• bacteria
  • Improved vectors and methods for regulating the expression in bacteria of a eucaryotic anti-viral protein, such as mature human immune interferon, the gene for which has been cloned onto a bacterial plasmid, is disclosed. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Developmental genes that act intracellularly, primarily at the level of transcription regulation, typically code for proteins containing highly conserved DNA-binding domains, most of which appear to have evolved before the radiation of bacteria and eukaryotes. (genetics.org)
  • T3SSs consist of multiple proteins which assemble to form an apparatus capable of exporting proteins through both membranes of Gram-negative bacteria in one step. (bham.ac.uk)
  • By using tools including BLAST and HMMER in conjunction phylogenetic analysis this thesis examines the range of T3SSs, both in terms of the proteins they contain, and also the bacteria which contain them. (bham.ac.uk)
  • Use of conserved components allows for identification of T3SS loci in diverse bacteria, in order to assess in the different proteins used by different T3SSs, and to see where, in evolutionary space, these differences arose. (bham.ac.uk)
  • For a rather long period, it was assumed that gram-negative bacteria do not 'secrete' proteins into their environment but only export proteins in their strategic periplasm. (antievolution.org)
  • However, research in the last two decades has revealed that gram-negative bacteria do indeed transfer proteins across their sophisticated outer membrane, and they do this by a variety of systems that are now classified into four major types and several minor ones. (antievolution.org)
  • In bacteria that are pathogenic for animals, type III secretion systems allow extracellular bacteria adhering to the surface of a host cell to inject specialized proteins across the plasma membrane. (antievolution.org)
  • This system probably also allows bacteria residing in vacuoles to inject proteins across the vacuolar membrane. (antievolution.org)
  • The injected proteins subvert the functioning of the aggressed cell or destroy its communications, favoring the entry or survival of the invading bacteria. (antievolution.org)
  • BFP, a plasmid-encoded type IV bundle-forming pilus produced by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), has recently been shown to be associated with the aggregation of bacteria and dispersal of bacteria from bacterial microcolonies. (antievolution.org)
  • Single-stranded binding proteins (SSBs) are a class of proteins that have been identified in both viruses and organisms from bacteria to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • SSB protein domains in bacteria are important maintaining DNA metabolism, more specifically DNA replication, repair and recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • It works by blocking the ability of bacteria to make proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 μg/mL - 128 μg/mL Bacteria usually acquire resistance to tetracycline from horizontal transfer of a gene that either encodes an efflux pump or a ribosomal protection protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • This GTPase protein domain is found in all eukaryotic tubulin chains, as well as the bacterial protein TubZ, the archaeal protein CetZ, and the FtsZ protein family widespread in Bacteria and Archaea. (wikipedia.org)
  • FtsZ is found in nearly all Bacteria and Archaea, where it functions in cell division, localizing to a ring in the middle of the dividing cell and recruiting other components of the divisome, the group of proteins that together constrict the cell envelope to pinch off the cell, yielding two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virulence factors encoded on mobile genetic elements spread through horizontal gene transfer, and can convert harmless bacteria into dangerous pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gram-negative bacteria secrete a variety of virulence factors at host-pathogen interface, via membrane vesicle trafficking as bacterial outer membrane vesicles for invasion, nutrition and other cell-cell communications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteria produce various adhesins including lipoteichoic acid, trimeric autotransporter adhesins and a wide variety of other surface proteins to attach to host tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • many bacteria like Salmonella have two proteins to turn the GTPases on and off. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins which have homologs in eukaryotes, archaea and bacteria are shown as blue ribbons. (wikipedia.org)
  • σ19 (FecI) - the ferric citrate sigma factor, regulates the fec gene for iron transport σ24 (RpoE) - the extracytoplasmic/extreme heat stress sigma factor σ28 (RpoF) - the flagellar sigma factor σ32 (RpoH) - the heat shock sigma factor, it is turned on when the bacteria are exposed to heat. (wikipedia.org)
  • fMet plays a crucial part in the protein synthesis of bacteria, mitochondria and chloroplasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • fMet is a starting residue in the synthesis of proteins in bacteria, and, consequently, is located at the N-terminus of the growing polypeptide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because fMet is present in proteins made by bacteria but not in those made by eukaryotes (other than in bacterially derived organelles), the immune system might use it to help distinguish self from non-self. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead, fMet-containing oligopeptides and proteins appear to be released by the mitochondria of damaged tissues as well as by damaged bacteria, and can thus qualify as an "alarm" signal, as discussed in the Danger model of immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • These methods are most useful in organisms with straightforward methods for the introduction and selection of genes of interest, such as bacteria and yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • By delivering the Cas9 nuclease complexed with a synthetic guide RNA (gRNA) into a cell, the cell's genome can be cut at a desired location, allowing existing genes to be removed and/or new ones added. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a hypothetical example, the factors A and B might regulate a distinct set of genes from the combination of factors A and C. This combinatorial nature extends to complexes of far more than two proteins, and allows a very small subset (less than 10%) of the genome to control the transcriptional program of the entire cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome of the virus includes typical NCLDV core genes and genes apparently obtained from eukaryotic hosts and their parasites or symbionts, both bacterial and viral, through probably horizontal gene transfer mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genes within these chromosomes are the cell's nuclear genome and are structured in such a way to promote cell function. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • From this position Grk protein is secreted and activates the Drosophila EGF receptor (Egfr) in overlying dorsal follicle cells. (biologists.org)
