• Africa
  • 70.5 KB) Moroccousafta a site about the Morocco/US Free Trade Agreement Surveys and Studies Human Rights Watch on Morocco "Genetic structure of north-west Africa" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Riley later went on to find fame with his published journal Sufferings in Africa, describing his experiences as a slave in the Moroccan Sahara. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because Islam became so prominent in North and West Africa, many of the trade routes and caravan networks were controlled by Muslim nations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Berlin Conference of 1884, which regulated European colonisation and trade in Africa, is usually referred to as the starting point of the scramble for Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • During a time when Britain's balance of trade showed a growing deficit, with shrinking and increasingly protectionist continental markets due to the Long Depression (1873-96), Africa offered Britain, Germany, France, and other countries an open market that would garner them a trade surplus: a market that bought more from the colonial power than it sold overall. (wikipedia.org)
  • The earliest known example of a fossil human skeleton found anywhere in West Africa, which is 13,000 years old, was found at Iwo-Eleru in western Nigeria and attests to the antiquity of habitation in the region. (wikipedia.org)
  • To the south, the Sahara is bounded by the Sahel, a belt of dry tropical savanna with a summer rainy season that extends across Africa from east to west. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later in the midst of Cold War tensions, the Arabic-speaking countries of Western Asia and Northern Africa saw the rise of pan-Arabism. (wikipedia.org)
  • During apartheid, the South African government aimed to establish Afrikaans as the primary lingua franca in South Africa and South African-controlled South-West Africa (now Namibia), although English was also in common use. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is spoken mainly by Fula people, but is also used as a lingua franca by several populations of various origin, throughout Western Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus trade deals in Timbuktu in modern Mali, Agadez, Ghat, Fez in Northern Africa, and other trade centers were often concluded in Hausa. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first agriculture in Africa began in the heart of the Sahara Desert, which in 5200 BC was far more moist and densely populated than today. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the centuries the entire southern half of Africa was covered with the group, excluding only the Kalahari desert. (wikipedia.org)
  • 15th century
  • From the 8th through the 15th century, black kingdoms of the western Sudan, such as Ghana, Mali, and Songhai, brought their political culture from the south. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Portuguese established the first firm post-Middle Ages European settlements, trade posts, permanent fortifications and ports of call along the coast of the African continent, from the beginning of the Age of Discovery during the 15th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the early 15th century, a new power had arisen in western Anatolia, the Ottoman emirs, linguistically Turkic and religiously Islamic, who in 1453 captured the Christian Byzantine capital of Constantinople and made themselves sultans. (wikipedia.org)
  • slaves
  • Today Willshire is best remembered as the man who redeemed, cared for and helped repatriate hundreds of Western sailors enslaved in the Sultanate of Morocco during the early part of the 19th century, including Captain James Riley, Robert Adams, and Captain Alexander Scott, all of whom would later write and publish harrowing accounts of their hardships endured as slaves in the desert. (wikipedia.org)
  • For eight hundred years, black slaves and concubines were transported through the same remote desert villages. (newyorker.com)
  • and the role of various individuals and groups-including merchants, planters, bureaucrats, and colonial, national, and imperial governments, and slaves themselves-in retarding or accelerating the process. (blogspot.com)
  • The U.S. government passed less sweeping legislation in 1808 banning further import of slaves. (blogspot.com)
  • Maghreb
  • The Muslim conquest of the Maghreb in the 7th and 8th centuries did not reach as far south, and Islam came to Mauritania only gradually, from about the 11th century, in the context of the wider Islamization of the Sudan and medieval Arab slave trade. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the botanical criteria of Frank White and geographer Robert Capot-Rey, the northern limit of the Sahara corresponds to the northern limit of date palm cultivation and the southern limit of the range of esparto, a grass typical of the Mediterranean climate portion of the Maghreb and Iberia. (wikipedia.org)
  • caravan
  • Beginning slowly through contacts with Berber and Arab merchants engaged in the important caravan trades and rapidly advancing through the Almoravid conquests, Islamization did not take firm hold until the arrival of Yemeni Arabs in the 12th and 13th centuries and was not complete until several centuries later. (wikipedia.org)
  • You can purchase crafts in markets, venture into the Sahara with a Tuareg caravan, visit pygmy villages, hike through jungle to watch gorillas, relax on tropical islands in the Indian Ocean, snack on exotic treats, travel down a river in a dugout "pirogue", travel across savanna on a colonial-era railway, and much more. (wikitravel.org)
