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  • atom
  • As the only neutral atom for which the Schrödinger equation can be solved analytically, study of the energetics and bonding of the hydrogen atom has played a key role in the development of quantum mechanics . (wikipedia.org)
  • The ground state energy level of the electron in a hydrogen atom is −13.6 eV, which is equivalent to an ultraviolet photon of roughly 91 nm wavelength. (wikipedia.org)
  • The energy levels of hydrogen can be calculated fairly accurately using the Bohr model of the atom, which conceptualizes the electron as "orbiting" the proton in analogy to the Earth's orbit of the Sun. However, the atomic electron and proton are held together by electromagnetic force, while planets and celestial objects are held by gravity. (wikipedia.org)
  • A more accurate description of the hydrogen atom comes from a purely quantum mechanical treatment that uses the Schrödinger equation, Dirac equation or even the Feynman path integral formulation to calculate the probability density of the electron around the proton. (wikipedia.org)
  • The common reaction in which it unites with another substance is called oxidation (see oxidation and reduction oxidation and reduction, complementary chemical reactions characterized by the loss or gain, respectively, of one or more electrons by an atom or molecule. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • helium
  • After hydrogen, helium is the second lightest and second most abundant element in the observable universe, being present at about 24% of the total elemental mass, which is more than 12 times the mass of all the heavier elements combined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Large amounts of new helium are being created by nuclear fusion of hydrogen in stars. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, recent studies suggest that helium produced deep in the earth by radioactive decay can collect in natural gas reserves in larger than expected quantities, in some cases having been released by volcanic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1881, Italian physicist Luigi Palmieri detected helium on Earth for the first time through its D3 spectral line, when he analyzed a material that had been sublimated during a recent eruption of Mount Vesuvius. (wikipedia.org)
  • On March 26, 1895, Scottish chemist Sir William Ramsay isolated helium on Earth by treating the mineral cleveite (a variety of uraninite with at least 10% rare earth elements) with mineral acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Earth's second atmosphere emerged after the lighter gases, hydrogen and helium, escaped to space or like oxygen were bound up in molecules and is thought to have consisted largely of nitrogen, carbon dioxide and inert gases[which? (wikipedia.org)
  • bonds
  • Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. (wikipedia.org)
  • The molecules of water are constantly moving in relation to each other, and the hydrogen bonds are continually breaking and reforming at timescales faster than 200 femtoseconds (2×10−13 seconds). (wikipedia.org)
  • The relative instability of the carbon-oxygen bonds in the molecule is revealed by the comparison in the table of the energy required to break two C-O bonds in the ethylene oxide or one C-O bond in ethanol and dimethyl ether: This instability correlates with its high reactivity, explaining the ease of its ring-opening reactions (see Chemical properties). (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidane
  • The accepted IUPAC name of water is oxidane or simply water,or its equivalent in different languages, although there are other systematic names which can be used to describe the molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Earth's
  • Carbon dioxide concentrations have varied widely over the Earth's 4.54 billion year history. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The production of free oxygen by cyanobacterial photosynthesis eventually led to the oxygen catastrophe that ended Earth's second atmosphere and brought about the Earth's third atmosphere (the modern atmosphere) 2.4 billion years before the present. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even so, pure native nickel is found in Earth's crust only in tiny amounts, usually in ultramafic rocks, and in the interiors of larger nickel-iron meteorites that were not exposed to oxygen when outside Earth's atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • organic
  • Biogas is a gas produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deeper in the earth, at greater temperature and pressure, thermogenic gas is created from buried organic material. (wikipedia.org)
  • anaerobic digestion - the biological degradation of organic materials in the absence of oxygen to yield methane gas (that may be combusted to produce energy) and stabilised organic residues (that may be used as a soil additive). (wikipedia.org)
  • living organisms
  • All living organisms on Earth are made up of one of two basic types of cells: eukaryotic cells, in which the genetic material is enclosed within a nuclear membrane, or prokaryotic cells, in which the genetic material is not separated from the rest of the cell. (academicroom.com)
  • form
  • If these signs do turn out to be a sign of life, it would be doubly exciting because it would represent a second form of life independent from water-based life on Earth. (nasa.gov)
  • Scientists have not yet detected this form of life anywhere, though there are liquid-water-based microbes on Earth that thrive on methane or produce it as a waste product. (nasa.gov)
  • The new hydrogen findings are consistent with conditions that could produce an exotic, methane-based life form, but do not definitively prove its existence, said Darrell Strobel, a Cassini interdisciplinary scientist based at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Md., who authored the paper on hydrogen. (nasa.gov)
