• marrow
  • MH decreased fetal birth weight but did not affect osteogenic potential pools in the fetal bone marrow. (hindawi.com)
  • Researchers are also advancing immunotherapy methods to protect bone marrow transplant patients from viral infections. (the-scientist.com)
  • The earliest known fossilised evidence of bone marrow has been found in Eusthenopteron, which may be the origin of bone marrow in tetrapods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sanchez S, Tafforeau P and Ahlberg P E (2014) "The humerus of Eusthenopteron: a puzzling organization presaging the establishment of tetrapod limb bone marrow" Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 281 (1782): 20140299. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • In hard tissues another mechanism of control exists, where locally produced growth factors, or those in the circulation, are incorporated into mineralised matrix and are released during matrix dissolution by osteoclasts or chondroclasts. (unu.edu)
  • Covering a diverse and current range of topics, including the genetic and epigenetic aspects of bone development, cell signaling in growth plate and bone development, evolution of bone proteins and the interrelationship between bone and other tissues, this volume provides a thorough look at bone development biology. (springer.com)
  • This test makes images of internal tissues, bones, and organs. (rochester.edu)
  • Therefore, the tissues in the bone are not getting enough blood and they begin to go through necrosis, and they begin to die. (wikipedia.org)
  • The death of the tissues eventually leads to deterioration of the bone's growth plate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The preferential addition of heparan sulfate or chondroitin sulfate chains to domains I and V could have an effect on the differentiation of mesenchymal tissues into cartilage, bone or any number of tissues, but the regulatory mechanism of changing from heparan sulfate to chondroitin sulfate addition are not well understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • limbs
  • The growth plate (GP) of developing limbs contain a plethora of growth factors and matrix cues which contribute to long bone growth, suggesting that biomaterials derived from its extracellular matrix (ECM) may be uniquely suited to promoting bone regeneration. (rcsi.ie)
  • mice
  • In the forelimb initiation and limb growth in mice, axial (lengthwise) cues from the intermediate mesoderm produces Tbx5, which subsequently signals to the same mesoderm to produce Fgf10. (wikipedia.org)
  • Female GPER knockout mice display hyperglycemia and impaired glucose tolerance, reduced body growth, and increased blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • showed that disruption of the PTHrP gene in mice caused a lethal phenotype and distinct bone abnormalities, suggesting that PTHrP has a physiological function. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Neoplasia, or cancer, is abnormal growth of tissue. (petmd.com)
  • Normally, bones grow by the expansion and uniting of the growth plates, but osteochondrosis disrupts this process and the result is cell death and the loss of newly formed tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bone tissue does regrow, but the necrosis can cause temporary problems in the affected area until the strenuous arm and elbow activity is significantly decreased or stopped for a period of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • This indicates that although GPER and ERβ play a modulatory role in breast development, ERα is the main receptor responsible for estrogen-mediated breast tissue growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • When tamoxifen was launched as a drug, it was thought that tamoxifen would act as an ER antagonist in all tissue, including bone, and therefore it was feared that it would contribute to osteoporosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • mesodermal
  • Body composition and musculoskeletal development begin in embryonic life, when bone and muscle develop from the mesodermal layer. (hindawi.com)
  • humerus
  • These six appendicular bones also occur in tetrapods and are a synapomorphy of a large clade of sarcopterygians, possibly Tetrapodomorpha (the humerus and femur are present in all sarcoptergyians). (wikipedia.org)
  • Resorption
  • PTHrP is critical in intraosseous phase of tooth eruption where it acts as a signalling molecule to stimulate local bone resorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • PTHrP can simulate most of the actions of PTH including increases in bone resorption and distal tubular calcium reabsorption, and inhibition of proximal tubular phosphate transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • It is believed that the disease may be brought on by continuous overuse of the elbow and that puts pressure on the elbow and also strains the elbow in children during the period of rapid bone growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • formation
