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  • Chlorophyceae
  • nov.: a new coccoid green alga with a flagella of considerably unequal lengths from a saline irrigation land in Kazakhstan (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta). (algaebase.org)
  • Viridiplantae Chlorophyta core chlorophytes Ulvophyceae Cladophorales Dasycladales Bryosidales Trentepohliales Ulvales-Ulotrichales Oltmannsiellopsidales Chlorophyceae Oedogoniales Chaetophorales Chaetopeltidiales Chlamydomonadales Sphaeropleales Trebouxiophyceae Chlorellales Oocystaceae Microthamniales Trebouxiales Prasiola clade Chlorodendrophyceae prasinophytes (paraphyletic) Pyramimonadales Mamiellophyceae Pycnococcaceae Nephroselmidophyceae Prasinococcales Palmophyllales Streptophyta charophytes Mesostigmatophyceae Chlorokybophyceae Klebsormidiophyceae Charophyceae Zygnematophyceae Coleochaetophyceae Embryophyta (land plants) A possible classification when Chlorophyta refers to one of the two clades of the Viridiplantae is shown below. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2012. Viridiplantae Chlorophyta core chlorophytes Ulvophyceae Cladophorales Dasycladales Bryopsidales Trentepohliales Ulvales-Ulotrichales Oltmannsiellopsidales Chlorophyceae Oedogoniales Chaetophorales Chaetopeltidales Chlamydomonadales Sphaeropleales Trebouxiophyceae Chlorellales Oocystaceae Microthamniales Trebouxiales Prasiola clade Chlorodendrophyceae Pedinophyceae prasinophytes (paraphyletic) Pyramimonadales Mamiellophyceae Pycnococcaceae Nephroselmidophyceae Prasinococcales Palmophyllales Streptophyta Charophyta Mesostigmatophyceae Chlorokybophyceae Klebsormidiophyceae Charophyceae Zygnematophyceae Coleochaetophyceae Embryophyta (land plants) Cladogram Below is a consensus reconstruction of green algal relationships, mainly based on molecular data. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of the class Chlorophyceae undergo closed mitosis in the most common form of cell division among the green algae, which occurs via a phycoplast. (wikipedia.org)
  • brown algae
  • Diatoms are much more common than golden-brown algae and consist of many types of plankton found in the ocean. (thoughtco.com)
  • Golden-brown algae, though fewer in number, rival the productivity of diatoms in the ocean. (thoughtco.com)
  • the group is likely closely related to the brown algae (class Phaeophyceae). (britannica.com)
  • Brown algae vary in form and size. (britannica.com)
  • There is good evidence that some of these algal groups arose independently from separate non-photosynthetic ancestors, with the result that the brown algae, for example, are no longer classified within the plant kingdom as it is defined here. (wikipedia.org)
  • fungi
  • Several species of Chlorophyta live in symbiosis with a diverse range of eukaryotes, including fungi (to form lichens), ciliates, forams, cnidarians and molluscs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress. (wikipedia.org)
  • however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria). (wikipedia.org)
  • Since then, it has become clear that the plant kingdom as originally defined included several unrelated groups, and the fungi and several groups of algae were removed to new kingdoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Like animal cells , other euglenoids are heterotrophic and feed on carbon-rich material found in the water and other unicellular organisms. (thoughtco.com)
  • Scientists now believe that these organisms have acquired this ability due to endosymbiotic relationships with photosynthetic green algae. (thoughtco.com)
  • These organisms live together, and each cell in the colony is the same. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primitive cells, often referred to as protocells, are the precursors to today's unicellular organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • 6) Why has genome reduction accompanied the early diversification of the Chlorophyta and how many times have picoplanktonic organisms evolved within this lineage? (google.com)
  • Yellow-green algae vary in form and size from single-celled organisms to small filamentous forms or simple colonies. (britannica.com)
  • hairlike structure that acts primarily as an organelle of locomotion in the cells of many living organisms. (britannica.com)
  • Algae comprise several different groups of organisms which produce energy through photosynthesis and for that reason have been included in the plant kingdom in the past. (wikipedia.org)
  • A few other organisms rely on green algae to conduct photosynthesis for them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Green algae are eukaryotic organisms that follow a reproduction cycle called alternation of generations. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryophytes
  • Becker B, Marin B (2009) Streptophyte algae and the origin of embryophytes. (springer.com)
  • 9) What is the likely sister group to the embryophytes in the streptophyte algae? (google.com)
  • The unique habit among the algae of protecting the overwintering zygote within the tissues of the parent gametophyte is one of several characteristics of Coleochaetales that suggest that they are a sister group to the embryophytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, cladistically, embryophytes belong to green algae as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the realization that the embryophytes emerged from within the green algae, some authors are starting to include them. (wikipedia.org)
  • plants
  • Proteins are also found in algal cell walls including highly glycosylated and hydroxyproline-rich forms, some of which have structural semblance to extensins and arabinogalactan proteins of land plants. (springer.com)
