  • Noting that radiation causes "mutation, cancer and aging", Harman argued that oxygen free radicals produced during normal respiration would cause cumulative damage which would eventually lead to organismal loss of functionality, and ultimately death. (wikipedia.org)
  • group
  • In the same age group, RRs for 1 mmol/L higher TC were 1.44 (1.29-1.61) for IHD and 1.20 (1.15-1.25) for ischemic stroke. (plos.org)
  • For 1 mmol/L higher FPG, RRs in this age group were 1.18 (1.08-1.29) for IHD and 1.14 (1.01-1.29) for total stroke. (plos.org)
  • important factors
  • It is the author's third contention that "negative work" (eccentric contraction) is one of the most important factors involved in exercise performed for the purpose of increasing strength and muscle-mass. (ironmanmagazine.com)
  • IMPACT
  • We observed that the age of a mother has a major impact on the physiology of her offspring" states Marcos Francisco Perez, PhD student and co-first author of this work. (eurekalert.org)