• Interactions
  • Reduced drug-HSA interactions could result in improved activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Silatecans or 7-silylcampthothecins have shown reduced drug-HSA interactions which contributes to its blood stability and they can also cross the blood brain barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ligand binding assays provide a measure of the interactions that occur between two molecules, such as protein-bindings, as well as the degree of affinity (weak, strong, or no connection) for which the reactants bind together. (wikipedia.org)
  • The idea that the effect of a drug in the human body is mediated by specific interactions of the drug molecule with biological macromolecules, (proteins or nucleic acids in most cases) led scientists to the conclusion that individual chemicals are required for the biological activity of the drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • anticancer drugs
  • The dolastatin series of unique peptides, originally discovered as constituents of the sea hare Dolabella auricularia, is of increasing importance in providing biological leads, especially to new and useful anticancer drugs. (nih.gov)
  • It was discovered in 1966 by M. E. Wall and M. C. Wani in systematic screening of natural products for anticancer drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligands
  • From a mechanistic perspective, the FR functions to concentrate exogenous ligands (e.g. folates and folate-drug conjugates) into the cell cytosol by endocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some newer types are called "mix-and-measure" assays because they do not require separation of bound ligands. (wikipedia.org)
  • metastatic
  • OBJECTIVES: I. Evaluate the proportion of patients with extreme, intermediate, and low drug resistance to paclitaxel using the Extreme Drug Resistance (EDR) Assay in patients with previously treated metastatic breast cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In addition, an in vivo experimental metastasis model also showed that treatment with the drugs resulted in a significantly lower number of metastatic pulmonary nodules relative to control mice. (nih.gov)
  • This was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in January 2005 for the treatment of breast cancer after failure of combination chemotherapy for metastatic disease or relapse within six months of adjuvant chemotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactions
  • Essential aspects of binding assays include, but are not limited to, the concentration level of reactants or products (see radioactive section), maintaining the equilibrium constant of reactants throughout the assay, and the reliability and validity of linked reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] A number of these side effects are associated with the excipient used, Cremophor EL, a polyoxyethylated castor oil, and allergies to cyclosporine, teniposide, and other drugs containing polyoxyethylated castor oil may indicate increased risk of adverse reactions to paclitaxel. (wikipedia.org)
  • paclitaxel
  • Assess response to paclitaxel therapy in patients who have undergone a pretreatment EDR assay. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Paclitaxel drug eluting coated stents for coronary artery placement are sold under the trade name Taxus by Boston Scientific in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paclitaxel drug eluting coated stents for femoropopliteal artery placement are sold under the trade name Zilver PTX by Cook Medical, Inc. Common side effects include nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite, change in taste, thinned or brittle hair, pain in the joints of the arms or legs lasting two to three days, changes in the color of the nails, and tingling in the hands or toes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paclitaxel is one of several cytoskeletal drugs that target tubulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • Mytomycin C (MC), an antibiotic produced by S. lavendulae, exhibits cytotoxicity when the activated drug covalently binds complementary strands of DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second locus (mrd) binds with MC as a complex which prevents drug activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yeast three-hybrid assays have shown that this protein binds to the stem loops within the 3'UTR of the POLB mRNA, however the exact mechanism in how this protein regulates gene expression is still to be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibit
  • mTOR inhibitors are a class of drugs that inhibit the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), which is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that belongs to the family of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) related kinases (PIKKs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Drugs that inhibit hepatic glucuronidation, such as indomethacin, nordazepam, acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and trimethoprim decreased the elimination rate and increased the therapeutic strength of the medication. (wikipedia.org)
  • involves
  • Modern drug discovery involves the identification of screening hits, medicinal chemistry and optimization of those hits to increase the affinity, selectivity (to reduce the potential of side effects), efficacy/potency, metabolic stability (to increase the half-life), and oral bioavailability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern drug discovery is thus usually a capital-intensive process that involves large investments by pharmaceutical industry corporations as well as national governments (who provide grants and loan guarantees). (wikipedia.org)
