• scalp electrodes
  • However, to reach the scalp electrodes of a conventional electroencephalogram (EEG), electrical signals must also be conducted through the skull, where potentials rapidly attenuate due to the low conductivity of bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • A routine clinical EEG recording typically lasts 20-30 minutes (plus preparation time) and usually involves recording from scalp electrodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The routine four-channel montages proposed in the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology (IFCN) guidelines explore the afferent peripheral volley, the segmental spinal responses at the neck and lumbar spine levels, as well as the subcortical far-field and early cortical SEPs, using scalp electrodes placed in the parietal and frontal regions for upper limb SEPs and at the vertex for lower limb SEPs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurosurgery
  • Three patients have been treated and initial results are promising, according to Andres Lozano, a professor of neurosurgery at the Toronto Western Hospital, Ontario, who is leading the research. (blogspot.com)
  • ECoG
  • Five of these patients (36%) showed patterns of ECoG depression consistent with PID/CSD in brain regions adjacent to the primary injury. (strokecenter.org)
  • Electrocorticography (ECoG), or intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG), is a type of electrophysiological monitoring that uses electrodes placed directly on the exposed surface of the brain to record electrical activity from the cerebral cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two developed ECoG as part of their groundbreaking Montreal procedure, a surgical protocol used to treat patients with severe epilepsy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ECoG recording is performed from electrodes placed on the exposed cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulate
  • Remarkably, multi-electrode arrays (MEAs), which are microfabricated devices embedding an array of spatially arranged microelectrodes, provide the unique opportunity to simultaneously stimulate and record field potentials, as well as action potentials of multiple neurons from different areas of the tissue. (jove.com)
  • refractory
  • Here, we used an animal model of TLE and sclerotic hippocampus from patients with refractory TLE to determine whether cell-type specific activation of mTOR signaling occurs during each stage of epileptogenesis. (jove.com)
  • Procedure
  • During the procedure, the surgeon, anesthesiologist, and other surgical personnel speak to the patient, and there is a technician constantly assessing the patient's ability to name objects, for example, or report any abnormal sensations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Those with anxiety disorders, claustrophobia, schizophrenia, or low pain tolerance are poor candidates for an awake surgery because any treatment of a psychological crisis would harm the procedure and could harm the patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anesthetic
  • Al Zahrawi provided detailed accounts of neurosurgical procedures to correct neuropathological ailments, developed surgical instruments that resemble surgical tools of today, gave accounts for creating aseptic environments using alcohol in wine, and suggested using opium as an anesthetic for patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurological
  • Intracortical encephalogram signal analysis has two components: 1) an intracortical EEG multicontact electrode (ICE) that inserted through a patient's skull and deep into the grey matter of the patient, and 2) an artificial intelligent agent that is trained in neurological signal analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Artificial Intelligent (see Machine learning) and Knowledge Discovery of neurological signals component was first derived from using Intracortical Electrodes in rats (see Brain-computer interface) to predicting epilepsy seizures in rats by 6 seconds (see Seizure prediction) . (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • The Virtual Patient is composed of computer-generated 3D multi-modal images obtained from any DICOM tomographic data including CT, MRI, MRA, MRV, functional MRI and CTA, PET, SPECT and Tractography. (wikipedia.org)
  • aneurysm
  • Screening begins when a patient (less than 72 hours post-rupture of aneurysm) is seen in the emergency room (aneurysm treatment within 24 hours). (isrctn.com)
  • Copper coils were inserted into a giant aneurysm through externally puncturing the aneurysm wall via craniotomy. (wikipedia.org)
  • cerebral cortex
  • The (ICE) component comprises a catheter with platinum sensors that, when inserted into the brain allows for recording directly from the cerebral cortex of patients with acute brain injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • surgical
