• bacteria
  • This is done by transforming plant cells in culture, selecting transformed cells and regenerating an entire plant from the transformed cell (e.g. tobacco) When the bacteria with the desired, implanted gene are grown, they are made containing a selector. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PAS domain was named after the three proteins in which it was first discovered: Per - period circadian protein Arnt - aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator protein Sim - single-minded protein Since the initial discovery of the PAS domain, a large quantity of PAS domain binding sites have been discovered in bacteria and eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • nonpathogenic) axenic autoecious bacilliform bacterial streaming bactericide bacteriocin bacteriophage bacterium (pl. bacteria) bactericide basal knob (syn. (wikipedia.org)
  • FMLP), are products of the protein synthesis conducted by bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • They stimulate granulocytes to migrate directionally (see chemotaxis) and become active in engulfing (see phagocytosis) and killing bacteria and thereby contribute to host defense by directing the innate immune response of acute inflammation to sites of bacterial invasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • This non-coding RNA was discovered in the bacteria Escherichia coli during a large scale computational screen for transcription signals and genomic features of known small RNA-encoding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • oligopeptides
  • In further studies of various N-formylated oligopeptides, FMLP proved the most potent in stimulating rabbit neutrophil chemotaxis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Accordingly, the human leukocyte cell line, HL-60 promyelocytes (which do not respond to FMLP), was purposely differentiated to granulocytes (which do respond to FMLP) and used to partially purify and clone a gene that when transfected into FMLP-unresponsive cells bestowed responsiveness to this and other N-formyl oligopeptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • The malE gene codes for a precursor polypeptide (396 amino acid residues) which yields the mature MBP (370 residues) upon cleavage of the NH2-terminal extension (26 residues). (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene codes for a 127-amino acid CCL28 protein with a 22-amino acid N-terminal signal peptide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Formyl
  • Given these clues and knowledge that bactera transcribe (see Transcription (genetics)) proteins starting with N-Formylmethionine whereas eukaryotic cells mostly initiate protein synthesis with non-formylated methionine, Schiffmann, Corcoran, and Wahl theorized and then showed that N-formyl-methionine and a series N-formyl-methionyl dipeptides and tripeptides stimulated the chemotaxis of neutrophils isolated from rabbit peritoneal exudates as well as of macrophages isolated from guinea pig peritoneal exudates. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptides
  • The 3'-OH terminal insertions were used to create fusion proteins and develop the use of MBP as an affinity handle for the purification of foreign proteins and peptides by affinity chromatography on cross-linked amylose and elution with maltose in mild physico-chemical conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • and the genes encoding for the synthesis of opines. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1998). Different chromosomal-determined genetic elements have shown their functional role in the attachment of A. tumefaciens to the plant cell and bacterial colonization: the loci chvA and chvB, involved in the synthesis and excretion of the b -1,2 glucan (Cangelosi et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomes
  • Robustness can be empirically measured for several genomes and individual genes by inducing mutations and measuring what proportion of mutants retain the same phenotype, function or fitness. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic
  • In the last two decades, it was discovered that the archaeal flagella, although functionally similar to bacterial and eukaryotic flagella, structurally resemble bacterial type IV pili. (wikipedia.org)
  • pili
  • Bacterial type IV pili are surface structures that can be extended and retracted and are used to adhere to or move on solid surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, the structure of the archaellum filament resembles type IV pili as it has no central lumen excluding the possibility that it might assembled in a similar fashion like bacterial flagella via a type III secretion system. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulator
  • Response regulator proteins typically consist of a receiver domain and one or more effector domains, although in some cases they possess only a receiver domain and exert their effects through protein-protein interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a common variation on this theme, called a phosphorelay, a hybrid histidine kinase possesses its own receiver domain, and a histidine phosphotransfer protein performs the final transfer to a response regulator. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples include the chemotaxis regulator CheB, with a methylesterase domain that is inhibited when the response regulator is in the inactive unphosphorylated conformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • ArcZ is an Hfq binding RNA that functions as an antisense regulator of a number of protein coding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • ArcZ has been shown to strongly bind the global post-transcriptional regulator protein Hfq. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • It is a complex regulatory and transport system involving many proteins and protein complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The central feature of the cell cycle regulation is a cyclical genetic circuit-a cell cycle engine -- that is centered around the successive interactions of five master regulatory proteins: DnaA, GcrA, CtrA, SciP, and CcrM. (wikipedia.org)
