• Africa
  • To the north, the Sahara skirts the Mediterranean Sea in Egypt and portions of Libya, but in Cyrenaica and the Maghreb, the Sahara borders the Mediterranean forest, woodland, and scrub eco-regions of northern Africa, all of which have a Mediterranean climate characterized by hot summers and cool and rainy winters. (wikipedia.org)
  • To the south, the Sahara is bounded by the Sahel, a belt of dry tropical savanna with a summer rainy season that extends across Africa from east to west. (wikipedia.org)
  • Asharq Al-Awsat reported - citing unnamed Libyan sources in Tripoli and Benghazi, Western diplomatic sources in Cairo, Tripoli and Tunis, and vaguely described "Arab sources" - that Gaddafi was suffering from an "incurable illness" and was attempting to negotiate a voluntary exile for himself and his family in South Africa under the protection of South African President Jacob Zuma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sonatrach, the national oil company, is the largest company in Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arabic: ليبيا‎, Berber: Libya or Libu), officially the State of Libya (Arabic: دولة ليبيا‎ Dawlat Lībyā),[citation needed] is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south, and Algeria and Tunisia to the west. (wikipedia.org)
  • His principal foreign policy goals were Arab unity, elimination of Israel, advancement of Islam, support for Palestinians, elimination of outside-particularly Western-influence in the Middle East and Africa, and support for a range of "revolutionary" causes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The current efforts to elect a new Chair of the AU Commission have been caught in the crosswinds of the impact of illicit capital outflows, the question of reseating Morocco in the AU and the challenges that Africa will face during a period of the ascendancy of the ideas of Donald Trump and Marie Le Pen. (pambazuka.org)
  • تشاد ‎ Tshād ), officially known as the Republic of Chad , is a landlocked country in central Africa . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Lake Chad , after which the country is named, is the largest wetland in Chad and the second largest in Africa. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The country's place name Sudan is a name given to a geographical region to the south of the Sahara, stretching from Western Africa to eastern Central Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • The earliest known example of a fossil human skeleton found anywhere in West Africa, which is 13,000 years old, was found at Iwo-Eleru in western Nigeria and attests to the antiquity of habitation in the region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Information is lacking from the first millennium AD following the Nok ascendancy, but by the 2nd millennium there was active trade from North Africa through the Sahara to the forest, with the people of the savanna acting as intermediaries in exchanges of various goods. (wikipedia.org)
  • South Africa, a keen user of the type, performed their own major modification and production program conducted by the government-owned Atlas Aircraft to upgrade their own Pumas, the resulting aircraft was named Oryx. (wikipedia.org)
  • While scientific and public opinion world-wide is fiercely divided about the safety of genetically-modified crops, South Africa, like the United States, is a country where the dominance of large-scale commercial agriculture linked to global seed supply companies has meant an open door for this controversial technology. (africafocus.org)
  • The African Centre for Biosafety (ACB) has today released its new research report titled 'GM Maize: Lessons For Africa-Cartels, Collusion And Control Of South Africa's Staple Food' showing how a select group of companies, including Tiger Brands, Pioneer and Premier Foods who have previously fixed the price of bread and maize meal, commandeer the entire maize value chain and continue to squeeze the poorest South Africans. (africafocus.org)
  • The report shows that the South African government, through the Public Investment Corporation (PIC) is the largest investor in Tiger Brands, and that over 50% of the company's shares are held outside South Africa. (africafocus.org)
  • Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Sahel is the transitional zone in between the Sahara and the tropical savanna of the Sudan region and farther south the forest-savanna mosaic of tropical Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since probably 3500 BCE, the Saharan and Sub-Saharan regions of Africa have been separated by the extremely harsh climate of the sparsely populated Sahara, forming an effective barrier interrupted by only the Nile in Sudan, though the Nile was blocked by the river's cataracts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Sahara pump theory explains how flora and fauna (including Homo sapiens) left Africa to penetrate the Middle East and beyond. (wikipedia.org)
