• Biology
  • Also visit our affiliated journals, Cell Stem Cell and Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology , included in Professional Resources. (isscr.org)
  • Journal of Cell Science publishes cutting-edge science, e ncompassing all aspects of cell biology. (biologists.org)
  • they are supported by an outstanding Editorial Advisory Board that reflects all relevant areas in cell biology, including recently emerging fields. (biologists.org)
  • We are pleased to accept submissions for our upcoming Special Issue on Reconstituting Cell Biology , guest edited by Manuel Théry. (biologists.org)
  • Have you seen our latest special issue on Plant Cell Biology , guest edited by Jenny Russinova? (biologists.org)
  • The research professor of reproductive biology at Stanford University keeps the cells warm and moist deep inside the Lorry I. Lokey Stem Cell Research Building, one of the nation's largest stem cell facilities. (nautil.us)
  • Schwann cells are involved in many important aspects of peripheral nerve biology-the conduction of nervous impulses along axons, nerve development and regeneration, trophic support for neurons, production of the nerve extracellular matrix, modulation of neuromuscular synaptic activity, and presentation of antigens to T-lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein & Cell is a monthly peer-reviewed open access journal covering protein and cell biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell Calcium is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier that covers the field of cell biology and focuses mainly on calcium signalling and metabolism in living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cellular biology, labile cells are cells that multiply constantly throughout life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology portal Stable cells, which only multiply when receiving external stimulus to do so Permanent cells, which don't have the ability to multiply Encyclopædia Britannica Online: labile cell McConnell, Thomas H. (2007-01-01). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell Research is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering cell biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is published by the Nature Publishing Group on behalf of the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences (Chinese Academy of Sciences) and is affiliated with the Chinese Society for Cell Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2018
  • The ISSCR 2018 Annual Meeting went "down under" to Melbourne, Australia where 3,000 stem cell scientists, clinicians, and professionals from 52 countries gathered to share their latest research, network with colleagues, and explore the latest technologies driving the field forward. (isscr.org)
  • Stem Cell
  • The ISSCR advocates worldwide for ethical stem cell research and its translation to the clinic. (isscr.org)
  • Find the resources and connections you need to further drive your career and skills in the ever-changing and exciting field of stem cell research. (isscr.org)
  • Whether you are a job seeker or employer, the ISSCR Job Board is the best place to find and post jobs or CVs within the stem cell science community. (isscr.org)
  • When you join the ISSCR, you become part of the world's largest and most renowned stem cell and regenerative medicine community. (isscr.org)
  • A recent public forum in Melbourne, Australia, "Stem Cell Research - Now and in the Future," allowed scientists and experts to share with the public the potential of this rapidly advancing research. (isscr.org)
  • In this blog post, three Australian stem cell scientists who attended the session describe their personal reflections on public engagement. (isscr.org)
  • The International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) is an independent nonprofit organization and the voice of the stem cell research community. (isscr.org)
  • The ISSCR was founded in 2002 to foster the exchange of information on stem cell research and now claims more than 4,100 members worldwide. (isscr.org)
  • Stem Cell Reports is the official journal of the ISSCR and is published by Cell Press. (isscr.org)
  • The ISSCR provides a platform for professional and public education and the promotion of rigorous scientific and ethical standards in stem cell research and regenerative medicine. (isscr.org)
  • Since embryonic cells are naturally endowed with a pluripotency program, if you then take that embryo and put it in culture, you can establish pluripotent stem cell lines. (nautil.us)
  • Stem cell research suggests that too much SP2 protein MAY turn stem cells into cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • While going through cell division, one of the two daughter cells actually becomes a new stem cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelium
  • The dark cell epithelium consists of cells with a multitude of pinocytotic vesicles near their luminal surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • M cells are exploited by several pathogenic gram-negative bacteria including Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhimurium, and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, as well as infectious prions, such as in bovine spongiform encephalitis (Mad-cow disease), as a way of penetrating the intestinal epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • CXCR4 tropic but not CCR5 tropic HIV has been noted to be able to bind to M cells and get transported across the epithelium by them. (wikipedia.org)
  • B cells have been implicated in the developmental of M cells, since they are also localized in high numbers in the follicular-associated epithelium (FAE). (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, microbes found on intestinal epithelium are known to direct M cell development. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • Once the collected T cells have been engineered to express the antigen-specific CAR, they are "expanded" in the laboratory into the hundreds of millions. (cancer.gov)
  • If all goes as planned, the engineered cells further multiply in the patient's body and, with guidance from their engineered receptor, recognize and kill cancer cells that harbor the antigen on their surfaces. (cancer.gov)
  • Pieces of the antigen (which are now known as antigenic peptides ) are loaded onto MHC II molecules, and presented on its extracellular surface to CD4+ T cells (sometimes called T helper cells ). (wikipedia.org)