  • Ozone ozone , an allotropic form of the chemical element oxygen (see allotropy). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Oxygen unites directly with a number of other elements to form oxides oxide, chemical compound containing oxygen and one other chemical element. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, [c] a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass , and a high heat capacity . (wikipedia.org)
  • The long coiled polymeric molecules make the brownish substance elastic, and in bulk this form has the feel of crude rubber. (wikipedia.org)
  • Autothermal reforming (ATR) uses oxygen and carbon dioxide or steam in a reaction with methane to form syngas. (wikipedia.org)
  • One form of the fuel known as RP-1 is burned with liquid oxygen as rocket fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • colorless
  • At standard temperature and pressure , hydrogen is a colorless , odorless , tasteless , non-toxic, nonmetallic , highly combustible diatomic gas with the molecular formula H 2 . (wikipedia.org)
  • ultraviolet
  • The hydrogen autoignition temperature, the temperature of spontaneous ignition in air, is 500 °C (932 °F). Pure hydrogen-oxygen flames emit ultraviolet light and with high oxygen mix are nearly invisible to the naked eye, as illustrated by the faint plume of the Space Shuttle Main Engine, compared to the highly visible plume of a Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster, which uses an ammonium perchlorate composite. (wikipedia.org)
  • substance
  • On Titan, where temperatures are around 90 Kelvin (minus 290 degrees Fahrenheit), a methane-based organism would have to use a substance that is liquid as its medium for living processes, but not water itself. (nasa.gov)
  • emit
  • Greenhouse gases are those that absorb and emit infrared radiation in the wavelength range emitted by Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • gases
  • An alkali anion exchange membrane (AAEM) is a semipermeable membrane generally made from ionomers and designed to conduct anions while being impermeable to gases such as oxygen or hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • electron
  • The asymmetrical shape of the molecule arises from a tendency of the four electron pairs in the valence shell of oxygen to arrange themselves symmetrically at the vertices of a tetrahedron around the oxygen nucleus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • water
  • While liquid water is widely regarded as necessary for life, there has been extensive speculation published in the scientific literature that this is not a strict requirement. (nasa.gov)
  • They take up simple substances such as water, carbon dioxide, and oxygen, as well as inorganic nutrients and produce biological molecules needed for life from the inorganic substances. (scribd.com)
  • Water is the oxide of hydrogen. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Because of hydrogen bonding between water molecules, the latent heats latent heat, heat change associated with a change of state or phase (see states of matter). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Unlike other analogous hydrides of the oxygen family , water is primarily a liquid under standard conditions due to hydrogen bonding . (wikipedia.org)
  • Water has a very high specific heat capacity of 4.1814 J/(g·K) at 25 °C - the second highest among all the heteroatomic species (after ammonia), as well as a high heat of vaporization (40.65 kJ/mol or 2257 kJ/kg at the normal boiling point), both of which are a result of the extensive hydrogen bonding between its molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • 20/30/10 standard - 20 mg/l Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), 30 mg/l Suspended Solids (SS), 10 units of E. coli: the water quality standard for greywater use in toilets, laundry and surface irrigation. (wikipedia.org)
  • absorption pit (soakaway) - a hole dug in permeable ground and filled with broken stones or granular material and usually covered with earth allowing collected water to soak into the ground. (wikipedia.org)
  • photosynthesis
  • This production activity is vital for the existence of the ecosystem as the products of photosynthesis support the life on earth. (scribd.com)
  • steam
  • As a toxic gas that leaves no residue on items it contacts, ethylene oxide is a surface disinfectant that is widely used in hospitals and the medical equipment industry to replace steam in the sterilization of heat-sensitive tools and equipment, such as disposable plastic syringes. (wikipedia.org)
  • yield
  • Studies of the relationships between different groups of bacteria continue to yield new insights into the origin of life on Earth and the mechanisms of evolution. (academicroom.com)
  • chemical
  • This lack of acetylene is important because that chemical would likely be the best energy source for a methane-based life on Titan, said Chris McKay, an astrobiologist at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif., who proposed a set of conditions necessary for this kind of methane-based life on Titan in 2005. (nasa.gov)
  • The Titan surface is also so cold that a chemical process that involved a catalyst would be needed to convert hydrogen molecules and acetylene back to methane, even though overall there would be a net release of energy. (nasa.gov)
  • Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physical and chemical boundaries for microbial multiplication on Earth are strongly influenced by interactions between environmental extremes. (microbial-ecology.net)
  • Haloalkanes are widely used commercially and, consequently, are known under many chemical and. (absoluteastronomy.com)
  • atmosphere
  • One key finding comes from a paper online now in the journal Icarus that shows hydrogen molecules flowing down through Titan's atmosphere and disappearing at the surface. (nasa.gov)