  • Commentators in Arabic in the medieval period used the general term bilâd as-sûdân ("Land of the Blacks") for the vast Sudan region (an expression denoting West and Central Africa), or sometimes extending from the coast of West Africa to Western Sudan. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Sahel shoots across all of Africa at a latitude of about 10° to 15° N. Countries that include parts of the Sahara Desert proper in their northern territories and parts of the Sahel in their southern region include Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Chad and Sudan. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Karoo is a semi-desert in western South Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sudan
  • Despite this, Soleillet found himself the spokesman for groups interested in a Trans-Saharan railway, and was subsidized to make an expedition from Senegal into the Western Sudan in 1878. (wikipedia.org)
  • In October 1871 Soleillet wrote to the Minister of Public Works about bringing trade from the Central Sahara and West Sudan to the Algerian markets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, the Darfur crisis in Sudan has spilt over the border and destabilised the nation , with hundreds of thousands of Sudanese refugees living in and around camps in eastern Chad. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The 20th century saw the growth of Sudanese nationalism and in 1953 Britain granted Sudan self-government. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since independence, Sudan has been ruled by a series of unstable parliamentary governments and military regimes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differences in language, religion, ethnicity and political power erupted in an unending civil war between government forces, strongly influenced by the National Islamic Front (NIF) and the southern rebels, whose most influential faction is the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Security Council President issued a statement on Sudan yesterday in which he calls on the Sudanese Government of National Unity to facilitate immediately the visit of the joint UN and African Union technical assessment mission to Darfur. (un.org)
  • Algeria
  • After a short private expedition into the interior of Algeria he managed to raise support for a more ambitious expedition to In-Salah in 1874 to open a commercial center in the central Sahara. (wikipedia.org)
  • There he gained the friendship of Auguste Warnier, the Deputy for Algeria, who introduced him to General Hippolyte Mircher (1820-78), another specialist in the Sahara. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tripoli
  • This period of the war was its endgame, with Muammar Gaddafi's defensive perimeter around Greater Tripoli collapsing and his government ultimately being routed from Tripoli. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the war entered its momentous final days, the last remaining stronghold of government loyalists was the city of Sirte, which Gaddafi declared to be the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya's new capital after the fall of Tripoli. (wikipedia.org)
  • As NTC forces encircled Tripoli, effectively cutting it off, an anonymous Russian diplomat stated that Russia was "deeply disturbed" by the NATO campaign, referring to "the destruction of infrastructure and especially power supplies on territory controlled by the government. (wikipedia.org)
  • After UN-led peace talks between the Tobruk and Tripoli governments, a unified interim UN-backed Government of National Accord was established in 2015, and the GNC disbanded to support it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Egypt
  • During the 1970s and 1980s, Libya's unsuccessful border conflicts with Egypt and Chad, support for foreign militants, and alleged responsibility for the Lockerbie bombing left it increasingly isolated on the international stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Niger
  • The Hausa Kingdoms were a collection of states started by the Hausa people, situated between the Niger River and Lake Chad. (wikipedia.org)
  • Libyan
  • After the 1969 coup d'état, U.S.-Libyan relations became increasingly strained because of Libya's foreign policies supporting international terrorism and subversion against moderate Arab and African governments. (wikipedia.org)
  • In May 1981, the U.S. government closed the Libyan "people's bureau" (embassy) in Washington, D.C. and expelled the Libyan staff in response their conduct generally violating internationally accepted standards of diplomatic behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was decorated with various awards and lauded for his anti-imperialist stance, support for Arab and then African unity, and for significant improvements that his government brought to the Libyan people's quality of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arab
  • Morocco is a member of the United Nations and belongs to the African Union, Arab League, Arab Maghreb Union (UMA), Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), the Non-Aligned Movement and the Community of Sahel-Saharan States (CEN_SAD). (wikipedia.org)
  • Morocco's relationships vary greatly between African, Arab, and Western states. (wikipedia.org)