  • Miami Winter Symposia, Volume 16: From Gene to Protein: Information Transfer in Normal and Abnormal Cells presents the expression and processing of genetic information at the levels of both proteins and nucleic acids. (elsevier.com)
  • after 6 h, bacterial microcolonies are no longer present, indicating that bacterial aggregation and dispersal occurs in vitro during EPEC adhesion to cultured epithelial cells. (antievolution.org)
  • The mitochondria of eukaryotic cells contain their own single stranded DNA binding protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • During cell division, FtsZ is the first protein to move to the division site, and is essential for recruiting other proteins that produce a new cell wall between the dividing cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, recent work with purified FtsZ on supported lipid bilayers as well as imaging FtsZ in living bacterial cells revealed that FtsZ protofilaments have polarity and move in one direction by treadmilling (see also below). (wikipedia.org)
  • Capsules, made of carbohydrate, form part of the outer structure of many bacterial cells including Neisseria meningitidis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sigma factors in E. coli: σ70(RpoD) - σA - the "housekeeping" sigma factor or also called as primary sigma factor, transcribes most genes in growing cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Histone H2A is one of the five main histone proteins involved in the structure of chromatin in eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein may play a role as a peptide-modifying enzyme component in eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mitochondria of eukaryote cells, including those of humans, and the chloroplasts of plant cells also initiate protein synthesis with N-formylmethionine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The prototypical fMet-containing oligopeptide is N-Formylmethionine-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) which activates leukocytes and other cell types by binding with these cells' formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) and formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) G protein coupled receptors (see also formyl peptide receptor 3). (wikipedia.org)
  • subunit
  • A classical view of PIC formation at the promoter involves the following steps: TATA binding protein (TBP, a subunit of TFIID) binds the promoter, creating a sharp bend in the promoter DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • parasites
  • These agents also have activity against certain eukaryotic parasites, including those responsible for diseases such as malaria and balantidiasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • Nuclear-encoded FtsZ in the moss Physcomitrella patens is required for chloroplast division and was the first identified protein essential for organelle division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins responsible for nuclear import of H2A protein are karyopherin and importin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pores cross both nuclear membranes, providing a channel through which larger molecules must be actively transported by carrier proteins while allowing free movement of small molecules and ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitochondria
  • Since fMet is present in proteins made by mitochondria and chloroplasts, more recent theories do not see it as a molecule that the immune system can use to distinguish self from non-self. (wikipedia.org)
  • protofilaments
  • Electron cryomicroscopy showed that BtubA/B forms microtubules in vivo, and suggested that these microtubules comprise only five protofilaments, in contrast to eukaryotic microtubules, which usually contain 13. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasmid
  • This may reflect an optimal structure for this role since the unrelated plasmid-partitioning protein ParM exhibits a similar structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • FtsZ
  • FtsZ is a protein encoded by the ftsZ gene that assembles into a ring at the future site of the septum of bacterial cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • In liposomes Osawa (2009) showed FtsZ is capable of exerting a contractile force with no other proteins present. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is unclear as to whether FtsZ actually provides the physical force that results in division or serves as a marker for other proteins to execute division. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other models, FtsZ does not provide the contractile force but provides the cell a spatial scaffold for other proteins to execute the division of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tubulin is characterized by the evolutionarily conserved Tubulin/FtsZ family, GTPase protein domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • The similar capsid proteins and capsid architectures strongly suggest that these viral capsids originated and evolved from a common ancestor. (pnas.org)
  • The viral particle is composed of a 37-kDa major capsid protein (MCP) and several 25-, 12.5-, and 10-kDa minor capsid proteins ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • structure
  • Organized into 105 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the discovery of the double helix and the search for the genetic code and the three-dimensional structure of protein. (elsevier.com)
  • The MCP structure also provides insights into the stabilizing forces required for extracellular hyperthermophilic proteins to tolerate high-temperature hot springs. (pnas.org)
  • The MCP (an extracellular protein) structure also suggests how proteins may be able to tolerate the extreme physicochemical habitat of high-temperature hot spring environments. (pnas.org)
  • nucleus
  • Recent studies also show that nucleosome assembly protein 1 is also used to transport of H2A into the nucleus so it can wrap DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus maintains the integrity of genes and controls the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression-the nucleus is, therefore, the control center of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • subset
  • Murine gamma herpesvirus 68 (γHV68) and human herpesviruses depend on a subset of genes that allow them to maintain a chronic infection by reactivating when specific environmental conditions are met. (wikipedia.org)