  • Our caravan of cars crisscrossed the city of Laayoune each day, ferrying us to and from meetings with government officials, human right activists, and former political prisoners. (wrkf.org)
  • Berber
  • Archaeologists have found that evidence of trade in luxury items like metals and shells across the entirety of the continent were the main trades of the Berber people, lived in dry areas and became nomadic herders, while in the savannah grasslands, cultivated crops and thus permanent settlement were possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mali
  • While trade along the Trans-Sahara trade route was common in the 14th century, it was highly dependent on the powerful African Empires, such as the Mali Empire, Kingdom of Kongo, Benin Kingdom, Hausa City-states, Great Zimbabwe, Ethiopian Empire, Kilwa Sultanat, and the Ajuran Sultanate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1352-53, Ibn Battuta embarked on a pilgrimage from Morocco to the Mali empire. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 10th-15th centuries the major empires of Ghana, Mali, and Songhay influenced many of the trade practices. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fula is spoken in all countries directly south of the Sahara (such as Cameroon, Chad, Nigeria, Niger, Mali. (wikipedia.org)
  • Issuu
  • If you see a name in our Alumni News page here on Issuu, that person's notes will be available in our password protected online class notes at www.myfdu.net. (issuu.com)
  • arid
  • The British explorer Pat Clayton, engaged in mapping areas of previously unmapped desert, encountered the Kufra refugees when running triangulation from Wadi Halfa to Uweinat, and helped save many from death in the arid desert. (wikipedia.org)
  • slave
  • Far more consequential for the eventual abolition of slavery in the Western Hemisphere was the Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade passed by the British parliament in 1807, and put into effect in 1808, outlawing the transatlantic slave trade. (blogspot.com)
  • The law also authorized the British navy to suppress the slave trade among all slave traffickers, making Britain, in effect, the policeman of the high seas. (blogspot.com)
  • Three years later, the British parliament made participation in the slave trade a felony. (blogspot.com)
  • Some historians have emphasized the rise of a religion and Enlightenment inspired antislavery and humanitarian impulse among Quakers, evangelical Methodists, Unitarians, and others in providing the impetus behind the British abolition of the slave trade. (blogspot.com)
  • Ironically, while the 1807 law made Britain the first nation to outlaw the transatlantic slave trade, from the mid-1600s leading British economic interests had also been one of the main motors behind, and beneficiaries of, the slave trade. (blogspot.com)
  • Chad
  • The highest peak in the Sahara is Emi Koussi, a shield volcano in the Tibesti range of northern Chad. (wikipedia.org)
  • fisheries
  • Mr. Ash played a leading role in the merger of the former Trade and Agriculture directorates in 2006, serving to reinvigorate the key policy contributions of the OECD in the areas of trade, agriculture and fisheries. (fao.org)
  • Mr. Ash currently leads OECD efforts to develop and communicate evidence-based advice to governments, with the aim at helping them improve the domestic and international performance of their policies in the areas of trade, agriculture and fisheries. (fao.org)
  • authorities
  • The press is mostly state controled even though there are free newspapers , and clampdowns have occurred following criticism of the authorities or articles concerning the [[Western Sahara]] situation. (wikitravel.org)
  • precious metals
  • Archaeologists have found that evidence of trade in luxury items like precious metals and shells across the entirety of the continent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Campaign
  • It also played a minor role in the Western Desert Campaign of World War II. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virtually all Western countries cut off diplomatic relations with Gaddafi's government over an aerial bombing campaign in February and March, and a number of other countries led by Peru and Botswana did likewise. (wikipedia.org)
  • barrier
  • While the Sahara Desert was often viewed as a barrier between the African countries, it actually linked them together rather than separated them. (wikipedia.org)
  • The drying of the Sahara created a formidable barrier between the northern and southern portions of the continent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jordan
  • It is usually considered to include the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, Israel, and in some definitions, some parts of western Jordan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Economy
  • As such, the majority of the economical activity of Western Sahara happens in the framework of the economy of Morocco. (wikipedia.org)
  • In relation to the huge U.S. economy, the free trade agreement is expected to have a positive, but small overall effect on the U.S. The Office of the U.S. Trade Representative (USTR) has said that the agreement with Morocco is the "best market access package to date of any U.S. free trade agreement signed with a developing country. (wikipedia.org)
  • among
