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  • anaerobic
  • The modification of the quinolone and naphthyridone structures resulted in increasing activities of the quinolones against Gram-negative, Gram-positive, atypical and obligately anaerobic bacteria and mycobacteria. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The first and second group of quinolones i.e. norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin or ofloxacin have no or only little activity against obligately anaerobic bacteria. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The present review provides an overview of the activities of quinolones against obligately anaerobic bacteria as described by in vitro as well as in vivo studies. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to identify anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria and to support quantitative PCR results which were performed for searching an effective seeding sludge to achieve successful enrichment of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria. (microbial-ecology.jp)
  • There is no meaningful correlation between the results of qPCR using both PCR primer sets, which indicate that the coverage of the primer sets would be different from anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria. (microbial-ecology.jp)
  • rRNA
  • Smarlab 121567 16S rRNA 7 Bacterium L4M2 1-7 16S ribosomal RNA 8 Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens 16S rRNA 9 Clostridium perfringens strain LNT6 16S ribosomal RNA gene 10 Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens isolate L8 16S ribosomal RNA 11 Clostridium aminophilum isolate 152R-1b 16S ribosomal RNA 12 Schwartzia succinivorans 16S rRNA Identity Overlap Band No. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The amplicons for pyrosequencing analysis were constructed by using the primer-set which is consisted of a specific pla46F primer targeting the conserved 16S rRNA gene belongs to Plantomycetes phylum and eub 518R targeting the conserved 16S rRNA genes of all bacteria. (microbial-ecology.jp)
  • sewage treatment
  • In industry, bacteria are important in sewage treatment and the breakdown of oil spills, the production of cheese and yogurt through fermentation, and the recovery of gold, palladium, copper and other metals in the mining sector, as well as in biotechnology, and the manufacture of antibiotics and other chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vibrio
  • Cholera is a waterborne infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio chloerae, and is transmitted via food or water that is contaminated with fecal matter. (wikipedia.org)
  • These bacteria may be free living (such as Vibrio harveyi) or in symbiosis with animals such as the Hawaiian Bobtail squid (Aliivibrio fischeri) or terrestrial nematodes (Photorhabdus luminescens). (wikipedia.org)
  • Salmonella
  • Exogenous bacteria can also enter an enclosed ecosystem via ingestion of contaminated food.Food-borne diseases such as Salmonella poisoning are transmitted by food not properly cooked or by individuals infected with the pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • sediment
  • Magnetite-producing magnetotactic bacteria are usually found in an oxic-anoxic transition zone (OATZ), the transition zone between oxygen-rich and oxygen-starved water or sediment. (wikipedia.org)
  • flora
  • The vast majority of the bacteria in the body are rendered harmless by the protective effects of the immune system, though many are beneficial particularly in the gut flora. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disease can occur when microbes included in normal bacteria flora enter a sterile area of the body such as the brain or muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • These pathogenic species are usually distinct from the usually harmless bacteria of the normal gut flora. (wikipedia.org)
  • insects
  • Additionally, exogenous bacteria can enter a secondary host through an intermediate host such as insects and parasites. (wikipedia.org)
  • indicator
  • Immunological methods using monoclonal antibodies can be used to detect indicator bacteria in water samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • This method can be used to recover specific indicator bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) are gene sequence-based methods currently being used to detect specific strains of indicator bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coliform bacteria are defined as rod-shaped Gram-negative non-spore forming and motile or non-motile bacteria which can ferment lactose with the production of acid and gas when incubated at 35-37°C. They are a commonly used indicator of sanitary quality of foods and water. (wikipedia.org)
  • nutrients
  • Triatomine vectors have only one host and therefore must establish a relationship with bacteria to enable them to obtain the nutrients required to maintain themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • types
  • Some of the researchers published reports that also claimed to have found bacteria associated with different types of cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Types include ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). (wikipedia.org)
  • An easy way to differentiate between different types of coliform bacteria is by using an eosin methylene blue agar plate. (wikipedia.org)
  • thick
  • Gram-positive bacteria have a thick peptidoglycan layer in their cell wall, which retains the crystal violet during Gram staining, resulting in a purple color. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other coliform bacteria will appear as thick, slimy colonies, with non-fermenters being colorless, and weak fermenters being pink. (wikipedia.org)
  • Population
  • It is important that bio-luminescent bacteria decrease production rates of luciferase when the population is sparse in number in order to conserve energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gram
  • Atypical bacteria are bacteria that do not color with gram-staining but rather remain colorless: they are neither Gram-positive nor Gram-negative. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gram-negative bacteria have a thin peptidoglycan layer which does not retain the crystal violet, so when safranin is added during the process, they stain red. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each gram of human feces contains approximately ~100 billion (7011100000000000000♠1×1011) bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • hence
  • However, in modern food industry this is very rare and at worst causes a discoloration of the fat Many lipophilic bacteria are a good source of biosurfactants, hence are used commercially, e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Bacteria found in the gut may be related to colon cancer but may be more complicated due to the role of chemoprotective probiotic cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • Propionibacterium acnes is a type of lipophilic bacteria, releasing fatty acids and worsening comedones in acne. (wikipedia.org)