  • One of the uses of the Dextroscope is to allow surgeons to interact with and manipulate the Virtual Patient and plan the ideal surgical trajectory - for example, by simulating inter-operative viewpoints or the removal of bone and soft tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, there are dedicated tools to perform data segmentation to extract surgically relevant structures like the cortex or a tumor , extract blood vessels, adjust the color and transparency of displayed structures to see deep inside the patient and even simulate some surgical procedures - such as the removal of bone using a simulated skull drilling tool. (wikipedia.org)
  • spatial
  • In which case the spatial resolution is down to individual neurons, and the field of view of an individual electrode is approximately 0.05-0.35 mm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The number of electrodes necessary and their exact spatial arrangement is often determined in the operating room. (wikipedia.org)
  • patient's
  • In stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), the word "stereotactic" refers to a three-dimensional coordinate system that enables accurate correlation of a virtual target seen in the patient's diagnostic images with the actual target position in the patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • surgeon
  • The craniotomy begins with a surgeon removing an area of the skull over the tumor and cutting into the meninges, the membranes that protect the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • If an area is stimulated and the patient moves or loses some ability, like speech, the surgeon knows that the area is vital and cannot be removed or cut through to access a tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to access the cortex, a surgeon must first perform a craniotomy, removing a part of the skull to expose the brain surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the approach for the individual patient does not only depend on the specific localization of the epileptogenic area, but also on the experience of the surgeon. (neurosurgery-blog.com)
  • The ability of the patient to stay calm and give responses to the surgeon is highly essential. (brain-surgery.com)
  • placement
  • The IPG is programmed by the neurologist based on the specific disease condition of the patient, and the placement of DBS requires regular follow-ups for programming the IPG based on the disease condition, if needed. (targetwoman.com)
  • allows
  • Recording of CSDs allows real time detection of delayed ischaemia after aSAH at the bedside, thus, it becomes possible to stratify the population of aSAH patients into two groups at the earliest possible time point. (isrctn.com)
  • The Dextroscope started as a research project in the mid-90s with the name The Virtual Workbench and started commercialization in 2000 with the incorporation of the company Volume Interactions Pte Ltd. The Dextroscope allows its user to interact intuitively with a Virtual Patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • array
  • 3. The implantable neural interface system of claim 2 , wherein the neural interface device comprises a neuroprobe assembly, and wherein the electrode array is coupled to the neuroprobe assembly. (google.ch)
  • 4. The implantable neural interface system of claim 3 , wherein the neuroprobe assembly comprises a penetrating electrode, and wherein the electrode array is disposed on the penetrating electrode. (google.ch)
  • a flexible interconnect cable that connects the electronic component to the electrode array, wherein at least a portion of the flexible interconnect cable resides in the groove. (google.ch)
  • interaction
  • The user sits at the Dextroscope 3D interaction console and manipulates the Virtual Patient using both hands in a similar manner to how one would manipulate a real object. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • The researchers are testing the approach in six Alzheimer's patients in a Phase 1 safety study. (blogspot.com)
  • Minimal occlusion was achieved, but the researchers discovered that the erosion of the electrode due to electrolysis would be useful as a detachment system. (wikipedia.org)
  • conscious
  • An averaging over 30 minutes should be the minimum, with a period of overnight monitoring in conscious patients providing the optimal standard. (strokecenter.org)
  • individual
  • The EEG mu rhythm, oscillatory activity in the 8-12 Hz frequency range recorded from centrally located electrodes, is suppressed when an individual executes, or simply observes, goal directed actions. (jove.com)
  • time
  • Professor Lozano said: "This is the first time that anyone has had electrodes implanted in the brain which have been shown to improve memory. (blogspot.com)
  • reach
  • Consequently, they reach their maximal amplitude when the reference electrode is non-cephalic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using stereoscopic visualisations displayed via a mirror, the Dextroscope user sees the Virtual Patient floating behind the mirror but within easy reach of the hands and uses flexible 3D hand movements to rotate and manipulate the object of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • verbal
  • Patients after left-sided operations performed significantly worse regarding verbal memory as compared to right-sided procedures. (neurosurgery-blog.com)
  • In addition, the resultant split-brain prevented some patients from following verbal commands that required use of their non-dominant hand. (wikipedia.org)