  • Morocco also was among the first Arab and Islamic states to denounce the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks in the United States and declare solidarity with the American people in the war against terror. (wikipedia.org)
  • This exacerbated the rift between the Arab north, the seat of the government and the black African animists and Christians in the south. (wikipedia.org)
  • mainly
  • The Sahara is mainly rocky hamada (stone plateaus), Ergs (sand seas - large areas covered with sand dunes) form only a minor part, but many of the sand dunes are over 180 metres (590 ft) high. (wikipedia.org)
  • French
  • Valery Gottingar, "M. Moussa Faki Mahamat est élu Président du Conseil Economique, Social et Culturel", Chadian government website, 15 February 2007 (in French). (wikipedia.org)
  • Morocco signed three loan agreements with the French Development Agency (AFD) in 2009, totalling up to 155 million euros. (wikipedia.org)
  • French is still popularly spoken and remains the second language in Morocco whilst Spanish is also widespread, particularly in the northern regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two French expeditions into the Sahara in 1881 were disastrous, and Soleillet's reputation collapsed. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a good sign that the European Commission pursues its efforts to put an end to damaging tax deals despite the criticism it faced following the Apple ruling, Oxfam says in reaction to a new state aid investigation into French energy company Engie. (oxfam.org)
  • This work was performed under a government contract in anticipation of a potential French Air Force specification for an all-weather interceptor to succeed its fleet of Mirage IIIC aircraft. (wikipedia.org)
  • Avenue Charles de Gaulle in N'Djamena is a rare street in Chad to have retained its French name despite President François Tombalbaye 's Authenticité Africanization program? (thefullwiki.org)
  • The Islamic fighters have stolen equipment from construction companies, including more than $11 million worth from a French company called SOGEA-SATOM, according to Elie Arama, who works with the European Development Fund. (military.com)
  • The choice was made to develop a completely new design for the helicopter, work began in 1963 with backing from the French government. (wikipedia.org)
  • Free France and its Free French Forces (French: France Libre and Forces françaises libres) were the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle during the Second World War and its military forces, that continued to fight against the Axis powers as one of the Allies after the fall of France. (wikipedia.org)
  • Charles de Gaulle, a French government minister who rejected the armistice concluded by Marshal Philippe Pétain and who had escaped to Britain, exhorted the French to resist in his BBC broadcast "Appeal of 18 June" (Appel du 18 juin), which had a stirring effect on morale throughout France and its colonies, although initially relatively few French forces responded to de Gaulle's call for resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exile officially ended with the liberation of Paris by the 2nd Armoured Free French Division and Resistance forces on 25 August 1944, ushering in the Provisional Government of the French Republic (gouvernement provisoire de la République française or GPRF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Free French units also served in the Royal Air Force, Soviet Air Force, and British SAS, before larger commands were established directly under the control of the government-in-exile. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Free French government re-established a provisional republic after the liberation, preparing the ground for the Fourth Republic in 1946. (wikipedia.org)
  • Postwar, to settle disputes over the Free French heritage, the French government issued an official definition of the term. (wikipedia.org)
  • geographer
  • According to the botanical criteria of Frank White and geographer Robert Capot-Rey, the northern limit of the Sahara corresponds to the northern limit of date palm cultivation and the southern limit of the range of esparto, a grass typical of the Mediterranean climate portion of the Maghreb and Iberia. (wikipedia.org)
  • refugees
  • And while on the subject of Darfur, Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs Jan Egeland is currently in eastern Chad, visiting a camp for refugees and internally displaced persons and meeting with local officials and aid workers. (un.org)
  • Sudanese
  • when the Sudanese Boeing 737 Air West Flight 612 was hijacked , the hijacker originally wanted to fly to Rome or London but was forced to settle for Chad due to a lack of fuel? (thefullwiki.org)
  • nations
  • EUCOM ceded 42 nations (including Western Sahara, a member of the African Union whose recognition has been virulently opposed by the West since Morocco invaded it in 1975) to AFRICOM. (mediamonitors.net)
  • Oxfam welcomed a groundbreaking new report on access to medicines published today by a High Level Panel of the United Nations and called for the UN to work with governments to implement its recommendations without delay. (oxfam.org)