  • The five master regulatory proteins are synthesized and then eliminated from the cell one after the other over the course of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • Serine/threonine-protein kinase 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the STK3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In enzymology, a protein-glutamate O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.80) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction S-adenosyl-L-methionine + protein L-glutamate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + protein L-glutamate methyl ester Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are S-adenosyl methionine and protein L-glutamic acid, whereas its two products are S-adenosylhomocysteine and protein L-glutamate methyl ester. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is S-adenosyl-L-methionine:protein-L-glutamate O-methyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • interactions
  • Due to this velcro capability, the PAS domain has been shown as the key structural motif involved in protein-protein interactions of the circadian clock, and it is also a common motif found in signaling proteins, where it functions as a signaling sensor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The defective exports of the mutant MBPs are consistent with the alpha-helical conformation and hydrophobic interactions of the signal peptide in its interaction with the translocon motor protein SecA. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterium
  • Outside the T-DNA, are located the genes for the opine catabolism, the genes involved in the process of T-DNA transfer from the bacterium to the plant cell and the genes involved in bacterium-bacterium plasmid conjugative transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli
  • For example, >95% of point mutations in C. elegans have no detectable effect and even 90% of single gene knockouts in E. coli are non-lethal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The malE gene, coding for MBP, belongs to the Mal regulon of E. coli, which consists of ten genes whose products are geared for the efficient uptake and utilization of maltose and maltodextrins. (wikipedia.org)
  • All the gene involved in the transport of maltose/maltodextrin, including malE, are clustered in the malB region of E. coli and organized in two divergent operons: malE-malF-malG and malK-lamB. (wikipedia.org)
  • MBP is used to increase the solubility of recombinant proteins expressed in E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • orthologous
  • p>An evidence describes the source of an annotation, e.g. an experiment that has been published in the scientific literature, an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc. (uniprot.org)
  • Transcription
  • This induces a conformational change that alters the function of the effector domains, usually resulting in increased transcription of target genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • locus
  • and the att locus, which is involved in the cell surface proteins (Matthysse, 1987). (wikipedia.org)
  • Most proteins that make up the archaellum are encoded within one genetic locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • This genetic locus contains 7-13 genes which encode proteins involved in either assembly or function of the archaellum. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genetic locus contains genes encoding archaellins (flaA and flaB) - the structural components of the filament - and core components (flaI, flaJ, flaH). (wikipedia.org)
  • Generally
  • Generally, the bacterial species that divides fastest will be most effective at exploiting resources and effectively occupying ecological niches. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas most of the fla-associated genes are generally found in Euryarchaeota, one or more of these genes are absent from the fla-operon in Crenarchaeota. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotes
  • The various aspects of the role of DNA methylation in prokaryotic restriction-modification systems and in a number of cellular processes in eukaryotes including gene regulation and differentiation is well documented. (wikipedia.org)
  • effector
  • This chemokine is constitutively expressed in the colon, but its levels can be increased by pro-inflammatory cytokines and certain bacterial products implying a role in effector cell recruitment to sites of epithelial injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • Protein structural robustness results from few single mutations being sufficiently disruptive to compromise function. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other four families are porins, iron transporters, flagellum-associated proteins, and proteins of unknown function. (wikipedia.org)
  • In spite of the structural dissimilarities with the bacterial flagellum, the main function thus far attributed for archaellum is swimming in liquid and semi-solid surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • A gene that makes the cells resistant to an antibiotic such as the antibiotics kanamycin, ampicillin, spectinomycin or tetracyclin, is an easy selector to use. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ti plasmid also contains the genes for opine catabolism produced by the crown gall cells, and regions for conjugative transfer and for its own integrity and stability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein kinase activation is a frequent response of cells to treatment with growth factors, chemicals, heat shock, or apoptosis-inducing agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein kinase activation presumably allows cells to resist unfavorable environmental conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • C-di-GMP, cyclic diguanosine monophosphate, the second messenger in cells, is widespread in and unique to the bacterial kingdom. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • Proteins so far investigated have shown a tolerance to mutations of roughly 66% (i.e. two thirds of mutations are neutral). (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, genetic redundancy reduces the effect of mutations in any one copy of a multi-copy gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • LAD1 is caused by mutations in the ITGB2 gene which are inherited autorecessively. (wikipedia.org)