  • Discovering drugs that may be a commercial success, or a public health success, involves a complex interaction between investors, industry, academia, patent laws, regulatory exclusivity, marketing and the need to balance secrecy with communication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemotherapy may be given with a curative intent (which almost always involves combinations of drugs), or it may aim to prolong life or to reduce symptoms (palliative chemotherapy). (wikipedia.org)
  • Combination chemotherapy involves treating a patient with a number of different drugs simultaneously. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Hits from these screens are then tested in cells and then in animals for efficacy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of the side effects of chemotherapy can be traced to damage to normal cells that divide rapidly and are thus sensitive to anti-mitotic drugs: cells in the bone marrow, digestive tract and hair follicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • Despite advances in technology and understanding of biological systems, drug discovery is still a lengthy, "expensive, difficult, and inefficient process" with low rate of new therapeutic discovery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type
  • Testing patients' blood or bone marrow to find out if their type of cancer may be sensitive to a specific drug may help doctors choose more effective treatments. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • treatment
  • Treatment with RA caused an increase in the cytotoxicity of all 3 drugs to the 2 RA-sensitive cell lines. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Such advances provide researchers with the ability not only to quantify hormones and hormone receptors, but also to contribute important pharmacological information in drug development and treatment plans. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1989 the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved it for use the treatment of prostate cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Induction chemotherapy is the first line treatment of cancer with a chemotherapeutic drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Based on the natural high affinity of folate for the folate receptor protein (FR), which is commonly expressed on the surface of many human cancers, folate-drug conjugates also bind tightly to the FR and trigger cellular uptake via endocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • The ligand-binding assay methodology quantified the concentration of the hormone in the test material by comparing the effects of the test sample to the results of varying amounts of known protein (ligand). (wikipedia.org)
  • The drugs differ in their mechanism and side-effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Applications discussed range from measurement of slow oxidative degradation of polymers and instability of hazardous industrial chemicals to detection of bacteria in urine and evaluation of the effects of drugs on parasitic worms. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapy
  • Targeted drug therapy is advantageous because it deposits the drug at the specific location where it can be most useful in treating the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Importantly, the use of drugs (whether chemotherapy, hormonal therapy or targeted therapy) constitutes systemic therapy for cancer in that they are introduced into the blood stream and are therefore in principle able to address cancer at any anatomic location in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Combined modality chemotherapy is the use of drugs with other cancer treatments, such as surgery, radiation therapy, or hyperthermia therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemical
  • Therefore, in order to be sure what process or processes are producing the measured heat flow, great care must be taken in both experimental design and in the initial use of related chemical, physical and biologic assays. (wikipedia.org)
  • result
  • The foundations for which ligand binding assay have been built are a result of Karl Landsteiner, in 1945, and his work on immunization of animals through the production of antibodies for certain proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a direct result of these monumental findings, researchers have continued the advancement of ligand binding assays in many facets in the fields of biology, chemistry, and the like. (wikipedia.org)
  • target
  • In the 1990s there was a dramatic change in this field due to studies on the mechanism of action of rapamycin and the identification of the drug target. (wikipedia.org)
  • combination
  • AZT has been used for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in combination with another antiretroviral drug called lamivudine. (wikipedia.org)
  • method
  • Ligand binding assays (LBA) is an assay, or an analytic procedure, whose procedure or method relies on the binding of ligand molecules to receptors, antibodies or other macromolecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • effect
  • The effect of only 10 μM of each drug was assessed in CMT93 (panel C). (nih.gov)
  • Meanwhile, for disorders whose rarity means that no large commercial success or public health effect can be expected, the orphan drug funding process ensures that people who experience those disorders can have some hope of pharmacotherapeutic advances. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • Intensification chemotherapy is identical to consolidation chemotherapy but a different drug than the induction chemotherapy is used. (wikipedia.org)