  • These T cells bind to the MHC II-antigen molecule and cause activation of the B cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, the B cells have to encounter a foreign antigen, and are then required to be activated by T helper cells before they differentiate to specific cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike their precursors, they cannot switch antibody classes , cannot act as antigen-presenting cells because they no longer display MHC-II, and do not take up antigen because they no longer display significant quantities of immunoglobulin on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since B cell maturation also involves somatic hypermutation (a process completed before differentiation into a plasma cell), these antibodies frequently have a very high affinity for their antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike their neighbor cells, M cells have the unique ability to take up antigen from the lumen of the small intestine via endocytosis, phagocytosis, or transcytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigens are delivered to antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells, and B lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • M cells express the protease cathepsin E, similar to other antigen-presenting cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • My hypothesis is that we can induce cellular rejuvenation without changing the function of the cells. (nautil.us)
  • This special issue brings a comprehensive collection of reviews highlighting diverse non-lethal functions of caspases in a variety of organisms, cell types, and cellular processes, such as signaling, proliferation, differentiation, remodeling and neuronal plasticity. (nature.com)
  • 2017
  • In 2017, two CAR T-cell therapies were approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), one for the treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and the other for adults with advanced lymphomas. (cancer.gov)
  • neurons
  • Using doses between 1 μM to 3 μM of RA can generate neurons as the most abundant cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other than into neurons and astrocytes, P19 cells can also differentiate to oligodendrocytes, which can be detected using the specific markers, myelin-associated glycoprotein and 2',3'-Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myelinating Schwann cells wrap around axons of motor and sensory neurons to form the myelin sheath. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following this process, the Schwann cells can guide regeneration by forming a type of tunnel that leads toward the target neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogens
  • As its name implies, the backbone of CAR T-cell therapy is T cells , which are often called the workhorses of the immune system because of their critical role in orchestrating the immune response and killing cells infected by pathogens. (cancer.gov)
  • RANKL is expressed throughout the small intestine, facilitates uptake of pathogens such as Salmonella, and is the most critical factor M cell differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • basolateral
  • As mentioned in dark cell structure, the basolateral membranes of vestibular dark cells are highly folded, allowing the enclosure of the numerous large mitochondria, and they contain high levels of Na+/K+-ATPase in both alpha and beta isoforms, transporting potassium into the cell in exchange for sodium while consuming ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basolateral membrane also contains a Na+/K+/Cl--co-transporter, (NKCC1) which transports all three ions into the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • When they present microvilli, they are short, irregular, and present on the apical surface or pocket-like invagination on the basolateral surface of these cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • immature
  • Most of these B cells will become plasmablasts (or "immature plasma cells"), and eventually plasma cells, and begin producing large volumes of antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most immature blood cell that is considered of plasma cell lineage is the plasmablast . (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Upon stimulation by a T cell, which usually occurs in germinal centers of secondary lymphoid organs like the spleen and lymph nodes , the activated B cell begins to differentiate into more specialized cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • If damage occurs to a nerve, the Schwann cells will aid in digestion of its axons (phagocytosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • This occurs so then that daughter cell can end up restoring the population of the stem cells that were lost. (wikipedia.org)
  • A numerable portion of infoldings occurs at the basal end of the dark cell toward the basal membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • developmental
  • In addition, this issue also includes several reviews on tangential topics, such as viral hijacking of host caspases, metacaspase functions, non-lethal functions of BCL-2 family proteins, and alternative, caspase-independent developmental cell death pathways. (nature.com)
  • type
  • They can reprogram themselves to carry out the function of virtually any other type of cell, and play a vital role in early development. (nautil.us)
  • Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS, acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculopathy type), schwannomatosis, and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), and leprosy are all neuropathies involving Schwann cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is possible that they share the same origin as supporting cells such as pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells, or even be a type of specialised vascular smooth muscle cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Labile cells are one type of the cells that are involved in the division of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each of these type of cells respond to injuries of the cells they occupy differently. (wikipedia.org)
  • A somatomammotroph or somatomammotrophic cell, also known as a somatolactotroph or somatolactotrophic cell, is a type of cell of the anterior pituitary gland that produces both somatotropin (growth hormone) and prolactin. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the type III secretion system effector protein SopB activates the transition of M cells from enterocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • I'm studying whether we can separate the process of functional reprogramming of cells from the process of aging reprogramming of cells. (nautil.us)
  • Mesangial cells form a glomerular functional unit with glomerular endothelial cells and podocytes through interactions of molecular signalling pathways which are essential for the formation of the glomerular tuft. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to this,they can end up reproducing new stem cells and replace functional cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other daughter cell separates itself into a functional cell in order to replace the lost, or injured cells during this process. (wikipedia.org)