  • constitutional
  • Policies associated with foreign relations are determined by the king, King Mohamed VI, and his advisors, despite the fact that Morocco has a constitutional monarchy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The constitution is concerned solely with the relations between the emirates as members of the federation, and does not prescribe a constitutional system of government. (blogspot.com)
  • India
  • In the late 20th and early 21st centuries voting ages were lowered to 18 in India, Switzerland, Austria and Morocco. (wikipedia.org)
  • south
  • Panhard's initial licensing contract with the South African government extended to the local assembly or manufacture of up to 1,000 AMLs. (wikipedia.org)
  • And South Africa's supply of maize, a staple food, is dominated by a few large companies and consists almost entirely of GM crop varieties. (africafocus.org)
  • According to the UN, it consists of all African countries that are fully or partially located south of the Sahara. (wikipedia.org)
  • country
  • In October 2016, the government filed 15 separate suits against 15 oil companies at the Federal High Court in Lagos to recover billions of dollars that have been illegally siphoned from the country. (pambazuka.org)
  • foreign
  • Previously he was Prime Minister of Chad from 24 June 2003 to 4 February 2005 and Minister of Foreign Affairs from April 2008 to January 2017. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the government of Prime Minister Youssouf Saleh Abbas, which was announced on April 23, 2008, he was appointed as Minister of Foreign Affairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • France and Spain remain the primary trade partners, as well as the primary creditors and foreign investors in Morocco. (wikipedia.org)
  • Foreign relations have had a significant impact on economic and social development in Morocco. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain evidence of foreign influence is through the many development projects, loans, investments, and free trade agreements that Morocco has with other countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Foreign relations with western powers became strained as a result of this. (wikipedia.org)
  • Portraying Morocco as a democratic state became important if Morocco wished to receive loans and investments by foreign powers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relations with foreign powers, especially with the West, have also been strengthened as Morocco has liberalized its economy and implemented major economic reforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Morocco now is focusing more on promoting foreign direct investments. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2007, Morocco adopted the Hassan II Fund for Development, which are measures that simplify procedures to make the process easier and more financially beneficial for foreign investors. (wikipedia.org)
  • major
  • In recognition of its support for the War on Terrorism, in June 2004 U.S. President George W. Bush designated Morocco as a major non-NATO ally. (wikipedia.org)
  • Europe
  • Many countries, particularly in Western Europe, reduced their voting ages to 18 years during the 1970s, starting with the United Kingdom (1970), with the United States (26th Amendment) (1971), Canada, Australia (1974), France and others following soon afterwards. (wikipedia.org)
  • parts
  • As reported by Sahara News, "the Nigerian government used the consortium of experts for the intelligence-based tracking of the global movements of the country's hydrocarbons, including crude oil and gas, with the main purpose of identifying the companies engaged in the practices that had led to missing revenues from crude oil and gas exports sales to different parts of the world. (pambazuka.org)
  • people
  • During the fifth millennium BC, migrations from the drying Sahara brought neolithic people into the Nile Valley along with agriculture. (wikipedia.org)
  • million
  • If all areas with a mean annual precipitation of less than 250 mm were included, the Sahara would be 11 million square kilometres (4,200,000 sq mi). (wikipedia.org)
  • member
  • The southern limit of the Sahara is indicated botanically by the southern limit of Cornulaca monacantha (a drought-tolerant member of the Chenopodiaceae), or northern limit of Cenchrus biflorus, a grass typical of the Sahel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Minister
  • Faki was then appointed as Minister of Public Works and Transport in the government of Prime Minister Haroun Kabadi, which was named on June 12, 2002. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chad: President Deby appoints Moussa Faki Mahamat as new prime minister", Radio France Internationale, 24 June 2003. (wikipedia.org)
  • military
  • Within the military he founded a revolutionary cell which deposed the Western-backed Senussi monarchy of Idris in a 1969 coup. (wikipedia.org)
  • remains
  • Chad remains plagued by political violence and recurrent attempted coups d'état (see Battle of N'Djamena (2006) and Battle of N'Djamena (2008) ). (thefullwiki.org)