  • Furthermore, upon implantation into cranial defects, GP derived scaffolds were observed to accelerate vessel in-growth, mineralisation and de novo bone formation. (rcsi.ie)
  • However, MH reduced expression of bone formation marker (collagen-1) and increased expression of fat formation marker (FABP4) in postnatal offspring bone. (hindawi.com)
  • joints
  • Women have smaller feet than men due to the fact that, in general, women have smaller joints and bones than their male counterparts. (reference.com)
  • Ligaments are found at the joints, where they join bones together. (rochester.edu)
  • Cartilaginous joints allow more movement between bones than a fibrous joint but less than the highly mobile synovial joint. (wikipedia.org)
  • scaffold
  • These results support the use of decellularised GP ECM as a scaffold for large bone defect regeneration. (rcsi.ie)
  • child's
  • Your child's healthcare provider may give you heel pads or cups for your child's shoes to decrease pressure on the heel bone. (drugs.com)
  • A child's bones heal faster than an adult's because a thicker, stronger, and more active dense fibrous membrane (periosteum) covers the surface of their bones. (wikipedia.org)
  • In children the growth plates are open, which helps to manage a child's fractures. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Those cytokines and growth factors considered to be of particular importance during bone development and growth include the IGFs, TGF a and b , bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), FGF, PDGF and epidermal growth factor (EGF). (unu.edu)
  • development
  • Limitations associated with demineralised bone matrix and other grafting materials have motivated the development of alternative strategies to enhance the repair of large bone defects. (rcsi.ie)
  • Insights stemming from molecular and cellular events are applied to the clinical setting, providing a deeper understanding of bone development complications for the practicing clinician, whilst informing bone scientists of the advancements in their field and the wider applications of their research. (springer.com)
  • While optimal bone growth achieved during childhood is critical both for ensuring optimal development and protection from fractures during childhood, evidence is growing that peak bone mass is also an important contributor to bone mass and strength in later life [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This bone growth abnormality may be a predisposing factor in the development of elbow dysplasia seen in the breed, which leads to arthritis of the elbow joint. (wikipedia.org)
  • Panner Disease is part of a family of bone development diseases known as osteochondrosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • It regulates endochondral bone development by maintaining the endochondral growth plate at a constant width. (wikipedia.org)
  • defects
  • The goal of this study was to generate porous scaffolds from decellularised GP ECM and to evaluate their ability to enhance host mediated bone regeneration following their implantation into critically-sized rat cranial defects. (rcsi.ie)
  • skull
  • It shares a similar pattern of skull roofing bones with forms such as Ichthyostega and Acanthostega. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • In addition to their direct effects on osteogenic cells that will be discussed in a later paper, systemic agents may have important interactions with local factors in bone and cartilage. (unu.edu)
  • In fact, several lines of evidence point to there being a close relationship between bone cells and cells of the immune system (Skjodt & Russell, 1993). (unu.edu)
  • MH during late gestation did not change the pool of osteogenic cells before birth or growth plate heights before and after birth. (hindawi.com)
  • HIF-1 has been shown to be vital to chondrocyte survival, allowing the cells to adapt to low-oxygen conditions within the growth plates of bones. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a selective estrogen-receptor modulator (SERM) that works both by decreasing factors that increase the growth of breast cells and increasing factors that decrease the growth of breast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • thickness
  • This evolutionary innovation involved many morphological changes such as webbed digits, elongation of the forelimb, and reduction in bone thickness. (wikipedia.org)
  • pubic
  • Hormonal symptoms of a tumor on the adrenal gland include excessive growth of pubic, underarm and facial hair, enlarged penis and breasts in boys, early pu. (reference.com)
  • occurs
  • OCD is different from Panner disease because OCD occurs in older children and it does not involve the growth plate because by the time that OCD occurs the growth plates have already fused and the skeleton has finished growing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Often occurs in broilers (chickens raised for meat) and other poultry which have been bred for fast growth rates. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • There was increased mRNA expression of adipogenesis-related gene (FABP4) in bone from the MH postnatal offspring. (hindawi.com)