  • germ
  • Since embryonal carcinoma can differentiate into cells of all three germ layers, P19 cells can also differentiate into those ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm-like cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • The primary function of mesangial cells is to remove trapped residues and aggregated protein from the basement membrane thus keeping the filter free of debris. (wikipedia.org)
  • The apical membranes of the dark cells also have a k+ channel which is formed of two subunits, the KCNE1 regulatory protein and the KCNQ1 channel proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carcinoma
  • The safety and efficacy of nivolumab for treating metastatic renal cell carcinoma is comparable to that found in the CheckMate 025 trial. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • In a phase Ib study, dual therapy with axitinib and pembrolizumab was well tolerated and demonstrated antitumor activity in treatment-naïve patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Immunotherapy with atezolizumab plus targeted therapy with bevacizumab improves progression-free survival better than sunitinib in patients with untreated metastatic renal cell carcinoma. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Partial nephrectomy was associated with decreased odds of death versus radical nephrectomy among patients with cT1b but not cT2 renal cell carcinoma. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Carcinoma, the majority of cancer cells are epithelial in origin, beginning in the membranous tissues that line the surfaces of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carcinoma Leukaemia Lymphoma Myeloma Sarcoma Mesothelioma Cancer cells have distinguishing histological features visible under the microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • These stem cells were named embryonal carcinoma P19 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • basement membrane
  • The anchor cell next removes the basement membrane that separates the uterus and vulva and invades, initiating the connection between the uterus and the vulva. (wikipedia.org)
  • The anchoring filaments from mesangial cells to the glomerular basement membrane can alter capillary flow by changing glomerular ultrafiltration surface area. (wikipedia.org)
  • irregular
  • In normal cells, the nucleus is often round or ellipsoid in shape, but in cancer cells the outline is often irregular. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Mesangial cells have irregular shapes with flattened-cylinder-like cell bodies and processes at both ends containing actin, myosin and actinin, giving mesangial cells contractile properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • This produces what is known as a reconstituted embryo, in which the cytoplasm is the original egg's cytoplasm, and the nucleus is the nucleus of the cell that you isolated. (nautil.us)
  • The nucleus of the dark cell is displaced toward the surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune cells
  • A rapidly emerging immunotherapy approach is called adoptive cell transfer (ACT): collecting and using patients' own immune cells to treat their cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • These cells are known to initiate mucosal immunity responses on the apical membrane of the M cells and allow for transport of microbes and particles across the epithelial cell layer from the gut lumen to the lamina propria where interactions with immune cells can take place. (wikipedia.org)
  • Factors promoting the differentiation of M cells have yet to be elucidated, but they are thought to develop in response to signals from immune cells found in developing Peyer's patches. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Over the last two decades, targeted therapies like imatinib (Gleevec®) and trastuzumab (Herceptin®) -drugs that target cancer cells by homing in on specific molecular changes seen primarily in those cells-have also cemented themselves as standard treatments for many cancers. (cancer.gov)
  • With the Nissl-method, Fañanas cells can be identified by their slightly bigger, roundish and ovally shaped nuclei, scattered in the molecular and granular layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though many studies have shown various cell types directing the differentiation of M cells, new research characterizes the molecular pathways that guide M cell differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • There are several types of ACT (see "ACT: TILs, TCRs, and CARs"), but, thus far, the one that has advanced the furthest in clinical development is called CAR T-cell therapy. (cancer.gov)
  • It is important in the development of the reproductive system, as it is required for the production of the tube of cells that allows embryos to pass from the uterus through the vulva to the outside of the worm. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, researchers utilize these cells to study the development of cancer cells in order to find more specific treatments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some group around smaller axons (External image here) and form Remak bundles Myelinating Schwann cells begin to form the myelin sheath in mammals during fetal development and work by spiraling around the axon, sometimes with as many as 100 revolutions. (wikipedia.org)
  • During development mesangial cells are important in the formation of convoluted capillaries allowing for efficient diffusion to occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transcription factor for PDGFRβ, Tbx18, is crucial for the development of mesangial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Without Tbx18 the development of mesangial cells is compromised and results in the formation of dilated loops. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2006, 5th Cell transitioned into Nintendo DS and casual game development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Golgi
  • Plasma cell with distinct clear perinuclear region of the cytoplasm containing a large number of Golgi bodies . (wikipedia.org)
  • apical
  • Here, we show that lumen formation begins on the interior of single cells, with the formation of an apicosome: a highly organized intracellular membrane-bound apical lumenal compartment studded with microvilli and a primary cilium. (rupress.org)
  • astrocytes
  • However, the results of the study did not point at significant mutations in Fañanas cells but rather described the possible importance of astrocytes in general in the aetiology of CJD. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphocytes
  • However, a lack of particular co-stimulated molecules that aid in the way antigens react with lymphocytes can impair the natural killer cells' function, ultimately leading to cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main function of M cells is the selective endocytosis of antigens, and transporting them to intraepithelial macrophages and lymphocytes, which then migrate to lymph nodes where an immune response can be initiated. (wikipedia.org)
  • histological
  • however, studies indicate an earlier histological and immunohistological maturity in the dark-cell areas compared to the stria vascularis. (wikipedia.org)
  • oligodendrocytes
  • Moreover, oligodendrocytes also developed and migrated into fiber bundles in mice when the RA-induced cells were transplanted into the brains. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this sense, Schwann cells are the peripheral nervous system's analogues of the central nervous system's oligodendrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, unlike oligodendrocytes, each myelinating Schwann cell provides insulation to only one axon (see image). (wikipedia.org)
  • Damage
  • A parent cell divides to form two daughter cells, and these daughter cells are used to build new tissue, or to replace cells that have died as a result of ageing or damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Damage to mesangial cells using Thy 1-1 antibody specific to mesangial cells causes the vasoconstriction of arterioles mediated by tubuloglomerular feedback to be lost. (wikipedia.org)
  • actin
  • Human foetal and infant kidneys stained for alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), a marker for mesangial cells, demonstrated that α-SMA-positive mesenchymal cells migrate towards the glomerulus and during a later stage they can be found within the mesangium. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells can also be identified by cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components expressed at the edge of cells or on their cell surfaces, such as actin, villin, cytokeratin, and vimentin. (wikipedia.org)
  • liver
  • The function of a liver cell is to metabolize. (nautil.us)
  • Reprogramming that function means that you no longer have a liver cell. (nautil.us)
  • Kupffer cells, also known as stellate macrophages and Kupffer-Browicz cells, are specialized macrophages located in the liver, lining the walls of the sinusoids that form part of the mononuclear phagocyte system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The scientist called them "Sternzellen" (star cells or hepatic stellate cell) but thought, inaccurately, that they were an integral part of the endothelium of the liver blood vessels and that they originated from it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kupffer cell activation is responsible for early ethanol-induced liver injury, common in chronic alcoholics. (wikipedia.org)
  • TNFα will then enter the stellate cell in the liver, leading to collagen synthesis and fibrosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepatocytes of the liver are thought to be a form of a labile cell because they can regenerate after they become injured. (wikipedia.org)
  • adjacent
  • The gaps between adjacent Schwann cells are called nodes of Ranvier. (wikipedia.org)
  • The extraglomerular mesangial cells are adjacent to the intraglomerular mesangial cells that are located inside the glomerulus and in between the capillaries. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • Nevertheless, researchers caution that, in many respects, it's still early days for CAR T cells and other forms of ACT, including questions about whether they will ever be effective against solid tumors like breast and colorectal cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • The different forms of ACT "are still being developed," said Steven Rosenberg, M.D., Ph.D., chief of the Surgery Branch in NCI's Center for Cancer Research (CCR), an immunotherapy pioneer whose lab was the first to report successful cancer treatment with CAR T cells . (cancer.gov)
  • CAR T cells are the equivalent of "giving patients a living drug," explained Renier J. Brentjens, M.D., Ph.D., of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York, another early leader in the CAR T-cell field. (cancer.gov)
  • Cancer cells are cells that divide relentlessly, forming solid tumours or flooding the blood with abnormal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Healthy cells stop dividing when there is no longer a need for more daughter cells, but cancer cells continue to produce copies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer cells are created when the genes responsible for regulating cell division are damaged. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, a series of several mutations to certain classes of genes is usually required before a normal cell will transform into a cancer cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • These work to help the white blood cells to detect and kill cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer cells have unique features that make them "immortal" according to some researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Constantly dividing cells have a higher risk of becoming malignant and develop cancer, dividing uncontrollably. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is why muscle cancer is very rare, even though muscle tissue accounts for ~50% of total body weight, since muscle cells are not constantly dividing cells, and therefore not considered labile. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • The story follows a New England artist struggling to reunite with his young son after a mysterious signal broadcast over the global cell phone network turns the majority of his fellow humans into mindless vicious animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • Moreover, signaling pathways related to neurogenesis and myogenesis were also investigated by studying gene expression or generating mutants of P19 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiate
  • Germinal center B cells may differentiate into memory B cells or plasma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A cell may stay in this state for several days, and then either die or irrevocably differentiate into a mature, fully differentiated plasma cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, exposing P19 cells to retinoic acid (RA) can differentiate them into neuronal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The difference between these subtype cell lines is the ability to differentiate into neuronal cells or muscle cells in response to treatment with retinoic acid or DMSO, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • while 0.5% - 1% DMSO led P19 cells differentiate to cardiac or skeletal muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)