  • The paper describes densities of hydrogen in different parts of the atmosphere and the surface. (nasa.gov)
  • This is about the same rate at which the molecules escape out of the upper atmosphere. (nasa.gov)
  • On Earth it is relatively rare-5.2 ppm by volume in the atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • The National Geographic wrote that the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is this high "for the first time in 55 years of measurement-and probably more than 3 million years of Earth history. (wikipedia.org)
  • fossil fuel
  • Most hydrogen is used near the site of its production, the two largest uses being fossil fuel processing (e.g., hydrocracking ) and ammonia production, mostly for the fertilizer market. (wikipedia.org)
  • Capturing CO2 is most effective at point sources, such as large fossil fuel or biomass energy facilities, industries with major CO2 emissions, natural gas processing, synthetic fuel plants and fossil fuel-based hydrogen production plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • microbial
  • Because most diversity and biomass on Earth is microbial, and thus difficult to measure, recorded extinction events affect the easily observed, biologically complex component of the biosphere rather than the total diversity and abundance of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • energy
  • The energy isn't stored directly, but the work-product of consuming energy (pumping away heat) is stored, having the equivalent effect on daytime consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interest in storing power from these intermittent sources grows as the renewable energy industry begins to generate a larger fraction of overall energy consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • having adapted
  • Prokaryotes are the dominant living creatures on Earth, having been present for perhaps three-quarters of Earth history and having adapted to almost all available ecological habitats. (academicroom.com)
  • adaptive radiation - closely related species that look very different, as a result of having adapted to widely different ecological niches. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coal
  • Fossil Fuels: Rape of Nature {Student name here} {Class name here} {Professor Name here} {Due Date} Fossil Fuels, which include coal, oil, and natural gas, are a non-renewable energy source that were formed from the decomposition of plants and animals that were deposited in the Earth around 300 million years ago. (zpkqsa.info)
  • Steam coal, a grade between bituminous coal and anthracite (It was once widely used as a fuel for steam locomotives. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flue gas from the combustion of coal in oxygen has a large concentration of CO2, about 10-15% CO2 whereas natural gas power plant flue gas is about 5-10% CO2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural gas is found in deep underground rock formations or associated with other hydrocarbon reservoirs in coal beds and as methane clathrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • It is also known that paramagnetic molecular oxygen undergoes a Heisenberg spin exchange interaction with stable radicals that extremely broadens the EPR signal 4-6 . (jove.com)
  • Recently, we reported interesting results where this interaction of molecular oxygen with a certain part of the existing stable radical structure can be reversibly affected simply by flowing a diamagnetic gas through the carbon samples at STP 7 . (jove.com)
  • Play media Hydrogen gas (dihydrogen or molecular hydrogen) is highly flammable and will burn in air at a very wide range of concentrations between 4% and 75% by volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • greenhouse
  • Oxidation of methane to CO2, which requires reactions with the OH radical, produces an instantaneous reduction in radiative absorption and emission since CO2 is a weaker greenhouse gas than methane, although CO2 has a longer lifetime. (wikipedia.org)
  • beds
  • Red beds' are geologic features containing highly oxidized iron (rust) indicative of high amounts of oxygen. (talkreason.org)
  • biomass
  • Because most diversity and biomass on Earth is microbial, and thus difficult to measure, recorded extinction events affect the easily observed, biologically complex component of the biosphere rather than the total diversity and abundance of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are approximately 5×1030 bacteria on Earth, forming a biomass which exceeds that of all plants and animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • amounts
  • Thick deposits of these rocks are found in rocks older than 2.5 bya years ago, indicating that essentially no oxygen (only trace amounts) was present. (talkreason.org)
  • different
  • 9) prohibits Not compact on a work is mere widely as an mitigation designers different from the Mac App Store, and that printing Integrates repeatedly concentrate a gradual couple behaviour. (lpq.com.mx)
  • adaptive radiation - closely related species that look very different, as a result of having adapted to widely different ecological niches. (wikipedia.org)
  • forms
  • The sum total of all life-forms on Earth and the interaction among those life-forms. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are present in most of its habitats. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ancestors of modern bacteria were unicellular microorganisms that were the first forms of life to appear on Earth, about 4 billion years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • make
  • The four-carbon molecule is an attractive replacement for petroleum-derived maleic anhydride, which is used to make foods, pharmaceuticals, detergents, plastics and clothing fibers. (issuu.com)
  • standard
  • It would raise the current renewable fuels standard (RFS) from 7.5 billion gallons of consumption by 2012 to 36 billion gallons by 2022. (issuu.com)