  • Photosynthetic biofuels" directly link the biosynthesis of energy-rich, storable, transportation-friendly, and fuel infrastructure-compatible metabolites to photosynthesis, using land plants, eukaryotic microalgae or cyanobacteria as cell factories to yield a sustainable and potentially carbon-neutral source of fuels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This is because plants are believed to have evolved from the green algae. (wisc.edu)
  • 4 . One class of the Chlorophyta, the Charaphycean green algae, undergoes cytokinesis, like plants, through the creation of a cell plate mediated by a phragmoplast. (wisc.edu)
  • In the group cell division is associated with a phragmoplast as we have seen in plants. (wisc.edu)
  • The large algae are generally referred to as simple aquatic plants. (thoughtco.com)
  • Unlike angiosperms and higher plants, algae lack vascular tissue and do not possess roots, stems, leaves, or flowers . (thoughtco.com)
  • A. There is a greater difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells than between the cells of plants and animals. (angelfire.com)
  • In the 19th and 20th centuries, new techniques were developed for the study of plants, including methods of optical microscopy and live cell imaging, electron microscopy, analysis of chromosome number, plant chemistry and the structure and function of enzymes and other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Watermelon Snow: A Strange Phenomenon Caused by Algal Cells of The Chlorophyta" Wayne's Word Noteworthy Plants: Aug 1998. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chara plants are rough to the touch because of deposited calcium salts on the cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorella
  • D. H. Northcote, K. J. Goulding, and R. W. Horne, "The chemical composition and structure of the cell wall of Chlorella pyrenoidosa ," The Biochemical Journal , vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 391-397, 1958. (hindawi.com)
  • T. Yamada and K. Sakaguchi, "Comparative studies on Chlorella cell walls: induction of protoplast formation," Archives of Microbiology , vol. 132, no. 1, pp. 10-13, 1982. (hindawi.com)
  • H. Takeda and T. Hirokawa, "Studies on the cell wall of Chlorella I. Quantitative changes in cell wall polysaccharides during the cell cycle of Chlorella ellipsoidea ," Plant and Cell Physiology , vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 591-598, 1978. (hindawi.com)
  • J. C. Ogbonna and H. Tanaka, "Night biomass loss and changes in biochemical composition of cells during light/dark cyclic culture of Chlorella pyrenoidosa ," Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering , vol. 82, no. 6, pp. 558-564, 1996. (hindawi.com)
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  • Prototheca has been thought to be a mutant of Chlorella, a type of single-celled green alga. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, while Chlorella contains galactose and galactosamine in the cell wall, Prototheca lacks these. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlamydomonas
  • Adair WS, Snell WJ (1990) The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cell wall: structure, biochemistry and molecular biology. (springer.com)
  • Dunaliella is morphologically similar to Chlamydomonas, with the main difference being the absence of a cell wall in Dunaliella . (fao.org)
  • Chlamydomonas nivalis is a green alga that owes its red color to a bright red carotenoid pigment, which protects the chloroplast from intense visible and also ultraviolet radiation, as well as absorbing heat, which provides the alga with liquid water as the snow melts around it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular phylogeny and taxonomic revision of Chlamydomonas (Chlorophyta). (wikipedia.org)
  • polysaccharides
  • The cell walls of most algae consist of a framework of fibrillar polysaccharides that are embedded in a matrix composed of neutral and charged polysaccharides along with various proteins, phenolics and complexed cations. (springer.com)
  • These load-bearing fibrillar components are inserted in complex networks of polysaccharides that include hemicelluloses and polyanionic polymers such as pectins, alginates, fucoidans and the sulfated galactans of red algae, agar and carageenan. (springer.com)
  • Characteristics used for the classification of Chlorophyta are: type of zoid, mitosis (karyokynesis), cytokinesis, organization level, life cycle, type of gametes, cell wall polysaccharides and more recently genetic data. (wikipedia.org)
  • aplanospores
  • Under certain conditions they may also develop into a palmella stage and become embedded in a thick layer of mucilage, or they may form aplanospores with a thick, rough wall. (fao.org)
  • spherical
  • Cells in any given species may change shape with changing conditions, often becoming spherical under unfavorable conditions. (fao.org)
  • Streptophyte
  • 10) What were the changes in the transcriptome that accompanied the evolution of multicellularity, the phragmoplast, apical growth, gravitropism and plasmodesmata in the streptophyte green algae? (google.com)
  • consist
  • The reproductive organs consist of antheridia and oogonia, though the structures of these organs differ considerably from the corresponding organs in other algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both consist of a single layer of cells coated on the outside with slime and are reminiscent of epithelial tissue, primarily due to the junctions-belt desmosomes-between the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • gametes
  • Algae that reproduce sexually are generally induced to produce gametes when certain environmental stimuli - including temperature, salinity, and nutrients - become unfavorable. (thoughtco.com)
  • accumulate
  • Oleaginous algae accumulate storage carbon and energy in the form of neutral lipids, mainly triacylglycerols (TAG), which need to be extracted from intracellular oil bodies by disrupting the cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The algae sometimes accumulate in "sun cups", which are shallow depressions in the snow. (wikipedia.org)