  • As of 2005, in terms of U.S. dollars, Morocco was ranked 89th among U.S. trading importers and 79th among U.S. exporters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Six years of experience in Bhutan, Kyrgyzstan and Afghanistan among others as senior manager of the Kyrgyz Swiss Agriculture Program of the Kyrgyz and Swiss Governments in collaboration with the World Bank and IFAD. (fao.org)
  • agricultural
  • Most notably, in Morocco, there has been concern regarding the reduction in tariffs for agricultural products and the increase in intellectual property and patent standards. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Nubia and Ethiopia, iron, trade, and agricultural surpluses lead to the establishment of cities and civilizations. (wikipedia.org)
  • south
  • Panhard's initial licensing contract with the South African government extended to the local assembly or manufacture of up to 1,000 AMLs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trains go also to Tozeur and Gabes in the south where it is easy to access the Sahara and Ksour regions respectively. (wikitravel.org)
  • African
  • Desertec is an energy project launched in Munich in 2009, consisting on the use of solar and wind technology in the Sahara desert, with the aim to provide that energy generated to African and European countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Morocco is an African country currently a member of the African Union. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 12th through the 16th centuries were known as the "golden age" of trade, when West African gold was in high demand. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the end of the 10th century, Islam had spread to many of the Northern and Western African empires. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequently, the companies involved in tropical African commerce were relatively small, apart from Cecil Rhodes's De Beers Mining Company. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many members of the international community, including the United Nations, the Arab League, and the African Union, explicitly recognized the anti-Gaddafi National Transitional Council as Libya's legitimate representative, with many of those countries explicitly describing it as the legal interim government of the country due to the perceived loss of legitimacy on the part of Gaddafi's regime. (wikipedia.org)
  • African Union - The Chairman of the African Union Commission Jean Ping said the AU was in contact with the Libyan government and that it condemned the crackdown against protesters. (wikipedia.org)
  • They also rejected a no-fly zone and any intervention by Western powers, but supported an "African solution" of reform. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaches
  • The northern and southern reaches of the desert, along with the highlands, have areas of sparse grassland and desert shrub, with trees and taller shrubs in wadis, where moisture collects. (wikipedia.org)
  • large
  • Most of the companies are large ones such as 3M, BF Goodrich, American Express, Caterpillar, just to name a few. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agriculture supported large towns, and eventually large trade networks developed between the towns. (wikipedia.org)
  • time
  • At this time we don't anticipate any production interruptions at our facility in Alberta (Redwater)," the company said. (reuters.com)
  • Passage
  • Passage of this bill strengthened Morocco - United States relations economically. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is located in a particularly isolated area, not only because it is in the middle of the Sahara Desert but also because it is surrounded on three sides by depressions which make it dominate the passage in east-west land traffic across the desert. (wikipedia.org)
  • date
  • date= (help) "Inversoras venden acciones Kerr-McGee por conflicto Sahara" (in Spanish). (wikipedia.org)
  • 2014 is the date of expiration of a contract between Sonatrach and the Turkish company BOTAŞ. (wikipedia.org)
  • ports
  • Some days we sped out into the desert to visit ports, a mine and a sardine cannery. (wrkf.org)
  • less
  • This translates to U.S. trade with Morocco at less than .1% of its total imports and exports. (wikipedia.org)
  • The town is a nice example of modern Morocco, with less emphasis on history and culture. (wikitravel.org)
  • If all areas with a mean annual precipitation of less than 250 mm were included, the Sahara would be 11 million square kilometres (4,200,000 sq mi). (wikipedia.org)
  • years
  • Upon joining the OECD Mr. Ash brought with him 20 years of extensive experience from the Government of Canada where he held several senior positions in Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. (fao.org)
  • countries
  • The agreement is aimed at increasing trade and creating new investment opportunities between the two countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arab
  • The United Nations Security Council has called for fresh negotiations between Morocco and the Polisario, which runs its self-declared Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic or SADR. (reuters.com)
  • The foreign policy of independent Morocco has often differed from that of its Arab neighbours. (wikitravel.org)
  • annually
  • According to climatic criteria, the southern limit of the Sahara corresponds to the 150 mm (5.9 in) isohyet of annual precipitation (this is a long-term average, since precipitation varies annually). (wikipedia.org)
  • national
  • The first formal abolition of slavery in the Western Hemisphere came not from a national government but from state legislatures in New England and the Mid-Atlantic states of the not-yet-independent United States of America. (blogspot.com)